Introduction. To educate creative people who are capable of non-standard original solutions in any life situation is the command of modern education. Artistic and visual activity has a huge potential for the formation of creative activity in children.
The visual activity of preschool children as a type of artistic activity should be emotional and creative in nature. The teacher-educator must create all the conditions for this: he is primarily obliged to provide an emotional, imaginative perception of reality, to form aesthetic feelings and ideas, to develop imaginative thinking and imagination, to teach children how to create images, the means of their expressive performance. The learning process should be aimed at the development of children's visual creativity, at the creative reflection of impressions from the surrounding world, works of literature and art. For the development of creative activity of preschool children, the use of non-traditional drawing techniques is of great importance.
The purpose of the study is to consider the problem of the development of cognitive activity of children of senior preschool age in visual activities.
Materials and methods of research.
The problem of the development of children's creativity is described in the studies of a number of teachers and psychologists L. S. Vygotsky, L. G. Vasilyeva, N. A. Vetlugina, V. V. Davydova, T. S. Komarova, and others.
The most important period in a person's life is preschool age, since it is at this age that the foundations of harmonious personal development are organized, moral and mental qualities are formed. Unique opportunities and creative activity develop in the process of creative activity, and are one of the most important tasks of a preschool educational organization.
The Federal State Educational Standard for Preschool Education (Order No. 1155 of 17.10.13) identifies two educational areas (item 2.6) that involve the development of creative activity in preschool children .
The educational field "Cognitive development" includes the development of children's interests, curiosity and cognitive motivation; the formation of cognitive actions, the formation of consciousness; the development of imagination and creative activity; the formation of primary ideas about oneself, other people, objects of the surrounding world (shape, color, size, material, quantity, number, space and time, causes and effects, etc.)
The educational field "Artistic and aesthetic development" involves the development of the prerequisites for the value-semantic perception and understanding of works of art (verbal, musical, visual); the formation of an aesthetic attitude to the surrounding world; the stimulation of empathy with the characters of works of art; the implementation of independent creative activities of children (visual, constructive-model, musical, etc.) 
In GEF TO prescribed requirements for psycho-pedagogical conditions of implementation of the basic educational program of preschool education, including:
- the use of forms and methods of working with children in educational activities that correspond to their age and individual characteristics;
- building educational activities focused on the interests and capabilities of each child;
- support for the initiative and independence of children in their specific activities;
- children can choose materials, types of activities, and participants in joint activities .
One of the tasks of children's pedagogy and psychology is to raise a child as an active creative person. At preschool age, children are trained, socialized, and trained in preschool institutions, where teachers use different techniques for the development of the child.
In the older preschool age, cognitive and creative activity begins to form. Activity, according to L. S. Vygotsky – is a practical object-sensory activity aimed at transforming the surrounding world and the personality itself – the most important condition and factor of its mental development. The following essential generic signs of activity can be distinguished: quality, activity (process and result), readiness .
The basis for studying the cognitive activity of preschoolers is the cognitive need of the child himself, his interest in a new object, which act as free experimentation, as well as the child's solution of a practical task set by an adult. In this case, cognitive activity is subordinated to a practical goal.
N. N. Poddyakov identifies three levels of cognitive activity in preschoolers:
- the level of interest in the external properties of the object is determined by the object itself;
- the level of interest in the functional qualities of the subject and the regulation of the search is determined with the help of an adult;
- activity is directed by the goal - to achieve the desired result .
The implementation of the content of education includes not only the formation of a set of knowledge, skills and abilities, but also a creative component in working with preschoolers, in particular, with children of older preschool age. Older preschoolers are capable of proactive transformative activity, feel the need to create, transform something, can emotionally anticipate the results of their activities, experience emotions of the highest order (moral, cognitive, aesthetic) .
What is creative activity? According to L. G. Veselova, "Creative activity is understood as "... the realization of the need for new knowledge and receiving positive emotions from them, as well as the ability to transform, modify existing knowledge and express one's own attitude to it in various types of artistic and creative activities..." [5.p.6].
According to Yu. N. Ryumina, creative activity is "an active state of the individual, characterized by the desire to transform something, to create a personally significant material or spiritual product" [56, p.14]
Let us consider the features of creative activity. No activity of a creative nature is intolerable without the inclusion of the creative activity of the subject, the inner nature of which is recognized as the dominant in creativity. The concept of "creative activity" in pedagogy and psychology is discussed far from unambiguously and is understood as:
a) motivated readiness for activity, orientation of the subject;
b) the level of intensity of a person's involvement in creative activity, as an aspiration and a measure of a person's efforts;
c) property, personal education, quality of personality, criterion, indicator and prerequisite of creativity and creativity.
To identify the level of development of creative activity and creative potential of children of senior preschool age, we used the method of E. Torrens "Incomplete figures", "Compose a fairy tale and draw a picture" (O. M. Dyachenko).
The technique of "Incomplete figures" activates the activity of the imagination, revealing one of the skills-to see the whole before the parts. The child perceives the proposed test figures as parts, details of any integrity and completes them, reconstructs them. The task of drawing figures is one of the most popular in the study of the features of imagination, creative abilities of preschoolers, the level of formation of cognitive activity. Children were asked to finish drawing the figures depicted on the sheet: a square, a triangle, a circle-so that a meaningful image of an object would turn out. And drew children's attention to the fact that dorisovyvaet can be carried out inside of a shape's outline and beyond at every opportunity for a child turning the leaf and the depiction of figures, i.e. you can use each figure in different angles.
Results of the primary diagnosis of senior preschoolers on the Torrens test " Incomplete figures"
According to the results of the diagnosis, a low level of creative activity and creativity was revealed in 67% of children, an average level - in 33% of children, there were no children with a high level (see Figure 1).
The results of the primary diagnosis of older preschoolers according to the method " Compose a fairy tale and draw a picture"
According to the diagnostic results, a high level was detected in 17% of children, an average level – in 33%, and a low level-in 50% of children. Most of the children told and depicted famous fairy tales, only one child came up with his own fairy tale.
At the formative stage of the study, we developed and implemented a system of classes for the development of cognitive activity. The development work involves conducting classes using various techniques of non-traditional drawing. Children drew with their fingers, a sponge, a thread, drew blotches, finished drawing lines, shapes. Ways to get some unconventional drawing techniques:
Poke with a hard, semi-dry brush. How to get an image: the child puts a brush in the gouache and hits it on the paper, holding it vertically. When working, the brush is not lowered into the water. This way, the entire sheet, outline, or template is filled in. The result is an imitation of the texture of a fluffy or prickly surface.
Spray. How to get an image: the child types paint on the brush and hits the brush on the cardboard, which is held over the paper. The paint splashes onto the paper.
Candle+watercolor. A preschooler draws a candle on paper. Then he paints the sheet with watercolors in one or more colors. The candle pattern remains white.
Wax crayons+watercolors. How to get an image: the child draws with wax crayons on white paper. Then he paints the sheet with watercolors in one or more colors. The drawing with crayons remains unpainted. A child draws a candle on paper. Then he paints the sheet with watercolors in one or more colors. The candle pattern remains white.
Lexography. The child scoops up the gouache with a plastic spoon and pours it on the paper. As a result, the spots are obtained in any order. Then the sheet is covered with another sheet and pressed (you can bend the original sheet in half, drop ink on one half, and cover it with the other). Next, the top sheet is removed, the image is considered: it is determined what it looks like. The missing parts are being drawn.
Grattage. The child rubs the sheet with a candle so that it is all covered with a layer of wax. Then it is applied with mascara with liquid soap or tooth powder, in this case it is filled with mascara without additives. After drying, the drawing is scratched with a stick. The children really liked the classes "Starry Night" (candle+watercolor), "Trees look into the lake" (monotype), "Fairy Tree" (Blowing (blowing with a tube), "Peacock from the palms", "Portrait of a Soap Bubble", "Cosmos", etc. Classes contributed to the development of cognitive activity, creativity, and imagination.
Results and discussion.
At the control stage of the study, we performed the same diagnostics as at the ascertaining stage of the study. The results obtained showed a positive trend.
Results of diagnostics of senior preschoolers on the Torrens test "Incomplete figures"
According to the first diagnosis of "Incomplete figures", 30% of children showed a high level, the average – 50%, and the low – 20".
Results of diagnostics of senior preschoolers by the method "Compose a fairy tale and draw a picture"
According to the results of 2 diagnostics, Write a fairy tale and draw a picture" 40% of children showed a high level, 50% showed an average level, and 10% showed a low level.
Thus, the work carried out has led to good results.
The development of creative activity in visual activities in older preschool children was achieved due to:
1) the presence of preschool children's needs for activity, activity (the need for creation, transformation of something, the development of search and decision-making processes, the processes of arbitrariness, the increase
in initiative transformative activity);
2) the development of imagination. The development of creative activity becomes possible with a developed imagination;
3) the ability of an older preschooler to emotionally anticipate the results of their activities, to experience emotions of the highest order (moral, cognitive, aesthetic);
4) a certain level of development of the thinking processes and perception of the older preschooler. The ability of an older preschool child to mentally operate with images leads to the formation of the creative activity of a preschooler.
The source of personality activity is different needs. These are the needs for learning, activity, play, communication, recreation, creative need, the need for self-realization. This is a very important conclusion for our study of the problem of developing the creative activity of preschool children in the process of visual activity. The child, realizing a certain group of needs, develops certain properties and qualities, including creative activity. Constantly improving and separating, these properties and qualities create a complete personality, which allows us to define activity as a system-forming factor, a fundamental property of the development of the personality of a preschooler, which determines the orientation of a person. And the orientation directs the internal forces of the body, its energy to balance with the external environment .
Needs are the source of creative activity of the individual, determining its orientation to the creative process. The need for creativity is an indicator of a high level of personal development. In an effort to satisfy their creative needs, a person in practice, on the basis of internal readiness for it, realizes certain goals. The inner readiness for creative activity is also manifested in the features and level of development of higher mental processes associated with thinking. External readiness is expressed in the independent implementation of their own capabilities in the activity; in the active application of knowledge, skills, and skills to create new and improve existing ideal and real (material) products.
Conclusions. Creative activity develops in the creative activity of a person. For artistic and creative activity, distinctive initiative, independence, perseverance as the ability to long-term stress, overcoming difficulties).
The development of creative activity requires the teacher to create pedagogical conditions that would arouse the child's desire and interest in doing work.
Creative activity also anticipates the manifestation of individuality, the creation of something of its own creative product.
The main distinguishing feature of creative activity is motivational readiness. At the same time, the highest level of activity is manifested in a conscious attitude to the activity. The child strives for an independent solution to the problem, the search for new original ways of activity.
List of references:
1. Federal State educational standard of preschool education. [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: http://www.firo.ru/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/PR_1155.pdf
2. Vygotsky, L. S. Psychology of art [Text] / L. S. Vygotsky. - Moscow: Azbuka, 2016. - 346 p.
3. Podyakov N. N. Essays on the mental development of preschool children – - M., 2002
4. Soldatova O. V. Development of creative activity of senior preschoolers Manual for teachers of preschool education institutions M o z s r y: LLC ID "White Wind", 2014
5. Veselova, L. G. Pedagogical conditions for the development of creative activity of children of senior preschool age in the process of aesthetic education: abstract of the dissertation of the Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences : 13.00.01 / L. G. Veselova ; Murmansk State Pedagogical University. univ. Petrozavodsk, 2006.
6. Ryumina, Yu. N. Pedagogical technology of formation of creative activity in the process of integration of various types of activity of preschool children: dis. cand. ped. nauk : 13.00.07 / Yu. N. Ryumina. Yekaterinburg, 2003