Introduction. The emotional sphere of the child is the leading sphere of his mental development, in this regard, the full implementation of various forms of behavior activity depends on the coordinated functioning of emotions and intellect.
Features of the modern socio-economic situation of society have contributed to a number of changes in education. On the one hand, the humanistic nature of education, the intrinsic value of each stage of personality development was proclaimed, and on the other hand, the emotional stress arising in response to information overloads, a lack of communication with adults, poor play and real experience of children intensified. The radical transformations taking place in modern Russia require renewal, new approaches to education, therefore, the renewal of new methods, techniques, methods in the system of preschool educational institutions.
The study of the emotional experiences of preschool children is highly relevant. As you know, many problems of an adult lie in his emotional distress in childhood, due to distortions of the nature of intra-family relations. This problem is attractive both in theoretical and practical terms. Preschoolers have not lost the immediacy of expression of emotions, but at the same time, emotional competence is formed, the ability to recognize and verbalize their own feelings and the feelings of those around them .
Currently, the Internet, television, and the media are oversaturated with patterns of conflict and violence, child abuse, and negative energy. This has a detrimental effect on the emotional sphere of children.
Emotional development should be one of the key aspects in the upbringing of a preschool child. The ability to understand and distinguish emotions both your own and that of another person, to manage your emotional state is a necessary condition for successful communication [2, p.95]
The aim of the research is to substantiate the development of the emotional sphere in senior preschool children in visual activity.
Material and research methods.
As a research method, we used the diagnosis of children's ideas about reality, called by the authors "pictures of the world." T.Z. Adamyants, V.A. Shilova consider the "picture of the world" as an indivisible, integral "coordinate system" in which the child sees (senses, perceives) himself and the world around him [3, p.5]. For the study of "pictures of the world" we have chosen the following characteristics: peculiarities of relationships with the outside world, approval of a particular behavioral strategy (emotional level of social attitude); the ability to understand another (communication skills). The frequency of using vocabulary that characterizes moral and ethical categories, favorite books, heroes, games (sociocultural characteristics).
The first technique is Favored Behavior. Work on fairy tales. Children are encouraged to answer questions based on their personal feelings.
According to the results of the study of 1 methodology, we divided the answers into adequate, partially adequate and inadequate. Adequate interpretations were found in 60% of children, partially adequate - in 30% of children and inadequate - in 10% of children.
It was revealed that children with adequate interpretations are friendlier to their peers. In their speech, positive vocabulary is presented, they approve of an active, but without aggression type of behavior. For example, in the fairy tale "Winnie the Pooh" they chose the role of the cheerful Tiger. In the fairy tale "Mowgli" chose the role of Bagheera or Akela, Mowgli's defenders. In the cartoon “Well, Wait 'no one was chosen.
Children with a partially inadequate interpretation approve of a calm type of behavior (Hare, Piglet). Children who chose aggressive behavior chose inadequate interpretations. Aggressive behavior was chosen by children with a choice of the heroes of Sher Khan, the Wolf (see diagram 1).
Emotional Level Survey
Thus, 60% of children show friendliness and understanding of others, 30% of children have a calm type of behavior and 10% of children show aggressiveness.
For the second diagnosis, work was carried out with the photo dictionary "Learning to understand each other" from a collection of fairy-tale stories aimed at developing the skills of positive communication between children aged 5-8 years with peers and adults . The technique is aimed at the ability to understand the mental and emotional state of a person by facial expression, since that ability is important for understanding other people. Children were offered 5 photographs of children expressing different emotions (joy, aggression, support, surprise, irritation). A list of possible questions for working with the photo dictionary:
1. Who is shown in the photo?
2. What is the mood of the person (s) in the photo? Why do you think so? Give reasons for your answer.
3. What details of the picture helped you to characterize the mood of the depicted hero?
4. Pick up epithets that can convey the emotional state of the person in the photograph.
5. Would you like to be in his place?
All the children recognized the joy in the photo, explaining this by the smile on the face of the child and the good mood emanating from the photo. After viewing this photo, the children were in a better mood.
The aggression was misinterpreted by 5 children, confusing it with resentment. For the rest, aggression is associated with anger, children do not like the emotional state of the person in the photograph.
Support was misunderstood by 8 children, 3 could not give an answer. And the rest described support, friendship with other people, trust, help.
5 children could not interpret the surprise, since they do not notice this emotion in everyday life, it is difficult for them to recognize it in the photograph. 9 guys gave the wrong answer. Children who were able to characterize the photograph correctly copied this emotion with great pleasure. This photo gave a charge of positive emotions.
Irritation - this emotion was the most difficult for children. 10 children confused her with resentment, anger, dislike. 6 children were unable to recognize this emotion (see diagram 2.)
Diagnostic results with the photo dictionary "Learning to understand each other"
Based on the results of the methodology, we can conclude that 70% of children interpreted the photographs correctly, 20% incorrectly, and no answer - 10%.
Thus, it was revealed that not all children are able to correctly understand a person's state by facial expression. In order for children to better understand the emotions of other people, it is necessary to carry out regular work on the photobook “Learning to understand each other”.
We believe that the leading means of emotional education of preschoolers is visual activity, since it is its own practical activity. Visual activity allows the child to directly experience, feel a variety of states and feelings.
Psychologists consider creativity as an activity of the highest level of cognition and transformation of the surrounding world - natural and social. In the process of creative activity, the person himself changes - the form and method of his thinking, personal qualities. Creativity in a broad sense, according to V.S.Mukhina, this is an activity aimed at obtaining something new. The novelty of discoveries and products are subjective and this is the first important feature of children's creativity. At the same time, the process of creating a product for a preschooler is of paramount importance. His activities, as noted by V.S.Mukhina, is distinguished by emotional inclusiveness, the desire to seek and try different solutions many times, getting special pleasure from this, sometimes much more than from achieving a result. And this is the second feature of children's creativity.
By older preschool age, the child's emotional world becomes richer and more diverse. From basic emotions (fear, joy, etc.), he moves on to a more complex range of feelings: he is happy and angry, delighted and surprised, jealous and sad. The external manifestation of emotional reactions also changes. At this age, the language of feelings is mastered - the forms of expressing the subtlest shades of experiences adopted in society with the help of glances, smiles, gestures, postures, movements, voice intonations, etc.
The emotional development of a preschooler is influenced by factors such as nature, art, music, fiction, and visual activity.
What is the role of visual activity in the emotional development of preschool children?
The child can find himself in drawing, and at the same time the emotional block that inhibits his development will be removed. The child may self-identify, perhaps for the first time in his creative work. Moreover, his creative work itself may not have aesthetic value. Obviously, such a change in its development is much more important than the final product - the drawing.
Visual activity contains tremendous opportunities for the development of the sphere of feelings. The creative process is also emotionally rich, the artist (kid or adult), expressing himself, experiences certain feelings associated with the content of the created image. Visual arts, their own visual activity, initially carry a huge potential for the formation of the personality of both the artist and the viewer.
Research results and their discussion.
For the development of the emotional sphere in older preschoolers, a set of classes was developed, which includes three blocks-directions:
1. Didactic games;
2. Integrated classes (fine arts + perception of fine arts (viewing illustrations, paintings); fine arts + non-traditional techniques);
3. Psycho-gymnastic exercises.
The lessons were developed on the basis of the collection of fairy tales "How little kids learned to understand each other." The collection is a workshop for older preschool children "Stories of Little Babies: How to Live in Peace with Oneself and Others?" The plots of fairy tales are focused on counteracting the influence of the surrounding world, which causes children to feel fear and alienation in relation to others.
For each fairy tale story, creative tasks are offered based on the involvement of children in various activities: play, communication, cognitive, research and productive activities, drawing. Tasks are compiled taking into account the age and psychological characteristics of older preschoolers, teach kindness, attention to each other, understanding the mental state of another person, mutual assistance, support, friendliness.
Didactic play is one of the methods of emotional development of preschoolers and the leading activity at this age.
According to the results of the diagnosis, games, play exercises were selected, aimed at developing creative imagination, reducing aggressiveness, anxiety, as well as exercises aimed at mastering their emotions and feelings. Didactic games were used to consolidate knowledge of color classification: warm and cold, light and heavy; games to strengthen emotional manifestations; to consolidate the ways of expressing emotions using facial expressions. Children took an active part in them, played with pleasure. Individual work on fixing colors and shades was carried out with Katya A. With Masha S. I had to carry out individual work in all directions, the child, when completing assignments, during games, drew black scribbles, despite the instructions of the teacher.
To introduce children to the world of art, classes were held on the topic of acquaintance with the artist's profession, his workplace, the process of creating a work of art, viewing paintings, reproductions of famous artists.
The consolidation of the child's experience occurs in visual activity. It is in the visual activity that the child has the ability to most easily express what worries him in the material
Integrated classes (fine arts + perception of fine arts) were conducted in the form of a journey into a painting. Introduced children to the work of art, helped them get inside the painting created by the artist, feel the warmth, freshness, smell of the air filling the picture, mentally touch the depicted objects, hear how they sound, talk with the heroes of the picture. Together with the child, we explored the emotional state of the characters and the nature of the picture space.
The use of non-traditional drawing techniques is of particular importance for the emotional development of children. Non-traditional techniques include blotting, monotyping, leaf printing, splattering, wet painting. They create a good mood, promote the development of creativity, develop color perception, a sense of color. Each lesson in a non-traditional technique aroused delight in the children, a desire to quickly get involved in work. The most vivid and creative drawings were from Ksyusha M., Kolya Zh.
In order to teach how to express their emotions with the help of facial expressions, intonation, gestures, psycho-gymnastic exercises were used. The most important condition for the effectiveness of such activities is the voluntary participation of children in them. Each lesson ended with something joyful, cheerful, positive (especially if the lesson was, for example, about fear or greed). Between classes in everyday life, they drew the attention of children to their actions, emotions and those of those around them, thereby consolidating the material covered. The content of the sketches is not readable to children, the situation is emotionally retold. The characters (boy, girl) are indicated in the sketches conditionally: depending on who loses the exercise. Maxim V., Lisa A.
In the following exercises, the children, at will, were asked to choose from a set of various objects those that have the same properties as one of the experiences analyzed in the previous game (if there are no suitable objects or toys, you can simply name them). Sasha Zh., 7 years old, shows "irritation" with the help of objects: "This feeling is prickly like a hedgehog, gray like a mouse, rough, sour like a lemon." Sasha. P., 6 years old, shows with the help of objects "fear": "This feeling is sticky like plasticize, cold as ice, fast as an arrow."
The work with the fairy tale ends with a mini-project to complete the creative tasks proposed after each fairy tale.
Children are given a wide range of options to complete the creative task. Creative assignments include three questions under the following headings: "Interesting question", "For the most attentive and curious" and "Assignment for dreamers". At the end of the creative task, specific topics are proposed (under the headings "Young talents", "Those who are friends", "Young artists", "Those who like to play." Children perform mini-projects in different forms. These are drawings, crafts, applique , design, plasticinography, modeling, etc.
MEGA projects are carried out in the form of creative competitions, festivals, celebrations, fairs of ideas, theatrical performances, sports competitions, integrated or complex classes, etc.
After the work was done, the level of development of the emotional sphere of older preschoolers was re-diagnosed and a comparative analysis of the results of the ascertaining and control stages of the experiment was made.
At this stage, the same diagnostics was used as at the ascertaining stage of the experiment.
The results of the study of the level of development of the emotional sphere after the work in the process of visual activity showed that in the preparatory group the level of development of recognition and understanding of borderline emotions, such as angryness (by 3%), affability (by 2%), thoughtfulness (by 5%), increased. , surprise (by 2%).
As a result of the work done, the emotions in children acquired a significantly greater depth and stability, positive emotions began to prevail; the ability to restrain one's violent, harsh expressions of feelings has developed; children have mastered the "language" of emotions to express the subtlest shades of feelings, intonations of the voice; there was a change in the nature of children's drawings (the predominance of bright, light colors, a confident outline of the drawing, the expression of positive emotions through the drawing).
This allows us to conclude that a high result of the level of development of the emotional sphere was achieved when organizing purposeful work at the formative stage, testing a cycle of classes in which the goal, tasks, methods, techniques and forms of organizing the development of the emotional sphere of preschoolers by means of collective creative activity were determined.
After a cycle of classes aimed at the emotional development of older preschoolers, diagnostics at the formative stage showed higher results, compared to the results of diagnostics at the ascertaining stage.
Consequently, visual activity is an effective means of developing the emotional sphere of preschoolers.
The development of the emotional sphere influences the formation of skills in visual activity. In the process of perceiving works of art, children develop the ability to emotionally experience the content of the work, there is a desire to express their attitude towards it. Artistic images affect his feelings and consciousness, influence his attitude to the phenomena and events of life, and contribute to broadening his horizons. Thanks to visual activity, preschoolers begin to understand the beauty of the world around them, the richness and variety of its colors, shapes, movements. On this basis, children develop emotional intelligence, a sense of satisfaction, beauty, positive perception of the world around them, goodness and harmony both with themselves and with other people.
List of used literature
Thunder N. A. Features of the development of the emotional sphere of older preschool children // Scientific and methodological electronic journal "Concept". - 2016. - T. 10. - S. 86–90. - URL: http://e-koncept.ru/2016/56825.htm.
Brel E.Yu. Development of the emotional sphere of senior preschool children in conditions of pedagogical support // Bulletin of the Kemerovo State. university. Series: Humanities and Social Sciences. - 2020. –t.4.-№2-p.95-106. DOI: https // doi.org / 10/21603 / 2542-1840-4-2-95-106
Children and problems of tolerance. Collection of scientific and methodological materials / Ed. ed. T.Z.Adamyants. - M.: IS RAS, 2003 .-- 146 p.
Alieva E.F., Radionova O.R. How little kids learned to understand each other. Collection of fairy tales. Workshop for senior preschool and primary school children. - M. Izd. "National Education", 2015. - 96 p.
Mukhina, V.S. Developmental psychology: phenomenology of development, childhood, adolescence: a textbook for university students. - 7th ed., Stereotype. [Text] / V.S. Mukhina. - M .: Publishing Center "Academy", 2003. - 456 p.