Introduction. Patriotism is one of the most important features of a comprehensively developed personality and a distinctive quality of Russian citizens at all times. At the same time, the education of patriotism is tireless work to create in children a sense of pride for their homeland and their people, respect for their great achievements and worthy pages of the past.
The problem of patriotic education of the younger generation has always been one of the most pressing problems of the development of modern society. Accessible media, television, advertising, saturated with images of aggression, destruction and cruelty, have a negative impact on the upbringing of children.
The importance of patriotic education of patriotic feelings in preschool children is designated in the FSES of preschool education as the task of familiarizing children with sociocultural norms, traditions of the family, society and state, taking into account the ethnocultural and social situation of children's development. Patriotic education according to the Federal State Educational Standard presupposes the formation of primary ideas about the small Motherland and the Fatherland, the idea of the sociocultural values of our people, as well as the traditions and holidays of our people as the formation of a respectful attitude and a sense of belonging to family, the assimilation of norms and values adopted in society .
Purpose of the study – to analyze educational programs of preschool education for the patriotic education of children in the regional conditions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
Materials and research methods. According to the research of L.I. Bozovic, V.G. Mukhina, the formation of patriotic feelings is determined by the age characteristics of preschoolers: great cognitive activity, impressionability, emotional openness, imitation, and credulity.
First feelings of patriotism. Are they accessible to children? Preschoolers, especially older ones, have access to a feeling of love for their native village (city), native nature, for their homeland. And this is the beginning of patriotism, which is born in knowledge, and is formed in the process of purposeful education. The source of the formation of a child's love for their native places is both his participation in socially useful work, and the civil responsibility of parents and relatives [2, с. 15].
Taking into account the recommendations of the Federal State Educational Standard of Preschool Education, the requirements for the structure of the main general educational program of preschool education, we will consider some preschool education programs in which issues related to the patriotic education of the child are highlighted, we will try to outline the goals and objectives related to the patriotic education of children.
Meanwhile, in most federal comprehensive programs there is no special section dedicated to the patriotic education of preschoolers. Although modern programs have been revised in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard, nevertheless, the tasks of patriotic education are solved in a very generalized form.
The need for patriotic education is reflected in programs such as "From birth to school", "Childhood", "Origins", "From childhood to youth", "I am a human", Authorized “program of moral, patriotic and spiritual education preschoolers", etc.
The program "From birth to school" (editors N.E Veraksa, T.S Komarova, M.A Vasilyeva). The authors of the "From Birth to School" program are constantly working to improve and develop the program, the methods and technologies used [3, с. 3].
Special attention is paid to such important aspects of moral education as patriotic education, support of traditional values. The main goals of the program are: "creating favorable conditions for a full life of a child of preschool childhood, forming the foundations of a basic culture of personality, comprehensive development of mental and physical qualities in accordance with age and individual characteristics, preparation for life in modern society, etc.". Special attention in the program is paid to the development of the child's personality, the preservation and strengthening of the health of children, as well as the education of such qualities as patriotism, an active life position, a creative approach to solving various life situations, and respect for the traditional values of preschoolers. The program pays great attention to fostering patriotic feelings in children, love for the Motherland, pride in its achievements, confidence that Russia is a great multinational country with a heroic past and a happy future. The program covers four age periods of development of children from 3 to 7 years.Already in the second youngest group, children begin to talk about their native land - a small homeland. They begin to develop an interest in the city, the village in which they live. They introduce children to the objects that surround them: house, shop, street, kindergarten, school. In the middle group, the topic is broadened, and preschoolers are given an understanding of the idea of public holidays. Children are told about the Russian army, about the soldiers guarding our Motherland. In the older group, children's ideas about their country, public holidays are expanding; form the idea that the Russian Federation (Russia) is a huge multinational country. In the preparatory group, the knowledge of children about the flag, coat of arms, anthem is consolidated (the hymn is performed during a holiday or other solemn event). The implementation of this principle ensures that national values and traditions are taken into account in education, makes up for the shortcomings of spiritual, moral and emotional education.
Program "Childhood" (T.I Babaeva, A.G Gogoberidze, Z.A Mikhailova and others). For the first time, the program implements an approach to the organization of integral development and education of a preschooler as a subject of activity and behavior of children. The motto of the program "Feel - Cognize - Create" defines three interrelated lines of the child's development, which permeate all sections of the program, giving it integrity and a single direction.
The program has two main goals - initial socialization and familiarizing children with universal values. The program implements the principle of ethno-cultural correlation of preschool education - from childhood, a child is introduced to the origins of the folk culture of their country. The program pays great attention to works of oral folk art, folk choral games, music and dance, arts and crafts of Russia. The program involves fostering respect for other peoples, interest in the world community .
The “Origins” program allows children to form a holistic view of the immediate sociocultural environment in which they live and develop; to bring them to an understanding of the existence of the inner world of man and the relationship between the past, present and future; stimulates motivation for self-improvement of the child's developing personality.
The main goal of the program in the preschool period is to lay the formation of the spiritual and moral foundation of the individual, as well as to familiarize the child and his parent with the basic spiritual, moral and socio-cultural values of Russia .
The program allows you to comprehensively, systematically, integratively, relying on domestic traditions, in close cooperation with the family, to solve the problems of spiritual and moral development of preschoolers. The program is designed for 4 years of development for children from 3 to 7 years old.
In the program "Origins" the problem of patriotic education is carried out through the cognitive and aesthetic development of the preschooler. Cognitive development includes such sections as "The world in which we live", "Nature and the child". Within the framework of these sections, the rudiments of self-awareness of the preschooler are formed and the assimilation of elementary information on the history, geography and culture of the Motherland, the upbringing of a generation of people who are aware of themselves in the continuous context of history associated with the past, present and future of their culture, the upbringing of a respectful attitude to nature, acquaintance with domestic works of painting, graphics, sculpture and arts and crafts.
The authorized "program of moral, patriotic and spiritual education of preschoolers" was developed by the deputy head for educational and educational work of the MDOU "Kindergarten №8" of the combined type of the village of Staroshcherbinovskaya, Krasnodar Territory. The program covers three age periods of children's development: younger preschool age (2-4 years), middle age (4-5 years), senior preschool age (5-7 years) .
The program contains three sections: moral, patriotic and spiritual education of children. The tasks of all three sections are differentiated, but the components of the work are interrelated and interdependent.
The leading goals of this program are: creation of favorable conditions for the formation of the foundations of the basic spiritual culture of the child; acquaintance of the child with the system of universal human norms, rules and requirements for personality behavior in all spheres of human life and activity in modern society; the formation of positive feelings for the country, its people, its national culture, contributing to the emergence of a feeling of love for the Motherland.
Moral, patriotic and spiritual education of preschoolers is impossible without the process of socialization. Socialization is the process and result of a child's assimilation of social experience in the course of his or her psychological, intellectual and personal development, that is, transformation under the influence of training and education of his mental functions, the appropriation of social and moral values, norms and rules of behavior, the formation of a worldview.
As a result of socialization, the child becomes a cultured, educated and well-mannered person who has mastered the social norms and rules of behavior accepted in a given society that regulate human relations. In this case, the social conditions in which the child's psychological and behavioral development takes place are important.
In the modern system of preschool education, great attention is paid to the use of folk culture in the educational activities of preschool education. Consider the patriotic potential of the regional programs of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
In Yakutia, national kindergartens were opened in 1922. The educational work in them was carried out according to the programs of the Russian Federation, which required the translation of the program material from Russian into Yakut by the educators themselves in the process of working with children. Special books in the Yakut language on raising children appeared in 1932. The first anthologies for national kindergartens appeared in the 60s of the 20th century, they included the works of Yakut writers, poets for children, translations of fairy tales, stories by Russian writers. In 1991, the first Concept for the development of national kindergartens was adopted (L.P. Lepchikova, D.G. Efimova, M.P. Zakharova, R.V.Savvinova), taking into account the upbringing and education of children in their native language. As a result, the authors' teams have developed the programs "Program of education and upbringing of children in preschool educational institutions of Yakutia" (1992-1994) and the main program "Toskhol" (1998). The book for teachers "Acquaintance of preschoolers with Yakutia" (DG Efimova, VK Arzhakova and others, 1998) was the first edition providing a national-regional component. “The program of education and upbringing of children in the Yakut preschool educational institutions” was developed as a regional component to the model program of the Russian Federation. The creation of the first program of national kindergartens characterizes a new stage in the development of the content of education and upbringing in preschool institutions of the republic [7, p.93]. The program "Toskhol - the national basic program for preschool institutions" (Kharitonova M.N., Lepchikova L.P. and others) is most in demand in the republic. The program was developed as a result of experimental work in preschool institutions of Suntarsky, Nyurbinsky, Verkhnevilyuisky, Namsky uluses and the city of Yakutsk, it is connected with the concepts of development of national schools and preschool institutions of the republic. The main directions of upbringing and teaching children 3-7 years old are given: social development - the concept of "I am a person", attitude towards others; physical, aesthetic, cognitive development, visual, musical arts, Yakut folklore, etc.
The ethnopedagogical foundations of raising children are also implemented in the programs "Erkei" by Okoneshnikova A.P., "Folklore of Sakha" by Tatarinova Kh.K., Ivanova G.N., Lepchikova L.P., "Chomchuk saas" by Nikolaeva E.N., Ivanova E.M, "Education program" involvement of children in the process of revival and further development of the culture of the peoples of Yakutia ”Okoneshnikova A.P.
Much attention in these programs is paid to the development of native speech, additional classes are introduced in the Yakut spoken language in Russian-speaking groups. For children, creative contests in the spoken Yakut language, contests for reciters, songs “The soul sings in Yakut”, theatrical performances based on Yakut folk tales, “Polar Star”, satirical and humorous contests “Cheerful guys”, “Tongue twisters”, the song festivals "Round dance of friendship" are held. It has become a tradition for preschool institutions to participate in the celebration of the Day of the Yakut language in the republic. Events are also organized in various forms: "Week of the Yakut language", "Week of olonkho", thematic exhibitions of children's works and others. Parents take an active part in these events. In many kindergartens, museums of nature, local history, and folk crafts are organized. The Ysyakh national holiday is held annually in all gardens. This event is the final lesson of teaching the Yakut language.
The leading principles of educational activities of preschool educational institutions are:
-development by children of the national culture, spirituality of the native people, enrichment of it with the culture of peoples living together, introduction to the values of world culture;
-building education according to the principle "from close to far, from the native threshold - into the world of universal human values;
-preparation for life and work, taking into account the traditional way of life, labor traditions of the people;
- a special approach to defining the content and forms of education in educational institutions of the indigenous minorities of the North.
In the kindergartens of the northern uluses, the “Program for teaching children the Even language” and “Yukagir language for preschoolers” have been introduced (P. Prokopyeva).
The Research Institute of National Schools under the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) has developed a model of ethno-cultural preschool education. The functions of ethno-cultural education in a preschool educational institution are defined as the purposeful socialization of the individual, the introduction of a growing person into the world of natural and human connections and relationships, a genuine and sincere immersion in the origins of ethnic culture.
Ethno-cultural education is an education aimed at preserving the ethno-cultural identity of an individual by introducing them to their native language and culture while simultaneously mastering the values of world culture. Ethno-cultural education assumes that the effectiveness of education and training of the younger generation largely depends on how much the peculiarities of the character, behavior, and life of representatives of different ethnic groups will be taken into account. The main idea of ethno-cultural education is the organization of the educational process with an emphasis on the ethno-cultural characteristics of a particular ethnic group, a set of ideals, views, beliefs, and traditions. Customs and other forms of manifestation of the pedagogical consciousness of this ethno-cultural group.
The construction and implementation of this model is based on the integration of the Pedagogy of Olonkho, Pedagogy of the North and scientific pedagogy, ethno-cultural principles highlighted by A.M. Lobok . The pedagogy of olonkho is aimed at introducing preschool children to the heroic epic of their native people – olonkho, with the heroes of olonkho, their human qualities, their exploits in the name of saving their native land, the ideal of a national hero, the way of life, and folk traditions. The transformation of the axiological aspect of the heroic epic of olonkho into modern forms and methods of education contributes to the formation of the emotional and personal sphere of childhood, the value orientations of the younger generation. Thus, a teacher with ethno-cultural competence educates a person who contributes to the preservation of the harmony of the "nature-man-society" system, reducing the risk of dangers in society, that is, it is assumed that a person with a new worldview is formed, inherent in a safe type of person .
Pedagogy of the North is aimed at using the principles, means, and forms of ethnopedagogy of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North in the practice of teaching and educating preschool children.
The ethno-pedagogical principles include the principles of serge, balagan, and sandalwood. The serge principle is considered as the principle of understanding and dialogue. Serge is a symbol of the Yakut culture. On the one hand, it is a hitching post, a post to which the Yakut ties his horse. On the other hand, serge for Yakut is a spiritual pillar on which the world rests. A symbol of life and spirit, which supports the Yakut worldview.
The balagan principle is considered as the principle of unity of the internal and external world. Thr balagan - it Yakut home. In the traditions of raising children of the Sakha people, a huge role is given to the personal life example of family members (uhuyu). The educational process takes place inside and around the "balagan", which becomes a symbol of the unity of the inner and outer world. It is here that the child discovers ethical norms and values. The mandala principle embodies the principle of communication in the model. Sandaly is a symbol of communication, communication of a person with society, as a result of which one's own picture of the world is born [8, с. 125].
The contents of ethno-cultural education is implemented by the program "Toskhol" (M. N. Kharitonov, 2009) and educational-methodical complex "Picture dictionary language Olonkho" (V. V. Ammosov and others, 2008), "Olonkho: clothes for dolls" (D. G. Efimova and others, 2012), "Olonkho in the play activities of children" (V. Androsova and others,2013), "Olonkho in kindergarten" (D. G. Efimova and others, 2013), "Accounting for regional and ethno-cultural features in the basic educational programs of preschool educational organizations of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)" (S. S. Semyonova and others, 2014), " Languages and culture of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North in the educational programs of preschool education of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)" (U. P. Tarabukina and others, 2014), "Olonkho: toys" (Ammosova V. V., 2014), the textbook "Ethnopedagogical bases of education of preschool children" (L. V. Nikolaeva, 2013), etc. During the implementation of the ethno-cultural model of child rearing, the trends in the development of ethno-cultural education are revealed.These trends are reflected in the project: "social partnership through the creation of open educational space" Preschool educational institution “Suluschaan” village Silan Churapchinsky ulus; "a kindergarten center of the revival of the Evenki language and work with society" kindergarten №38 village Iengra “Zolotinochka”; "Universal values as a basis of civil education of children in etnosocial" Malinskoj primary school Kencheeri Megino-Kangalassky ulus; "the Education of preschool children in the Evenk traditions" kindergarten “Tullukchaan” Olenek Olenek district; "The integration of preschool and secondary education in the educational space Olonkho" kindergarten №8 village Verkhnevilyuysk; "the Use of pedagogy Olonkho in the socialization of the child of preschool age (creative laboratory)" kindergarten №6 village Berdigestyakh Mountain region; network communication "Arily kustuk" for the implementation of pedagogy Olonkho kindergarten “Suluschaan” village Ytyk-kyuyel, “Sardaana” village Kyi, “Alenushka” village Carkeek, “Michil” village Borulu Tattinsky ulus. The practice of implementing the model is directly related to the social order of society in the formation of a person with ethno-cultural compet
The results of the study and their discussion. Based on the review of programs with a patriotic orientation, we conducted a survey among the heads of kindergartens of the Nyurbinsky ulus of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) to identify the question of what educational programs are implemented in these preschool educational organizations. It was revealed that 24 pre-school educational organizations function in the ulus. Of these, 23 kindergartens operate under the federal program "From Birth to School" under the editorship of M. A. Vasilyeva, V. V. Gerbova, T. S. Komarova, and one kindergarten - under the program "Childhood" of T. I. Babayev, A. G. Gogoberidze, O. V. Solntsev, etc. Basic education Federal programs are complemented by regional programmes ethno-cultural model of preschool education ("Toskhol" and the indigenous peoples of Sakha Republic (Yakutia).
Thus, the models of ethno-cultural education are built on the basis of ethno-cultural socialization in the form of spiritual reproduction of the ethno-pedagogical cultural diversity of the peoples of Russia. The preservation of cultural diversity in the republic involves, first of all, the preservation of native languages, ethnic and cultural specifics, and the spirituality of peoples. The preservation of the native language, literature, and culture ensures the full functioning of bilingualism in education, and creates conditions for the full development of a person who understands and respects his own culture and the culture of other peoples in the continuity of "preschool education – school – university".
Despite the variety of programs, the tasks of patriotic education in them are reduced to the following:
– to develop ideas about the city and the country;
– to form the initial feelings of patriotism as a universal value (love for your family, kindergarten, native land, country, and others);
– to promote the child's awareness of himself as a citizen of his country, his native republic.
Conclusions. Summing up the review of programmes, you can make the following conclusions: modern programs allow the teacher to arrange their own accents in the implementation of the Patriotic education of preschool children: the socialization of children and their occurrence in public relations; through educating children about the art of his native land; through educating children about the beauty of the world.
The analysis of programs showed that modern programs pay attention to this problem, but they do it most often on separate, disparate issues. We believe that the formation of patriotism is better to start with the knowledge of the small homeland (family, place where he lives-city, village) and the formation of a sense of belonging to it, and then to the big Homeland-Russia. Various means and methods of patriotic education of children in various types of activities are provided, the sequence of material for easier assimilation by children is defined, the content of patriotic education by age groups is specifically defined, all tasks are solved in a complex.
Federal State Educational Standard of Preschool Education: [approved by the Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. Education and Science of the Russian Federation No. 1155 of October 17, 2013]
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