ACQUISITION OF SENIOR PRESCHOOLERS WITH MUSICAL FOLKLORE OF THE EVENK PEOPLE - Студенческий научный форум

XIII Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2021

ACQUISITION OF SENIOR PRESCHOOLERS WITH MUSICAL FOLKLORE OF THE EVENK PEOPLE

Андросова В.В. 1, Николаева Л.В. 1
1ФГАОУ ВО "СВФУ им. М.К. Аммосова" Педагогический институт
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In modern pedagogical science, it is indicated that the developmenthuman culture is a necessary condition, a means,the ideal end result of any education. The value of anyoneeducation is determined by the degree of the child's involvement inworld culture based on the study of the culture of the native land, the knowledge of national and cultural origins.

Preschool age is a time of intensive development of the child's personality. It is at this age that the foundations of a person's worldview are laid, his attitude to the world around him, self-consciousness and values ​​are formed. One of the means of spiritual and moral education is music.

Formation of the foundations of musical culture, and through it the artistic and aesthetic culture of the child, is an urgent task of today. An appeal to the spiritual experience of mankind, as well as to the national musical culture, contributes to the moral and aesthetic education of children, develops feelings of mutual understanding, friendship, and reveals creative abilities.

Making the national culture an integral part of life, turning it into a powerful factor in shaping the personality of the new century is a priority task of modern preschool education, including music education. This task is especially relevant and specific for our region, the culture of which has a pronounced ethnicaffiliation.

The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is part of the Far Eastern Federal District and is one of the historically developed multicultural regions of Russia, where representatives of over 129 peoples have lived and worked together for centuries. The original representatives of the republic's population are the indigenous northern peoples - Yakuts, Chukchi, Evens, Evenki, Yukaghirs, Chukchi, Dolgans

According to the data of the I republican congress of teachers of the Yakut language, literature and culture (2017), as of the 2010 census, ~ 958,129 people live in Yakutia, of which 129 people of different nationalities: Sakha - 466,492 (48.7%), Russians - 353,649 (37.0%), Evenks - 21008 (2.2%), Evens - 15071 (1.6%), Dolgans - 1906 (0.2%), Yukaghirs - 1281 (0.13%), Chukchi - 970 (0.07%), etc. [3].The peculiarity of the sociolinguistic situation in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) as a constituent entity of the Russian Federation is that, along with Russian, the state language is the native language - Yakut. In places of compact residence of the indigenous small peoples of the North, there are five official languages ​​- Even, Evenk, Yukaghir, Chukchi and Dolgan [1].

Yakutia is an amazing land with amazing peoples. Northern man is essentially spiritual. His views were formed on the basis of the cult of nature and harmonious interaction with the environment, directly communicating with which he learned to understand it, adapted to life in it and worked, supporting nature in the interests of self-preservation.

The small peoples of Yakutia (Yakuts, Evenks, Evens, Yukaghirs, Chukchi and Dolgans) in a severe struggle for existence, the continuation of their kind and tribe, have developed peculiar laws of life in harmony with nature, moral and ethical standards of behavior among people, various customs and holidays, carefully stored and transmitted from generation to generation.The peculiarity of the ethnoculture of the peoples of the North lies in the fact that the personal development of children occurs in extremely difficult conditions due to the cold climate and a sharply continental transition in the short summer.

Preservation and development of ethno-cultural diversity of peoples, strengthening the unity and spiritual community of the multinational people of Russia are indicated among the goals and priority areas of the state national policy of the Russian Federation, noted in the "Strategy of the state national policy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025" [2].

In line with the RF Law "On Education", the "Concept of Ethnocultural Education in the Russian Federation" has been developed, which guarantees the citizens of Russia the protection and development of the education system of national cultures, regional cultural traditions and characteristics in a multinational state [3].The national culture of the small peoples of Yakutia can be preserved and continued for centuries only if it is of interest to the younger generation.

The purpose of the article is to reveal the pedagogical conditions for introducing older preschool children to the musical folklore of the Evenk people.

Material and research methods. The research methods were conversations with children about the culture of their native land, questionnaires of parents, observation. In with. Kutana of the Aldan region is inhabited by the Evenks, who belong to the small peoples of Yakutia. The questionnaires contained the following questions:

- Do you know your native language, culture, traditions, songs?

- what language do you speak at home?

- which of your relatives speaks their native language, keeps traditions and customs?

- Do your children know the Evenk language?

- do you visit your family on national holidays?

- Do your family wear national costumes?

- Do you introduce children to their native culture?

- Do you have a desire to preserve and develop Evenk traditions and customs?

Conversations with parents and children, the results of the survey showed that young parents do not know their native language and Evenk culture poorly. Only representatives of the older generation, grandparents, are native speakers (Table 1).

Table 1

Level

Know their native language

Know the culture and traditions

Motivation level

 

children

parents

grandmothers

Children

parents

grandmothers

children

parents

grandmothers

Low

90%

70%

 

90%

70%

 

80%

60%

 

middle

10%

20%

 

10%

20%

 

10%

20%

 

Tall

0%

10%

100%

0%

10%

100%

10%

20%

100%

With the processes of urbanization and globalization, there is a danger of disappearance of many languages ​​of small peoples, since only representatives of the older generation remain their speakers. It is necessary to actively involve the younger generation in preserving the culture of the native people ”[4, p.5].

Thus, there is a danger of the disappearance of the native language and culture in the future. There was a need to preserve the native culture. In this regard, we have developed a program for a folklore circle to study the song folklore of the Evenk people.

The program of additional education for the preschool folklore circle is based on the mandatory minimum content for the musical development of preschool children of the federal component of the state standard, an exemplary program of preschool education "From birth to school" Edited by N.Ye. Veraksy, T.S. Komarova, M.A. Vasilyeva [5].

Currently, our preschool institution has the opportunity to introduce preschoolers to the Evenk traditional culture in the context of additional education, circle work. The main task of the circle is to help the child develop as a unique personality, showing his creative potential, while choosing the optimal types of activity.

We have made an attempt to generalize and systematize the folklore repertoire from various sources with an emphasis on the social, moral and speech development of preschoolers 4-7 years old, as well as overcoming shyness in children by means of musical and theatrical activities. The program defines the ways of solving the problems of moral education: respectful attitude of the teacher to each child, emotionally - positive communication of preschoolers.

The originality of the program lies in the construction of classes according to the national calendar. This principle of the program enables children to study and experience rituals, holidays, customs and the corresponding oral and musical material. A feature of the program is the integration of different types of children's activities, which allows you to combine various elements of the educational process in the process of teaching folklore, the ability to use elements of folklore in the daily life of a child.

Folk art combines word, music and movement. In the combination of these three components, a harmonious synthesis is formed, reaching a great strength of emotional impact, which allows a comprehensive approach to the problem of social and moral education of preschoolers. And also, folklore is one of the most effective methods of education, development of musical talent, creative

Learning, creatively assimilating the experience of past generations, children not only study it, but also implement the knowledge gained in everyday life. Folklore works teach children to understand good and evil, resist bad, actively protect the weak, and take care of nature.

Work plan of the Evenk folklore circle "Osiktakan"

(for older preschool children)

The program of the Evenk folklore circle "Osiktakan" has the following sections:

Section 1. "Children's musical folklore".

Section 2. "Folk Song".

Section 3. "Game folklore".

Section 4. "Round dance".

Section 5. "Playing children's musical instruments".

The structure of building and mastering the program by children is as follows: during the course of training, children learn material from simple to complex. Through simple works of children's folklore, and then more complex melodies, play, song choruses; through the intonation of fairy tales with melodies to prepare children for the performance of more complex works, a more complex song folklore repertoire, and as a result, consolidation of the material passed through - holidays, entertainment, theatrical performances for children and adults and with the participation of parents.

The forms of summing up are integrated classes, entertainment, theatrical performances, concerts, calendar holidays, videos and photographs.

The purpose of the circle is to create conditions for the development of cognitive and physical activity of senior preschool children through familiarizing with the cultural and historical values ​​of their region. Improvement of vocal and choral skills of preschoolers, development of emotionally expressive performance of songs; the formation of singing breathing, correct sound formation, clarity of diction.

Program objectives:

Educational:

To acquaint children with Evenk folk, poetic and musical creativity, traditional holidays;

To form performing skills in the field of singing, playing music, movement;

To teach to understand the role of the family, their place in the family, to educate the future owner (mistress), husband (wife).

Educational:

Form the social, moral, mental health of children;

Create conditions for children to show love for their native land, respect for the traditions of their people and working people;

To foster tolerance in children;

Desire to learn the culture of the peoples of their region;

a positive emotional, holistic and respectful attitude to the nature of the native land.

Developing:

Develop independence, initiative and improvisational skills in children;

Develop an active perception of music through musical folklore;

Develop musical abilities: a sense of rhythm, modal feeling, musical and auditory performances;

Use small forms of folklore for the development of speech in children;

Develop the communicative qualities of children through folk dances, games, fun;

Emotional responsiveness, musical perception;

Children's creativity, the ability to use familiar and non-traditional noise musical instruments when sounding fairy tales.

The main form of work with children: thematic classes and integrated classes.

Methodological techniques - visual, verbal, practical; conversations with children; observation of nature; listening to folk songs, fairy tales; playing folk tales for children and the children themselves by adults with the involvement of parents; performances of songs and small folklore forms;

Expected results

Children can:

- play out the simplest Evenk folk tales and stage Evenk folk songs;

- go from colloquial to singing intonation;

- to hear and correctly intonate within the fourth and fifth;

- have elementary ideas about folk holidays and their traditions;

- use in everyday life works of small forms of folklore (chants, nursery rhymes, rhymes, proverbs ...);

- are able to alternate different techniques of playing on homemade instruments made of natural material, to tap out the simplest rhythms on a tambourine (dүңүr)

- know the names of the instruments and distinguish them by their sound;

- put your feet on the toe and heel ("pick"), follow the leading snake, rearrange in pairs from the circle and vice versa, spin in pairs with different positions of the hands.

Necessary conditions for the implementation of the program: Special room, technical means, Evenk folk musical and noise instruments, folk household items, folk costumes, different types of theater, oral and musical folklore material, paraphernalia.

Contents of the mug program

Section 1. "Children's musical folklore"

TOPIC 1. "Nursery rhymes, verdicts."

Genre variety - an appeal to different types of nature; about animals; about maternal love, affection; about body parts. Their use in everyday life, disclosing the possibilities of a child's voice, the power of the voice, its sonorousness, emotional temperament, naturalness. Work on the exact intonation of the melody with and without musical accompaniment. To develop the initial creative manifestations of children in singing, the ability to independently find affectionate intonations in singing.

TOPIC 2. "Lullabies".

The goal is to comprehend the folk - singing vocabulary, which underlies the diversity of musical turns of the melody. Exercise in the pure intonation of melodies, including the fifth (up), in the ability to keep intonation on one sound. Achieve drawn-out melodious singing. According to an ancient custom, a mother or father gives each child a personal charm song.

This is a song-wish, song-caress, in which parents indicate exactly how they would like to see their children in the future. For example, if a girl willingly learns to sew, then they want her to become a craftswoman. Boys want to become successful hunters, fishermen, trackers. Children willingly listen to Evenk lullabies, sing along with the singing "... hey, hey, gay, gay", these words - backing vocals create a unique national flavor.

THEME 3. "Readers, teasers".

The purpose of this type of folklore is to use it in play. Development of ear for music, memory, singing breathing of the vocal apparatus. To teach to come up with individual versions of traditional folklore images that correspond to the creative abilities and performing abilities of children.

Section 2. "Folk songs"

TOPIC 1. "Calendar songs".

Song as a means of communication between man and nature. Consolidation by theme and subject (connection with the season, the theme of harvest, labor). Teach children within a fourth to accurately convey the movement of the melody. Follow clear and clear pronunciation of words, perform logical stress in musical phrases.

THEME 2. "Songs of craftswomen, hunters."

Features of poetic presentation and melody. Development of emotional responsiveness to music, instilling interest and love for it. Distinguishing the expressive means of music - tempo, dynamics, register. Revealing their role in creating a musical image. Ability to compare works of different genres. Teach children to speak out about the emotional - figurative content of the song.

TOPIC 3. "Folk Song".

Genre variety (sad and daring; deeply sad and menacingly masculine). Of particular importance in the musical creativity of the peoples of the North is given to songs about animals, about sacred animals. For the Evenks, this is a deer. Evenk songs about reindeer are distinguished by special warmth and energy. These are the songs "Oronchikan", "Eңnekeen", "Eңtederi eңneken". But the most widespread phenomenon among the northern peoples was and remains a lyric song.

It retains the main distinguishing feature of Evenk national music - improvisation. In Evenk melody, these are whimsically changing tempo, rhythm, modal instability. And the main thing is the feeling of natural movement in everything: in the melody, accompaniment, song plot. Everything in the Evenk song is laconic, sincere and simple, everything reflects the inner world of the author and the nature among which he lives.Children with their spontaneity of perception easily perceive such songs and willingly sing along, accompanying the singing with movement ("Guddee dunne", "Ikan dyalan-dya", "Egelei"). The Evenk song "Oronchikan" ("Deer") can be especially distinguished, which has a unique melody, rhythm, uncomplicated text, and therefore is learned with great pleasure by children of senior preschool age. The song is rhythmic, it can be accompanied by playing noise instruments, bells.To develop the ability of children to freely and naturally lead the melodic line, without losing the sonority and flightiness of the voice. Breathing training. To learn to sing expressively using various intonations, performing colors. Monitor the correct, clear pronunciation of words. Learn to control the quality of singing by ear.

Section 3. "Game folklore"

Topic 1. Song Chorus.

Its main function (connection of parts, tasks of the game, ending). Singing skills processing. Transfer of the image, character in singing.

Topic 2. "Movement, theatrical performance".

Work on movements, dialogues for games. Move in accordance with the nature of the music, convey the content of the lyrics in motion. To teach to listen to the logical conclusion of the music. Lead children to the ability to expressively convey the game image.

Section 4. "Round dance"

Topic 1.2. “Types of round dances. The main elements of the Evenk round dance ”.

Types of round dances; choreographic (movement), song dramatic (plotting).

Processing of choreographic movements. Achieve an expressive transfer of dance and play movements, their rhythm in combination with singing. Independent change in movements due to the change in parts of the round dance.

But besides ritual dances, there are dances, dances dedicated to everyday life. In movements, people can depict the various activities that they are doing from day to day. Men in a dance rhythm imitate the hunters who hunt down the beast. Women in dance movements pretend to be picking berries, swinging a cradle with a baby. Depending on what exactly the dance is about, it is called domestic or labor. Dancing has always been associated with folk festivals and festivities. Only in our time they began to be performed on stage.Game (entertaining) dances, which were common among the peoples of Siberia, along with ritual dances, also reflected the economic and everyday life, revealed the attitude of people to nature. They are based on observations of the surrounding nature and accurate reproduction of everything that is assigned to birds, a seagull, sea hatchet, crane, ducks and others. The male and female performers imitated them very skillfully. Many game dances, the plots of which are associated with the fishing activities of the people, in the past had a magical ritual character and reflected ancient beliefs.

Section 5. "Playing children's musical instruments"

Topic 1. "Acquaintance with folk instruments".

Classification of folk instruments. Teach children to master the elementary skills of playing musical instruments, in a different way of sound - extraction. Learn to determine the timbre of musical instruments. Playing musical instruments singly and in groups, emphasizing the rhythmic and timbre variety of the music.

Topic 2. "Ensemble play".

Teach children to control themselves in this type of activity, to adapt to the play of their comrades, observing the rhythmic pattern of a piece of music. Start and finish playing children's musical instruments independently, in accordance with the parts of the piece, its variations.

Research results and their discussion.

As a result of the activities of the folklore circle, children and parents became interested in Evenk culture. Repeated questionnaires, interviews with children and observations showed the interest of children and parents. Children know folk songs, poems, round dances, games, customs and traditions, have learned to sing in their native language. play musical instruments, perform folk dances. Parents worked together with their children, attracted grandparents to classes and events. All this led to an increase in interest in the knowledge of the language and culture of the Evenk people (Table 2).

Table 2

Level

Know their native language

Know the culture and traditions

Motivation level

 

children

parents

grandmothers

children

parents

grandmothers

children

parents

grandmothers

Low

10%

10%

 

0%

00%

 

0%

0%

 

middle

60%

50%

 

10%

10%

 

0%

0%

 

Tall

30%

40%

100%

90%

90%

100%

10%

100%

100%

Pupils of the Evenk folklore circle, the "Osiktakan" ensemble actively participates in competitions at various levels and has achieved the following results:

1. All-Russian distance competition "Emerald City", nomination "Instrumental performance", repertoire "Egelei", result: 1st place diploma, 2019;

2.Republican competition of children's, youth and adult creativity "Your success", direction "Instrumental genre", result: 1st degree diploma winners, Yakutsk 2019;

3.I Regional Competition - Festival of Musical Creativity "Battle of Orchestras", result: winners in the nomination "Original Sound Design", Aldan 2019

4.II Regional Competition - Festival of Musical Creativity "Battle of Orchestras", result: winners in the nomination "Development of National Culture", Aldan 2020

Findings. According to A. B. Pankin, tradition is an important means of transferring and mastering ethnocultural experience. They act as mechanisms for transferring the experience of the older generation [6, p. 47]. Ethnocultural education is education aimed at preserving the ethnocultural identity of an individual by introducing them to their native language and culture, while simultaneously mastering the values ​​of world culture. Ethnocultural education assumes that the effectiveness of the upbringing and training of the younger generation largely depends on how much the characteristics of the character, behavior, and everyday life of representatives of different ethnic groups are taken into account.The main idea of ​​ethnocultural education is the organization of the educational process with an emphasis on the ethnocultural characteristics of a particular ethnic group, a set of ideals, views, beliefs, traditions. Customs and other forms of manifestation of the pedagogical consciousness of this ethnocultural group [7, p.105].

Thus, the results of the activity of the folklore circle showed good results. Children know the culture and traditions of their native people, know songs and poems, stage performances, customs and traditions.

List of references

1.Vinokurova, U.A., Semenova, S.S. Ethnocultural education in the Far Eastern Federal District of the Russian Federation: a collective monograph. Yakutsk: Media-holding "Yakutia", 2015. - 416 p.

2."Strategies of the state nationality policy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025" (approved by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of December 19, 2012 No. 1666) // http://docs.cntd.ru/document//902387360

3. Shpikalova, T. Ya., Baklanova T.I., Ershova L.V. The concept of ethnocultural education in the Russian Federation / T.Ya.Shpikalova, T.I.Baklanova, L.V. Ershova. - Shuya: "News of GOU VPO" ShPGU ", 2016. - 23 p.

4.Nikolaeva L.V. Introducing preschool children to the culture of the peoples of Yakutia. Textbook / L.V. Nikolaeva. - Kirov: MCITO, 2020. -- 120 p.

5."From birth to school." An innovative preschool education program. / Ed. N.E. Veraksy, T. S. Komarova, E. M. Dorofeeva. - Edition of the fifth (innovative), isp. and add. - M.: Mosaic-synthesis, 2019.-- p. 336

6. Pankin, A.B. Ethnocultural connotation of the educational system of the national region of the Russian Federation / A.B. Pankin // Ethnocultural education in the Far Eastern Federal District of the Russian Federation. - Yakutsk: Media-holding "Yakutia", 2015. - 416 p.

7. Baisheva, M.I. Ethnocultural development of preschool children/ M.I.Baisheva. - Yakutsk: ID NEFU, 2014.-- 92 p.

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