This article explores translation aspects of technical texts and methods.
Technical translation is a translation of technical and scientific texts. The translation of technical texts is the translation of materials with technical-scientific character. Technical translation of text belongs to special types and is very specific and quite difficult. It is connected with the presence of not only terms, complex names, and specific concepts, but also the presence of common abbreviations and abbreviations.
Such translation should be understood as the transfer of information from another language regarding the operation and arrangement of mechanisms, apparatuses, equipment, machines, and other aggregates. This also includes articles, notes, and news in the field of science and technology.
A special group will consist of research texts, works of scientists and specialists in various technical fields, diplomas and dissertations published in reputable publications or on Internet resources. As a rule, in such documents, in addition to the actual text, there are links and footnotes to other works, many examples from practice, as well as formulas, calculations and abbreviations.
Its complexity, first of all, consists in the fact that when transmitting data, you must maintain the accuracy, consistency and logic of the narrative, otherwise you may lose the main meaning and informative content of the text. At the same time, such texts are full of numerical values, diagrams, drawings and graphs, which can make the translator's work easier to some extent.
Written translation is one of the most common types in translation practice. Written translation creates the most favorable conditions for the functioning of the translator's mental mechanisms. There are no extreme conditions for switching from language to language. The advantage of this method is that there is no time frame, and the source text is perceived visually and the memory is not overloaded( as in simultaneous translation). You can use any reference literature or dictionaries for translation. Transfer operations can be performed sequentially, as they are stretched over time. Since the translation is done in writing, the text can be repeatedly corrected and edited to get the most adequate variation.
The meaning of the text may change if unjustified additions are made during translation. The user receives a low-quality translation that supposedly preserves the meaning of the original, since the free interpretation changes the logical accents, and as a result - the argumentation.
A method of text segmentation or dematerialization has been developed for translation. In practice, this method can only be used for translating text of at least 700-900 characters in order to split the text into segments of the appropriate size. Key information is highlighted in each received segment. When the transfer is finalized, the segments are combined.
Another significant point is the concept of information reserve, that is, the information that the communicant receives by linking the language sign with reality. On the basis of experimental knowledge, a classification by degrees was developed, without taking into account elementary grammatical information. According to the classification, the information reserve was divided into 5 degrees, it turned out that for effective communication, a specialist must have a third degree of information reserve, which allows to master, correctly understand and use the language sign.
A specialist, having a second degree of information reserve, is forced to use additional means to get an adequate result in translation, in addition to their knowledge.
Automated translation is a subspecies of written translation. At the same time, the translation process is carried out on a computer using special computer technologies and is controlled by a person, and the computer only helps in achieving the final result in less time or with the best quality. The process of post-editing is within the competence of a person, since grammatical and stylistic transformations require human thinking. In the process of translation, the translator uses electronic dictionaries or glossaries ( translation memory) instead of the usual dictionaries, in the terminology database of which examples of earlier translations are accumulated.
The use of automated translation for texts of scientific and technical literature significantly saves time for the translator, provided that he has a good information reserve and has sufficient knowledge of his specialty.
Machine translation is an action to transform a source text in one language into a text in the user's language that contains equivalent information, as well as the result of such an action. To transmit translational correspondences, the machine translation system software package is equipped with bilingual dictionaries with grammatical information.
In the process of machine translation, the translator is a machine, and the person is assigned the role of the translator's understudy. The source text consists of a machine that outputs the most likely option. The stand-in translator gets a ready-made text, which he has to edit.
Speaking about translation using computer technologies, we can distinguish machine translation as the most promising for practical purposes. Since the main task of implementing machine software in any type of human activity is to reduce the employment rate of a person and reduce the complexity of their operations, machine translation, if there are perfect programs, will help in the process of minimizing human participation in the translation process.
Analysis of methods of translation of scientific and technical literature shows that traditional written translation is a constant, since modern electronic programs do not provide a full-fledged adequate translation, but assume that the final version of the translation is made directly by the translator.
Krapivina O. A., A. A. Musohranov Linguo-pragmatic aspects of translation of scientific and technical texts // Humanitarian scientific researches. 2014. No. 8 [Electronic resource]. URL: http://human.snauka.ru/2014/08/7629 (датаобращения: 15.09.2020).