These are important Ministers who are at the head of great Departments of State. The heads of some of the Departments are known as Secretaries of State and they deal with Home Affairs, Foreign Affairs, Scotland, Commonwealth Relations, etc.
The other heads of Departments are called Ministers.
Junior Ministers - generally Parliamentary Under-Secretaries of State or, where the senior minister is not a Secretary of State, simply Parliamentary Secretaries - share in parliamentary and departmental duties. They may also be given responsibilitiy, directly under the departmental minister, for specific aspects of the department's work.
After the PM has formed his Cabinet, he selects the rest of the ministry. Those ministers become the departmental ministers and they form Government Departments, that are responsible for implementing G. policy.
The modern G. is arranged in about 15 departments. Each of them is headed by two people: a political head and an administrative head.
Nearly all political heads of the Departments are the Cabinet members and they usually have the official title of "Secretary of State"; or may have a special title as in the case of the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Administrative heads are the members of the Civil Service -and they are called "Permanent secretaries".
"Permanent secretaries" are responsible for a permanent staff, which is the part of the Civil Service.
Departmental ministers normally decide all matters within their responsibility. However, on important political matters they usually consult their colleagues collectively, either through the Cabinet or through a Cabinet committee.
A decision by a departmental minister binds the Government as a whole.
Her Majesty's Government is the body of ministers responsible for the conduct of national affairs. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Queen, and all other ministers are appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Most ministers are members of the Commons, although the Government is also fully represented by ministers in the Lords. The Lord Chancellor is always a member of the House of Lords. The Prime Minister is also, by tradition, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service.
The Prime Minister's unique position of authority derives from majority support in the House of Commons and from the power to appoint and dismiss ministers. By modern convention, the Prime Minsiter always sits in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister presides over the Cabinet, is responsible for the allocation of functions among ministers and informs the Queen at regular meetings of the general business of the Government. The Prime Minister's other responsibilities include recommending a number of appointments to the Queen. These include:
1. Church of England archbishops, bishops and eans and other Church appointments; 2. senior judges, such as the Lord Chief Justice; 3. Privy Counsellors; and 4. Lord-Lieutenants. They also include certain civil appointments, such as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, Poet Laureate, Constable of the Tower, and some university posts; and appointments to various public boards and institutions, such as the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), as well as various royal and statutory commissions.
The Prime Minister also makes recommendations for the award of many civil honors and distinctions. The Prime Minister's Office at 10 Downing Street, the official residence in London, has a staff of civil servants who assist the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister may also appoint special advisors to the Office to assist in the formation of policies. Departmental Ministers Ministers in charge of government departments are usually in the Cabinet; they are known as 'Secretary of State' or 'Minister', or may have a special title, as in the case of the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Non-Departmental Ministers The holders of various traditional offices, namely the Lord President of the Council, the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, the Lord Privy Seal, the Paymaster General and, from time to time, Ministers without Portfolio, may have few or no department duties. They are therefor available to perform any duties the Prime Minister may wish to give them. Lord Chancellor and Law Officers The Lord Chancellor holds a special position, as both a minister with departmental functions and the head of the judiciary.
The four Law Officers of the Crown are: for England and Wales, the Attorney General and the Solicitor General; and for Scotland, the Lord Advocate and the Solicitor General for Scotland. Ministers of State and Junior Ministers Ministers of State usually work with ministers in charge of departments. They normally have specific responsibilities, and are sometimes given titles which reflect these functions. More than one may work in a department. A Minister of State may be given a seat in the Cabinet and be paid accordingly.
Junior Ministers – generally Parliamentary Under-Secretaries of State or, where the senior minister is not a Secretary of State, simply Parliamentary Secretaries – share in parliamentary and departmental duties. They may also be given responsibilitiy, directly under the departmental minister, for specific aspects of the department's work The Americans also have a government structure but that dopes not mean that it is necessarily that it is like ours here is a diagram on the Americans government structure.
When you compare the American and British government you can see that they both have a head of government. The English have the Prime Minister and the American's have the President, these people head up the government and make the most important decisions about the country. The American president's office has lots of different departments branching off of it as does the British they both have different departments with heads of these departments.
When comparing the racial diversity in America and Britain I found the while in Britain most different racial groups have scatterd in the U. S. they have stayed close. E. g. " Almost half the country's Asians – 43 percent – are in three metropolitan areas: San Francisco, Los Angeles and New York" I don't really think that there is a reason for these small concentrated areas of racial groups just like there is no reason fro the way they have spread out over England.