Manufacturing and technological progress - Студенческий научный форум

XIII Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2021

Manufacturing and technological progress

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Manufacturing and technological progress

The main feature of human activity is the transformation of raw materials, numerous transformations of natural materials and products. Especially dramatically, by almost two orders of magnitude, the consumption of mankind has increased over the past centuries - during the industrial and scientific and technological revolution that replaced it. A multiple increase in consumption occurred 1) both due to the growth in consumption by each individual person, and 2) due to the rapid population growth.

Today, for each of the 6 billion people, more than 20 tons of raw materials are mined or grown per year, which, with a consumption of about 2500 kWh of energy and 800 tons of H2O, is processed into final products weighing about 2 tons, which are used for direct consumption. It is not only materials and raw materials that are transformed. More than a third (60 million km2) of land has been covered and altered by economic activities. Countless technologies meet all the needs of people, both in materials and services. All human activities from the very beginning involved the transformation of materials and the environment to meet the diverse and continuously increasing needs.

Human civilization in the full sense is a technological civilization. The development of mankind is always faced with the main contradiction between the constantly growing needs of people and limited resources. The task of economics is to find a way out of this difficult to resolve contradiction, in search of an answer:
1. For what needs should these limited resources be used?
2. Who and how should decide the issue of resource use?
3. By what means can the volume of satisfied needs be increased using the same resources?

All available resources are created and all needs are met as a result of various production and service technologies. Therefore, the efficiency of managing the system of using resources and meeting needs is determined by how much the potential of the corresponding technologies is realized, how the nature of interactions of a complex of interrelated technologies and the consequences of these interactions are taken into account. It is necessary to know the social and economic potential of a country or region for the development of a certain set of technologies.

The ratio of technologies, the nature of their development on the one hand and on the other hand, the system of economic relations, the system of incentives and sanctions used mutually influence each other. Therefore, the solution of economic problems is closely intertwined with the inevitable need for a simultaneous and coordinated solution of a complex of technological, social and environmental problems. And since the solution of any task requires certain costs, namely, the technologies, as well as the resources they use, are the only, in the end, source of funds, then not a single issue can be solved without the use of appropriate complexes of technological problems. In recent decades, with the transition to a new phase of the scientific and technological revolution, when technologies provide an accelerated renewal of product quality and reduce production costs, the relationship between technology and the economy has fundamentally changed. The technical progress of the last decades, together with the huge scale of production, has determined new conditions for the use of natural resources.

Of all the factors of long-term development, the state of natural systems is decisive. Sustainable economic growth cannot be ensured if the productivity of natural complexes is undermined. It is impossible to successfully solve social problems if the habitat is degraded.

The new paradigm (general model) of economic thinking rests on the rejection of a number of familiar myths and the solution of three key tasks:
An increase in the rate of scientific and technological progress with a sharp reduction in resource consumption. This is achieved as a result of an accelerated technology update, through the search for new solutions at the intersection of technologies, through the interpenetration of technologies and a combination of methods and techniques in each technology that are characteristic of various technologies.

A fundamental increase in the importance of environmental objectives in any kind of activity. This means a transition to technologies characterized by a high degree of perfection, the need to improve the culture of production operation, to a constant search for new solutions.

A sharp increase in the importance of the human factor, the role of each person in production and the economy. This means that at the level of modern technologies, the effectiveness of their use to a decisive extent depends on the level of preparedness and responsibility of personnel, on the organization of their training and psychological training.

This circle of questions defines the face of modern technology.

Considering the increasing role of technology associated with the influence of scientific and technological revolution, it should be noted that, on the basis of the latest scientific discoveries, fundamentally new, more advanced and productive technological processes have emerged that dramatically increase labor productivity and improve product quality. Such processes should, for example, include the processes of aleon technology, which are based on the use of focused beams of various types of energy.

If we group the processes of elion technology according to the physical principles of influence, they will look as follows: laser, ultrasonic, plasma, electron-beam, ion-beam, electrospark, light and some others. Let's consider some of them in more detail. So, using the action of a laser beam, many technological processes can be carried out; the laser beam can be used to perform unique medical operations, create a multi-channel communication line; when using lasers in holography, stereoscopic televisions with extremely high image clarity are created.

Lasers can be used with great efficiency as precision tools for processing materials, including local thermochemical reactions (for example, local alloying and hardening of dies and cutting tools to harden their surfaces) and dimensional surface treatment of various materials. The laser beam easily penetrates the hardest materials - diamonds, creating precise calibrated holes in them, which are necessary in the manufacture of dies used to draw wires with a high-quality precision polished surface. At the same time, labor productivity increases from 12 to several tens of times.
The energy of ultrasonic vibrations begins to occupy a special place. Acoustic energy is now used in mechanical engineering and instrument making, metallurgy, in the chemical, light, food and pharmaceutical industries, as well as in medicine, biology, and agriculture. The field of application of ultrasound in various technological processes is constantly expanding.

A new direction for improving technology is the development of low-operational, resource-saving and waste-free processes. Among them is a new coke-free process for producing steel from iron pellets, bypassing the blast furnace process for producing pig iron.

A wonderful feature of the chemical industry is the ability to completely eliminate waste. However, until recently, the technological practice of mankind was incredibly wasteful: modern industry turns 98% of all extracted raw materials into waste and only 2% turns into useful products.

Technology in modern manufacturing has a significant impact on future economic performance even in the process of designing a product or developing a new product or material, creating high-tech designs and developments. Currently, technological science and practice have quantitative methods for assessing the manufacturability of structures and the level of technology. If earlier, comparing the manufacturability of two products, in order to select the optimal production option, it was possible to give an insufficiently accurate qualitative characteristic, now an accurate quantitative assessment is being made, which makes it possible to objectively compare and recommend the launch of a new and only optimal design into production. With the maximum manufacturability of products and materials, the skillful use of unification, standardization, and a clear organization of production preparation, it is possible to sharply reduce the length of the time period that lies between the moment the first research results or the emergence of an idea are obtained and industrial production.

Thus, during the period of the scientific and technological revolution, as a result of the increased role and capabilities of technology, the time from the emergence of an idea to its implementation is unusually reduced. If in the last century they all spanned several decades (for example, it took more than a century to implement the idea on which photography is based, a telephone - 50 years, a radio - 35 years), then by the middle of our century, the time for introducing scientific discoveries into practice was reduced to several years (transistors and laser - 5 years, integrated circuits - 3 years). It can be reasonably assumed that this trend will also continue in the future.

Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the science of ways to obtain target products using biosynthesis controlled by environmental parameters or genetic engineering manipulations, or a combination of these effects. Biological technologies (biotechnologies) provide controlled production of useful products for various areas of human activity. These technologies are based on the use of the catalytic potential of various biological agents and systems - microorganisms, viruses, plant and animal cells and tissues, as well as extracellular substances and cell components. At present, the development and mastering of biotechnology occupy an important place in the activities of almost all countries.

The application of biotechnological materials and principles in the coming years will radically change many industries and human society itself.

Man has used biotechnology for many thousands of years: people have been brewing, baking bread, receiving fermented milk products, using fermentation to obtain medicinal substances and recycling waste. But only the latest methods of biotechnology, including genetic engineering methods based on working with recombinant DNA, have led to the "biotechnological boom" that we are witnessing today. The latest technologies of genetic engineering make it possible to significantly improve traditional biotechnological processes, as well as to obtain a variety of valuable products in fundamentally new, previously inaccessible ways. The development and transformation of biotechnology is driven by profound changes that have taken place in biology over the past 25-30 years. The basis of these events was formed by new ideas in the field of heredity and methodological improvements that brought mankind closer to the knowledge of the transformations of its material substrate and paved the way for the latest industrial processes. In addition, a number of important discoveries in other areas also influenced the development of biotechnology (see table).

Genetic engineering has been around for a little over 20 years. She brilliantly revealed her capabilities in the field of prokaryotic organisms.

However, new technologies applied to higher plants and animals are not yet so significant. Attempts to apply the techniques of genetic engineering to higher plants and animals are faced with enormous difficulties caused by both the imperfection of our knowledge of eukaryotic genetics and the complexity of the organization of higher organisms. The use of scientific achievements and practical successes of biotechnology are closely related to fundamental research and are implemented at the highest level of modern science. In this regard, one cannot fail to note the amazing scientific diversity of biotechnology: its development and achievements are closely related and depend on the complex of knowledge not only of biological sciences, but also of many others. Today biotechnology has rapidly moved to the forefront of scientific and technological progress. Fundamental studies of life phenomena at the cellular and molecular levels have led to the emergence of fundamentally new technologies and new products.

Traditional biotechnological processes based on fermentation are supplemented by new efficient processes for obtaining proteins, amino acids, antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, organic acids, etc. The era of the latest biotechnology has come, associated with the production of vaccines, hormones, interferons, etc.

The most important tasks facing biotechnology today are: increasing the productivity of agricultural crops and animals, creating new breeds of species cultivated in agriculture, protecting the environment and recycling waste, creating new environmentally friendly processes for converting energy and obtaining mineral resources.

Describing the prospects and role of biotechnology in human society, it is appropriate to resort to the statement at one of the Symposia on biotechnology by the Japanese professor K. Sakaguchi, who said the following: “... look for whatever you want in microorganisms, and they will not let you down ...

The study and application of mammalian and plant cell cultures in industry, the immobilization of not only unicellular, but also the cells of multicellular organisms, the development of enzymology, genetic engineering, intervention in the complex and insufficiently studied hereditary apparatus of plants and animals are increasingly expanding the areas of application of existing areas of biotechnology and will fundamentally create new directions.
Вопросы:

1. Какую особенность имеет человеческая деятельность?

2. Как происходит увеличение потребностей человечеством?

3. С какими главными противоречиями сталкивается человечество?

4. На какие вопросы стремится дать ответ Экономика?

5. От чего зависит решение экономических проблем?

6. Какой фактор долгосрочного развития является решающим? Почему?

7. Как может быть использован лазерный луч?

8. Каков принцип работы лазерного луча?

9. В каких отраслях промышленности используется энергия ультразвуковых колебаний?

10. Есть ли новые направления совершенствования технологии?

11. Каково соотношение добываемого сырья и получаемых продуктов из него?

12. Какое влияние оказывает технология в современном производстве?

13. Как можно сократить период времени, который находится между первыми результатами и промышленным производством?

14. В чем суть «биотехнологии»?

15. На каком принципе основаны биологические технологии?

16. Как человек использовал биотехнологии в прошлом?

17. Как долго существует генная инженерия?

18. С какими трудностями сталкивается генная инженерия?

19. Какие задачи необходимо решить биотехнологии?

20. Как влияет изучение и применение клеточных культур млекопитающих и растений в промышленности?

Ответы:

1. The main feature of human activity is the transformation of raw materials, numerous transformations of natural materials and products.

2. A multiple increase in consumption occurred 1) both due to the growth in consumption by each individual person, and 2) due to the rapid population growth.

3. The development of mankind is always faced with the main contradiction between the constantly growing needs of people and limited resources.

4. The task of economics is searching of an answer:
a) For what needs should these limited resources be used?
b) Who and how should decide the issue of resource use?
c) By what means can the volume of satisfied needs be increased using the same resources?

5. The solution of economic problems is closely intertwined with the inevitable need for a simultaneous and coordinated solution of a complex of technological, social and environmental problems.

6. Of all the factors of long-term development, the state of natural systems is decisive. Sustainable economic growth cannot be ensured if the productivity of natural complexes is undermined.

7. Using the action of a laser beam, many technological processes can be carried out; the laser beam can be used to perform unique medical operations, create a multi-channel communication line; when using lasers in holography, stereoscopic televisions with extremely high image clarity are created.

8. The laser beam easily penetrates the hardest materials - diamonds, creating precise calibrated holes in them, which are necessary in the manufacture of dies used to draw wires with a high-quality precision polished surface. At the same time, labor productivity increases from 12 to several tens of times.

9. Acoustic energy is now used in mechanical engineering and instrument making, metallurgy, in the chemical, light, food and pharmaceutical industries, as well as in medicine, biology, and agriculture.

10. A new direction for improving technology is the development of low-operational, resource-saving and waste-free processes

11. A wonderful feature of the chemical industry is the ability to completely eliminate waste. However, until recently, the technological practice of mankind was incredibly wasteful: modern industry turns 98% of all extracted raw materials into waste and only 2% turns into useful products.

12. Technology in modern manufacturing has a significant impact on future economic performance even in the process of designing a product or developing a new product or material, creating high-tech designs and developments.

13. With the maximum manufacturability of products and materials, the skillful use of unification, standardization, and a clear organization of production preparation, it is possible to sharply reduce the length of the time period that lies between the moment the first research results or the emergence of an idea are obtained and industrial production.

14. Biotechnology is the science of ways to obtain target products using biosynthesis controlled by environmental parameters or genetic engineering manipulations, or a combination of these effects.

15. These technologies are based on the use of the catalytic potential of various biological agents and systems - microorganisms, viruses, plant and animal cells and tissues, as well as extracellular substances and cell components.

16. Man has used biotechnology for many thousands of years: people have been brewing, baking bread, receiving fermented milk products, using fermentation to obtain medicinal substances and recycling waste.

17. Genetic engineering has been around for a little over 20 years.

18. New technologies applied to higher plants and animals are not yet so significant. Attempts to apply the techniques of genetic engineering to higher plants and animals are faced with enormous difficulties caused by both the imperfection of our knowledge of eukaryotic genetics and the complexity of the organization of higher organisms.

19. The most important tasks facing biotechnology today are: increasing the productivity of agricultural crops and animals, creating new breeds of species cultivated in agriculture, protecting the environment and recycling waste, creating new environmentally friendly processes for converting energy and obtaining mineral resources.

20. The study and application of mammalian and plant cell cultures in industry, the immobilization of not only unicellular, but also the cells of multicellular organisms, the development of enzymology, genetic engineering, intervention in the complex and insufficiently studied hereditary apparatus of plants and animals are increasingly expanding the areas of application of existing areas of biotechnology and will fundamentally create new directions.

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