Introduction. At the present stage of the development of society, people with high intellectual potential are valued. The education system of one of the priority tasks sets the development of thinking in children. In recent years, the requirements for the mental development of children of preschool age are increasing. For a modern educational system, the problem of mental education is extremely important. A child coming to school should be mature in physiological and social terms, to achieve a certain level of mental and emotional-volitional development, logical thinking, speech development. All the most important neoplasms originate and initially develop in the leading activities of preschool age - the game. One of the most important indicators of the readiness of preschoolers for school training is a logical thinking.
Thinking is a special kind of theoretical and practical activity, which offers a system of actions included in it and operations of an approximately research, cognitive and converter nature.
Preschoolers with a more developed intelligence faster remember and master the new material, feel confident in their own, and practice also shows that they want to learn more. Children learn to think, perceive, talk, study with various ways of manipulations with objects, learn to control themselves, confirming with rules systems. For all this, the work of memory is needed, the role of which in the development of the child is impossible to overestimate.
The relevance of our study is determined on the one hand the importance of the game for the development of preschoolers, and on the other - its influence on the development of logical thinking, which is an urgent task.
The purpose of the study is to study the efficiency of using didactic games in the development of logical thinking in children of senior preschool age.
Materials and methods of the game and its influence on the development of a child - a preschooler are dedicated to many studies. The problem of the game has long attracted the attention of researchers. The theory of the game was developed as foreign researchers, like J. Piaget, V. Stern, K. Gross and domestic psychologists B.G. Ananyev, L.S. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontyev, S.L. Rubenstein, D.B. Эльконин. Teachers created and create entire systems of didactic games. This is F. Fabell, M. Montessori, E.I. Theheeva, Z.M. Boguslavskaya, E.O. Smirnov.
One way to form deep knowledge and high cognitive activity in the senior preschool age is the development of logical thinking. Logical thinking - the ability to operate in words and understand the logic of reasoning.
Logical thinking - thinking with reasoning. Conduct - this means to connect different knowledge to each other in order to eventually get an answer to the question of us, to solve the mental task. In the process of reasoning, we use the concepts of objects, phenomena, properties and relationships. Concepts are the meanings of the words we use. The concept is a means of logical thinking, and how to use their use, when solving mental problems, serve as a reasoning performed according to certain rules. These rules studies a special science - logic. Therefore, the types of reasoning are called logical processes and logical forms of thinking, and the thinking itself is logical [1, p. 68].
In the structure of logical thinking, the following logical operations can be distinguished: comparison, analysis, synthesis, abstraction and generalization.
Based on all operations and processes, images are changed that the child of senior preschool age will operate, change the actions that the child uses. They acquire a generalized character, as well as many of his ideas.
As you know, the leading activities of preschool children is the game. In our study, we considered the use of didactic games for the development of logical thinking of children of senior preschool age. With the help of didactic games, children are taught independently thinking and use the knowledge gained you different conditions in accordance with the task.
Preschool age - the beginning of a sensitive period of development of the iconic-symbolic function of consciousness, is an important stage for mental development in general and to form readiness for school education. In preschool age, a sign symbolism, models for designation of objects, actions, sequences are actively used. Invent such signs, the models are better together with the children, summing them up to understanding that you can not only indicate words, but also graphically. Therefore, it is better that the process of developing informative abilities is carried out purposefully.
Logical thinking is the type of thought process, which uses ready-made concepts and logical structures.
The development of logical thinking is a targeted and organized process of transferring and learning knowledge, techniques and methods of mental activity. The main activity is not only preparation for the successful mastering of mathematics at school, but also the comprehensive development of children.
With the help of thinking we get knowledge, so it is important to develop it from childhood.
The structure of thinking includes the following logical operations: comparison is based on the establishment of similarities and differences between objects. The result of comparison can be classification. Analysis is the separation of a complex object to the components of its part or characteristics, followed by their comparison. Synthesis - allows you to mentally recreate the whole of the specified parts. Typically, analysis and synthesis are carried out together. Abstraction is the allocation of essential properties and bonds of the subject, from insignificant. The generalization is a soil unification of phenomena and items according to their common and essential features. Classification is a meaningful order of things, phenomena, separation of them on varieties according to any important features. Specification - Replacing words with a more specific meaning.
HP Vygotsky allocated in the formation of scientific concepts in children, three main psychological points:
1. Establishing dependencies between concepts, the formation of their system;
2. Awareness of their own mental activity;
Due to the other, the child acquires a special attitude to the object, which allows to reflect in it that is not available to everyday concepts (penetration into the essence of the object).
With such an organization of cognitive activity, the child from the first steps of training establishes a logical relationship between the concepts and then pierces his way to the object, communicating with experience. There is a movement from the concept to things, from the abstract to a specific one. The crucial role in this case has a word as a means of referring attention to the appropriate general feature as a means of abstraction.
Based on the teaching hp Vygotsky on the leading nature of training and orientation on the "zone of the nearest development" of the child, psychologists and Didakta made a significant contribution to the development of the theoretical foundations of developing learning .
In the concept of D.V. Elkonina, V.V. Davydova noted that the formation of specific concepts occurs on the basis of the transition from abstract parcels to specific knowledge, based on the transition from the common to the private. At the same time, the success of learning material depends on the mastery of the generalized techniques and methods of knowledge .
The main method of study was the psychological and pedagogical experiment. He included three stages: during the experimental work, we highlighted three stages.
At the first stage, a statement experiment was carried out in order to identify the level of formed thinking in children of the senior group. The results of this work were used to select the content of logic classes that could form logical thinking.
At the second stage, a forming experiment was carried out during the testing of series of games and exercises aimed at developing the logical thinking of children.
The third stage is a control experiment, was associated with rechecking the level of formation of logical thinking in children of senior preschool age.
At the first stage of the stating experiment, the techniques of the following authors were used to identify the level of logical development: A.Yaivanov, R.S.
Methods 1 "Divided into groups" A.Ya. Ivanova, Adaptation E.V.Dothenko.
Objective: Determine the level of generation formation as intelligent thinking operations.
This technique offers a series of pictures on which various items are presented, accompaniment of the following instructions: "Look at pictures and name, in one word" (toys, clothing, dishes, trees, animals, geometric shapes ...)
Rating results: 10 points - the child allocated all groups of figures in the time less than 2 minutes. These groups of figures are as follows: triangles, circles, squares, rhombus, red shapes (in the figure they are black), blue shapes, yellow figures, big figures, small figures. The same figure in classification can enter several different groups. 8-9 points - the child allocated all the groups of figures during from 2.0 to 2.5 minutes. 6-7 points - the child allocated all the groups of figures during from 2.5 to 3.0 min. 4-5 points - during 3 minutes the child managed to call only from 5 to 7 groups of figures. 2-3 points - During 3 minutes, the child managed to allocate only from 2 to 3 groups of figures. 0-1 Point - During 3 minutes, the child managed to allocate no more than one group of figures of the conclusions about the level of development 8-10 points - high. 4-7 points - medium. 1-3 points - low
histogram 1. Indicators of logical thinking for senior preschool children on the stating stage.
According to the results, it was revealed that in the experimental group of ten children, three (30%) have a "low" level, made mistakes in establishing the sequence of pictures, but corrected it themselves when justifying; five (50%) children have an “average” level, who made single mistakes when laying out pictures, but corrected them on their own. Two (20%) children have a "high" level, which successfully completed the task, laid out pictures without errors, and composed a story that corresponded to the logic of the plot development.
Thus, in the control group of ten children, we identified three (30%) pupils who showed an "average" level, who made mistakes when unfolding subject pictures into four groups; three (30%) children have an "average" level, made single mistakes when laying out pictures in groups, and two (20%) pupils have a "high" level, correctly laid out object pictures into four groups.
Method 2 "Ridiculous" by Robert Semyonovich Nemov
Purpose: to determine the level of formation of the analysis, as an operation of logical thinking. With the help of the same methodology, the child's ability to reason is determined logically and grammatically correctly express his thought.
Methodology: First, the child is shown a picture. There are some ridiculous animal situations in it. While looking at the picture, the child receives instructions similar to the following: “Look carefully at this picture and tell me if everything is in its place and correctly drawn. If anything seems to be wrong, out of place or incorrectly drawn. Then point this out and explain why this is not so. Then you will have to say how it really should be. ”.
Note. Both parts of the instruction are executed sequentially. At first, the child simply names all the absurdities and points them out in the picture, and then explains how it really should be. The time for exposing the picture and completing the task is limited to three minutes. During this time, the child should notice as many ridiculous situations as possible and explain what is wrong, why not, and how it really should be
8-10 points - in 3 minutes the child noted all the absurdities, managed to explain what was not as it really should be.
4-7 points - noticed 3-4 absurdities from the given; but did not have time to explain 2-3, to tell how it should really be.
1-3 points - noticed 2-3 absurdities from the given; it didn’t come to an explanation.
In order to make a comparative analysis of the study of logical thinking for older preschool children in the experimental and control groups, the scores were distributed and the% indicators were calculated in each case.
Conclusions about the level of development
8-10 points - high.
4-7 points - average.
1-3 points - low.
Bar graph 2.
Indicatorsof logical thinking and the level of speech development of older preschool children at the ascertaining stage
As can be seen from Diagram 2, in the experimental group of ten children, five have a "low" level, made mistakes when naming absurdities and indicating them in the picture; three (30%) children have an "average" level, they did not name all the absurdities and indicated them in the picture, and two (20%) showed a "high" level, named all the absurdities and indicated them in the picture, and then explained how should be.
In the control group of ten children, seven children (70%) have a "low" level. They made mistakes in naming absurdities and pointing them out in the picture and did not explain how it really should be; three children (30%) showed an "average" level, did not name all the absurdities enough and indicated them in the picture; but there is no high level in this group, no one named all the absurdities and indicated them in the picture, and did not explain how it really should be. Let us now consider the final data for two methods. The analysis of the results of the final diagnostics of the logical thinking of older preschool children can be viewed in the histogram 1.
Bar graph 3.
Indicators of the final results of the examination of logical thinking in children of the experimental and control groups
Thus, we found more than 50% at a low level by two methods, children made mistakes more often; on the average level, the indicator ranges from 20% to 30%, less than 20% -10%, according to two methods, a "high" level is manifested.
Research results and discussion of results. At the formative stage of research, we have developed special didactic games. Let's consider some of them.
Game "The fourth odd"
Purpose: to develop logical thinking, attention, coherent speech, to expand vocabulary, to teach to compare, to generalize, to consolidate knowledge about the classification of objects.
The course of the game: offer the children for the day on each card an object that does not fit the rest. Explain why it is superfluous. (Or you can use toys)
Complication: the division of a general group of objects according to one distinctive feature, for example, consider. for example groups Insects, and so on the card there are only insects, but all fly and one of them crawls.
Find the differences and similarities game.
Purpose: development of attention and logical thinking in a child.
Material: printed drawings.
The course of the game: the child is given to consider the drawings and is offered to select the first steam locomotive among the 4 images with the same elements (i.e. 2 are completely identical to the picture); for example: a child has to find two completely identical cars out of four proposed, etc.
Complication: find 2 pairs of cars with one different element and one pair with two different elements. And the child must explain which elements of the images are different. two cars, differing only in the shape of the body, but having the same cab; 2 cars, differing in the shape of the cab, but having the same body; two cars with different cabins and different bodies.
Purpose: development of visual attention and memory, visual spatial orientation of the image and logical thinking.
The course of the game: we put 4 toys in front of the child, and the child must look at everything and fix it in memory, the child must turn away and the teacher must swap 2 Toys and the child must say Which toys have changed places.
Complication: swap two toys But swap one toy for another, and the child must tell about it.
Game "Lay out objects"
Equipment: a set of 8 toys and objects of various purposes, but some are wooden, and others are plastic: cars, pyramids, mushrooms, plates, beads, cubes, houses, 2 Christmas trees; two identical boxes.
The course of the game: The teacher examines with the child all the toys one by one, and then says: "These toys must be put into 2 boxes so that each box contains toys that are somewhat similar to each other." In case of difficulty, the teacher puts the first pair of Christmas trees next to each other and asks the child to compare: "how do these Christmas trees differ from each other?" If the child cannot find the main difference, the teacher draws the child's attention to the material from which these toys are made. Then the child acts independently. At the end of the game, you need to generalize the principle of grouping: "in one box - all the wooden toys, and in the other - all the plastic ones."
At the control stage of the study, repeated diagnostics are provided, as at the ascertaining stage. Comparing the results of the methods of the ascertaining and the control stage, a conclusion is made about the level of development of logical thinking in older preschool children after using a series of didactic games and exercises.
Expected result: According to the method “Divide into groups” children are able to select all groups of figures in less than 2 minutes. These groups of shapes are as follows: triangles, circles, squares, rhombuses, red shapes (in the picture they are black), blue shapes, yellow shapes, large shapes, small shapes. The same figure can be included in several different groups during classification.
According to the method of "Ridiculous" children determine all the absurdities and are able to explain how it should actually be within 3 minutes.
Conclusions: we have compiled a package of materials for the development of logical thinking in older preschool children: we have selected diagnostic materials aimed at determining the formation of analysis skills as an operation of logical thinking, the ability of children to reason logically and correctly express their thoughts. A series of didactic games and the expected result have been developed. This project can find application in the practice of kindergarten work by educators and psychologists.
List of references
1. Afonkina, Yu.A. Workshop on preschool psychology / Yu.A. Afonkina, G.A. Uruntaeva - M .: Academy, 2000 - 304 s
2. Vygotsky, L.S. Psychology / L.S. Vygotsky. - M .: Publishing house EKSMO- press. - 2000
3. Davydov, V.V. The problem of developing education / V.V. Davydov. - M., 2003.
4. Dotsenko E.V. Psychodiagnostics of children in preschool institutions (methods, tests, questionnaires). - Volgograd: "House", 2007
5. Nemov R.S. Psychology. In 3 books. Book 3. Psychodiagnostics. 4th edition. - M .: Vlados, IMPE them. A.S. Griboyedova, 2001