XIII Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2021


Николаева М.Д. 1, Суромкина Г.А. 1
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF


In this article I talked about the history of English tea and the features of English tea drinking. I hope that she will be interesting and useful for young people and allow them to learn new things.

Keywords: history of tea, England, tea drinking, features of the tea ceremony

History of English tea and features of English tea drinking:

The history of English tea and tea ceremony began 500 years ago. Although England is not a pioneer of tea, it is with this country that the unique traditions of drinking the drink are associated. It has its own order and rules for tea drinking. For residents of this country, tea is not just a drink, but an important part of life, a special philosophy. We can say that there is practically no Englishman who does not drink at least one cup of fragrant tea every day.

Initially, tea was very expensive. Only wealthy families could afford it. This drink has become an indicator of the wealth and sophistication of the tastes of the owner of the house. They kept tea and tea accessories under lock and key in special chests. Over time, tea production reached an industrial scale and from the middle of the XIX century, it was finally able to afford and ordinary people.

There are several versions of how the country appeared flavored drink. Some sources say that the first person to try tea in England was Charles II. In 1664, an Indian company presented him with dried tea tree leaves. After brewing them, the king was pleasantly surprised by the unusual taste, light aroma and unexpected aftertaste of the resulting drinks. Within a few months, the drink was served at official events for aristocrats, court ladies and gentlemen.

According to another version, tea was brought a little earlier by Portuguese suppliers in 1659. Thomas Garraway, owner of a coffee shop on the outskirts of London was the first to buy raw tea. He even gave an advertisement inviting everyone to try a Chinese drink that can cure all diseases.

In any case, tea has long been a very valuable and expensive drink. In order to introduce tea leaves to England, it was necessary to pay fabulous taxes. Therefore, only desperate merchants who wanted to earn good money decided to do this.

At the beginning of tea drinking in England, tea leaves were stored in Chinese porcelain containers with lids or stoppers. Tea was served in tiny porcelain teapots, and drunk from small cups without handles (also known as bowls).

In the process of spreading the fragrant drink among the people, certain traditions and rituals of English tea drinking were formed. They haven't changed in years. Even a less important event can be a reason for organizing it.

The preparation of the drink and table setting has their own tea etiquette and traditions:

* The teapot is filled with as much water as is necessary for one use of tea by all present.

* Only fresh and clean water should be used.

* In a separate bowl, pour dry tea leaves and fill it with water.

* The drink needs to be infused for 5 minutes. You do not need to brew it longer, as it will lose its special taste and aroma.

At an official reception, each guest is required to put a set for tea: a porcelain cup and plate, sugar tongs, a spoon. In the center of the table are a closed pitcher filled with hot water (so that if desired, the guest can add boiling water to the Cup), a container with milk, a strainer, and a teapot.

Each guest adds as much sugar and milk as they see fit. If the guests have not yet drunk tea, you can repeat the entire ritual for the second round. It is necessary to repeat everything again with fresh tea raw materials.

When the traditions of the tea ceremony in England were finally formed, it became an unspoken rule for every resident of England to start and end their day with a Cup of fragrant drink. Although a tea party can occur at least six times a day.

According to English traditions tea drinking can take place:

* Immediately after waking up. Tea can cheer you up and tone you up for the whole day. The morning tea party mainly takes place at 6:00 – 6:30.

* The second drink intake may occur as early as around 8: 00. This is the so-called "English Breakfast" - a tradition that is special for the foggy Albion. Tea is brewed strong, so that you can finally cheer up and tune in to perform everyday tasks.

* The third drink is taken at noon, at lunch. Too strong tea is not drunk. But it is important that it is fresh.

* In the middle of the working day, a tea break is also made to relieve accumulated fatigue and finish things with dignity.

* The official tea party in the best English traditions is held at 17: 00. Even if there are some urgent matters, there is a tense or unfavorable situation around, no one refuses tea.

* At 19:00, the British end their working day. They drink delicious tea as a worthy end to their daily work.

These are the six main methods of the drink. A true tea lover can drink many more cups.

In England, they like different types of tea. In addition, the range is constantly expanding. But, there are particularly popular varieties that are preferred by most Englishmen.

"The Earl Grey" is one of the most beloved in the UK. Tea got its name thanks to Earl Grey, who in 1830 worked as the British Prime Minister. It is said that he could not do without bergamot-flavored tea. The famous "Earl Grey" is a selection of leaves of Darjeeling or black leaf Indian Assam. There must be a citrus taste and aroma, which is obtained thanks to the peel of bergamot.

Over the years, the "Earl Grey" has acquired many varieties. Today such teas are popular:

* "London Fog". In addition to the traditional aroma of bergamot, it contains vanilla. Milk is also added to this tea.

* "Citrus Lady Grey" and "Lavender Lady Grey" have, respectively, the aromas of orange and lavender.

* "The Green Earl Grey". It is based on green leaf tea, which is added to the zest of bergamot.

* "The French Earl Grey". It is loved for its delicate floral fragrance of Jasmine and rose.

Now let's move on to the traditional treat that is served with tea in England. The traditional delicacy that is consumed in the process of English tea drinking is a cookie "Makviti". You can find another name - "Rich Tea". It is a cracker that is made from flour, vegetable oil, sugar and malt extract. Cookies were first prepared in the County of Yorkshire in the XVII century. They prefer to dip it directly into a cup of tea. It is believed that then you can enjoy a special taste of goodies.

In addition to it, tea sandwiches are widely popular. They consist of dried wheat bread, which is covered with mayonnaise, cheese cream and some vegetables (asparagus, cucumbers, radishes, watercress, etc.). The sandwich Recipe can be modified at your discretion. Basically, these sandwiches are eaten before lunch to calm the feeling of hunger a little and "hold on" to the main meal.

And another traditional English treat for tea – fruit pie. It is also called "TeaCake"("tea cake"). It is made from sweet yeast dough, to which various dried fruits are added. These are usually dried currants, raisins, and lemon zest. Top the pie with jam or butter, or sometimes both.

The traditions of English tea drinking are a special culture and even a way of life. Unfortunately, tea consumption in England has declined significantly since 2003. This is due to the switch to cheaper herbal supplements and energy drinks.

Список используемой литературы:

1. Павловская А. 5 O'clock и другие традиции Англии, М.: Алгоритм, 2014. (дата обращения: 20.11.2020);

2. Похлебкин В. В. Чай: Его типы, свойства, употребление, М. : Лег. и пищ. пром-сть, 1981. (дата обращения: 20.11.2020);

3. Павленко Д.М. Культурные традиции английского чаепития //Прорывные научные исследования: проблемы, закономерности, перспективы. Сборник статей X Международной научно-практической конференции.–2018. –С. 211-213. (дата обращения: 20.11.2020);

4. Лысенко Н.К. Концепт «чай» в различных национальных культурах мира: Казахстан, Россия, Великобритания // Русский язык как фактор культорно-образовательной интеграции общества. – 2016. – С. 161-169. (дата обращения: 20.11.2020);

5. Хайруллина Д.Д., Шакирзянова А.А. Роль чая в английской и татарской жизни // Наука и инновации в XXI веке: актуальные вопросы, открытия и достижения. Сборник статей победителей III международной научно-практической конференции. – 2017. – С. 139-141. (дата обращения: 20.11.2020);

6. Шамина Ю.Ф. Традиции английского чаепития // Инновационные идеи молодых исследователей для агропромышленного комплекса России. Сборник статей Международной научно-практической конференции молодых ученых. – 2018. – С. 249-250. (дата обращения: 20.11.2020).

Просмотров работы: 50