THE DEVELOPMEN OF CREATIVE ABILITIES OF PRESCHOOL AGE CHILDREN THROUGH NON-CONVENTIONAL DRAWING TECHNIQUES - Студенческий научный форум

XIII Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2021

THE DEVELOPMEN OF CREATIVE ABILITIES OF PRESCHOOL AGE CHILDREN THROUGH NON-CONVENTIONAL DRAWING TECHNIQUES

Божедонова О.А. 1
1СВФУ им.М. К. Аммосова
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The relevance of the research lies in the fact that at preschool age, children receive the first ideas about art and the opportunity to familiarize themselves with it, the opportunity to master a particular artistic activity. Aesthetic education occupies one of the main places among the most important tasks in the field of upbringing of preschoolers. It is from early childhood that it is necessary to develop a sense of beauty in a child, teach him to understand and feel this beauty. Another important task of upbringing is to create conditions for revealing the creative abilities of the child.

Preschool age- a unique period from the standpoint of the development of the child's creative abilities. Its uniqueness lies in the fact, that children at this age have increased cognitive initiative and curiosity, openness to everything new, emotional responsiveness, empathy, empathy, perception of art and life. The teacher's responsibility for the child is, so as not to miss this happy period. Creativity does not come to children by some kind of inspiration, creativity must be taught [1, p.94].

According to V.S. Mukhina creativity is a complex of intellectual, creative and motivational factors. V.S. Mukhina identifies five constituent structural components:

the dominant role of cognitive motivation;

research, creative activity, expressed in the discovery of new things, in the formulation and solution of problems;

opportunities to achieve original solutions

forecasting and anticipation capabilities;

the child's ability to create ideal standards that provide high aesthetic, moral, intellectual assessments [2, p. 29].

We are interested in the development of creative abilities in preschool children. The FSES of preschool education has highlighted the area of artistic and aesthetic development as the most important means of forming an aesthetic attitude to reality, a means of moral and mental education, that is, as a means of forming a comprehensively developed, spiritually rich personality [3, p.5].

The process of introducing older preschoolers to creative activity can be characterized as a process of emergence, deepening and expressing in the creativity of a personally meaningful life meaning for a child. This meaning is defined as the main path of comprehending creative activity and life in their unity. This path also allows you to combine a variety of approaches on a single conceptual basis in accordance with its personal significance for the child [4, p.42].

A list of the different types of creativity in kindergarten shows, that each of them has its own characteristics. However, the fundamentals of the activity are the same: in every child eflects objects of the surrounding world, creates a tangible product, the result of the activity is intended mainly for practical application [5].

Big role in the development of creativity preschool children are classes of visual activities.

Purpose of the study- substantiate pedagogical conditions building creativity preschool children through classes in visual activities.

Experimental base is the municipal budgetary preschool educational institution "Kindergarten number 69 "Brusnichka" urban district "The city of Yakutsk", where 20 pupils took part: experimental and control 10 children each. To the experimental group children enter, who attend the club drawing "Development".

The research includes three stages:

- organizational - selection of research tools;

- main - conducting research;

- final – processing, analysis and interpretation of data, formulation of conclusions based on the results obtained.

Research methods. The work used the following methods: qualitative and quantitative analysis of empirical data.

To test the hypothesis put forward, used three techniques:

Technique "Unfinished drawing" G.А. Uruntaeva and Yu.F. Afonkina;

The adapted technique of N.V. Shaidurova;

Creative task "Show how he moves, speaks"

At the ascertaining stage we have identified the entry level development of creativity preschool children in art by three methods.

According to the results of the "Unfinished drawing" method, G.А. Uruntaeva and Yu.F. Afonkina, we have identified the levels development of creative abilities in preschool children at the ascertaining stage in the experimental and control group. 30% of children in the experimental group and in 20% of children in the control group there is an average level of development of creative abilities. The children came up with and drew in general what, which is not new, but carries clear elements of creative imagination and makes a certain emotional impression on the viewer. The details and images of the drawings have been worked out satisfactorily.

At the ascertaining stage, a high level development of creativity typical in 30% of children in the control group and in 20% of children in the experimental group. Children invented and painted quite original and colorful drawings, although the picture is not completely new, the details of the picture have been worked out well. 20% of children in both groups have a low level of development of creative abilities, the drawings are characterized by simplicity, faintly visible fantasy and the details are not well worked out. 20% of children in the experimental group and 10% of children in the control group showed a very low level development of creative abilities, they failed in the allotted time come up with nothing and drew individual strokes and lines. 20% of children in the control group and 10% of children in the experimental group showed a very high level development of creative abilities. In the allotted time, the children came up with and drew an original, unusual, clearly indicative of an extraordinary fantasy, about a rich imagination. These drawings make a great impression on the viewer, his images and details are carefully worked out.

Chart 1.

Development indicators creativity in children

at the ascertaining stage in the experimental and control groups

according to the method "Unfinished drawing" G.А. Uruntaeva and Yu.F. Afonkina

Based on the results of the adapted technique N.V. Shaidurova, we revealed that 50% of children in the experimental group, 40% of children in the control group the group has an average level of development of creative abilities. During classes, they have difficulty in creating drawings on the topic, with the help of a teacher makes drawings in a certain sequence and pattern; show little independence and creativity in completing assignments; satisfactory quality of the work performed.

30% of children in the experimental group and 20% of children in the control group there is a low level of development of creative abilities, during diagnostic work, children find it difficult to create images of objects; inconsistently performed the work in a certain sequence and according to the model; did not show independence and creativity when completing assignments; low quality of the work performed. At the ascertaining stage, in 20% of children in the experimental group group and 40% of children in the control group there is a high level of development of creative abilities. They show independence in performing tasks, creativity and high quality of work performed.

Chart 2.

Indicators of the development of creative abilities in children

at the ascertaining stage in the experimental and control groups

according to the adapted technique of N.V. Shaidurova

Further, according to the results of the creative assignment “Show me how she moves He speaks", at the ascertaining stage, we identified that 50% of children in the experimental group, 40% of children in the control group there is an average level of development of creative abilities. This indicates that they showed only some elements, but with a rather expressive display of images. In both groups, 30% of children have a high level of development of creative abilities, which testifies to the accuracy, expressiveness, integrity of the transferred image. Further, 20% of children in the experimental group and 30% of children in the control group showed a low level, where the image was not perceived and there was no expressiveness.

Chart 3.

Indicators of creative development in preschool children at the ascertaining stage in the experimental and control groups creative task "Show how he moves, speaks"

Thus, according to the results of the "Unfinished Drawing" technique, G.А. Uruntaeva and Yu.F. Afonkina, in 30% of children in the experimental group and in 20% of children in the control group, the average level of development of creative abilities prevails. The children came up with and drew in general what which is not new, but carries with it obvious elements of creative imagination and has a certain emotional impression on the viewer. The details and images of the drawings have been worked out satisfactorily. A high level of development of creative abilities is characteristic of 30% of children in the control group and in 20% of children in the experimental group. During the diagnostic work, children came up with and drew quite original and colorful drawings, although the picture is not completely new, the details of the picture have been worked out well.

According to the results of the adapted technique N.V. Shaidurova, in 50% of children in the experimental group, 40% of children in the control group are dominated by the average level of development of creative abilities. During classes, they have difficulty in creating drawings on the topic, with the help of a teacher, draws up drawings in a certain sequence and according to a model; show little independence and creativity in completing assignments; satisfactory quality of the work performed.

Analysis of the results creative task "Show how he moves, speaks", 50% of children in the experimental group, 40% of children in the control group have an average level of development of creative abilities. This indicates that, that they only showed some elements, but with a rather expressive display of images.

According to the summary diagnostic data, it was revealed that that children at this stage of empirical research have insufficiently developed creative abilities. More children have difficulty creating drawings. They show little or no independence and creativity in completing tasks. These results made it necessary to work in this direction.

At the formative stage, we have developed a program of club activities, which is aimed at developing the creative abilities of preschool children through visual activities.

Purpose of the program: development of creative abilities of preschool age through visual activity.

Objectives of the program:

Develop creative activity, desire to draw;

To form an artistic and aesthetic attitude to the surrounding reality;

To foster in children the ability to work individually and create collective compositions, develop positive emotions for the proposal to create a collective work.

The program of the circle "Development" is designed for 1 year of study. Organization form: individual, group. Duration of classes: middle group - 20 minutes, older group - 25 minutes, preparatory group - 30 minutes.

Lesson structure:

-creation of a game situation (fairy-tale character, riddles, games);

- examination of the sample;

- explanation, demonstration of techniques, drawing techniques;

- physical culture break;

- finalization of the drawing;

- consideration of finished works.

Visual methods and techniques of teaching:

- reproductions of paintings, samples and other visual aids; examination of individual items;

- showing by the educator of image techniques;

- showing children's works at the end of the lesson, when evaluating them;

- the teacher's demonstration of the methods of representation is a visual-effective technique that teaches children to consciously create the desired shape based on their specific experience.

Table 1.

Perspective plan of the circle "Development"

Month

Lesson topic

purpose

1

October

Introductory lesson

Acquaintance. Safety precautions. Mastering the skills of working with materials and tools.

2

 

"Rainbow"

Develop the ability to color perception. Examination of illustrations, photographs, paintings. Finger gymnastics

3

 

"Autumn still life" (vegetables)

To develop in children aesthetic perception, the desire to convey the beauty of the shape and color of vegetables. Learn to see and understand the content of a still life.

5

November

"Autumn forest"

Learn to place different types of trees on a sheet of paper (one higher than the other), the structure of the branches, the color; develop color perception in children

6

 

«Three Bears»

Learn to convey in the drawing the characteristic features of the bear (shape, body parts, color, coat). To consolidate the ability to work with the whole brush and its end.

9

December

"Drawing decorative utensils"

Introducing children to folk art.

Learn to paint dishes based on folk painting. Carry out the pattern by applying paint. Convey colors (white and blue). Develop the ability to draw large and small elements of the pattern. To foster respect and interest in the work of folk craftsmen.

10

 

"My faithful friend"

To learn to convey the images of animals, the proportions of the head, body, to see their characteristic features, to convey the spatial environment. Highlight the main thing in the composition - size, color, placement on the sheet.

12

 

"By design"

Develop creativity, fantasy, imagination.

13

January

"A bird-titmouse and a friend-snowfly".

Teach children to convey the image of wintering birds. Features of the shape of the head, body, to convey the color of the plumage, to place on a sheet of paper.

14

 

"The forest slumbers under the fairy tale of a dream"

Development of skills to convey the image of a winter forest.

Learn to create a picture of a winter forest. Improve your drawing technique. Teaches you to draw with different techniques (with the end of a brush, with all the pile, strokes). Develop compositional skills, creativity. To cultivate an aesthetic taste, accuracy.

16

February

"What would I like to ride?"

Teach children to depict various types of transport, their shape, structure. Develop the ability to complement the drawing with plot details. Develop imagination.

17

 

«Miracle - palm "

Acquaintance with non-traditional drawing techniques. Learn to see animals and birds from the palm of your hand (fingers). Develop the ability to fantasize.

Develop hand coordination. Foster a desire to work.

18

 

"My father"

Formation of the ability to draw a portrait.

Continue to acquaint with the genre of fine art (portrait). Learn to reflect the features of appearance, character, mood.

To develop the ability to carry out the work started to the end.

To cultivate endurance, patience.

20

March

"Early spring"

Develop observation, pay attention to color combinations in paintings about early spring, display them in a drawing, teach to place the plot on an entire sheet of paper.

21

 

"My mother"

Development of skills in portrait painting. Continue to learn to draw a portrait, reflecting the peculiarities of appearance, character, mood. Continue to acquaint with the genre of fine art (portrait). Develop perseverance. Raise pride in your mom.

23

 

"The first leaves"

(drawing from life)

Improving the ability to draw from life. Learn to draw from life, conveying the structure, shape, proportions in the drawing. Develop aesthetic skills. Cultivate an interest in nature.

24

April

"The tallest animal"

To acquaint children with animals of hot countries. Learn to convey the characteristic features of an animal in a drawing, correctly convey color, proportions, and complement the plot.

26

 

Based on the fairy tale "Kolobok"

(storyline)

To teach to depict one of the episodes of a fairy tale of your choice, to depict fairytale characters in interconnection, through their location relative to each other. Strengthen the ability to work

watercolors.

Develop imagination. Elicit an emotional response to content

27

 

"My favorite fairytale hero"

Continue to teach to convey images of fairy tales and characteristic features of the character in the drawing. Develop imagination

28

May

Butterflies in the meadow

Continue teaching children to draw objects with symmetrical parts. Learn to decorate an object with bright details (circles, lines), complement the drawing to create a plot composition. Develop imagination, aesthetic attitude when evaluating work. Foster an emotional attitude towards nature.

29

 

Drawing by design

Develop creativity, fantasy, imagination

30

 

Final lesson

Exhibition of children's drawings. Picture presentations

Thus, based on the theoretical material we studied and analysis of the results of experimental work in the preschool educational institution, the following generalization can be made. Preschooler creativity-these are individual qualities, determining the success of performing any creative activity.Preschool age is a unique period for the development of a child's creative abilities. Its uniqueness is that children at this age have heightened cognitive initiative and curiosity, openness to everything new, emotional responsiveness, empathy.

One of the most important conditions for the successful development of children's creativity-variety and variability of work with children in art circles. The novelty of the furnishings an unusual start to work, creation of a game situation, explanation, demonstration of techniques, drawing techniques factors- this is what helps to prevent monotony and boredom in children's art,guarantees the liveliness and immediacy of children's perception and activities.

According to the results of diagnostics at the control stage of the study, we revealed a positive dynamics in the development of creative abilities through visual activity in preschool children.

Based on the results of pedagogical research, it can be stated that the set goal has been achieved, the tasks have been successfully solved.

Output: visual activity allows you to develop the creative abilities of preschool children.

List of references

Nemensky B.M. Aesthetics is the science of beauty / B.M. Nemensky. - M .: Education, 2011 .-- 192 p.

Mukhina, V.S. The visual activity of a child as a form of assimilation of social experience / V.S. Mukhina. - M .: Trivola, 2011.-156 p.

Federal state educational standard of preschool education. - M .: Nauka, 2012 .-- 94 p.

Davydova, G.N. Children's design. Crafts from waste material / G.N. Davydov. - M .: Scriptorium 2016 .-- 70 p.

Scriabin, O. V. Development of creative abilities in children 3-6 years old / O.V. Scriabin. - M .: Sfera, 2017 .-- 194 p.

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