Abstract: The article considers the main features of science-intensive enterprises and their difference from post-industrial enterprises. The reasons of a very low level of innovative activity in Russian economy have been analyzed. The ways of reaching knowledge economy that will bring our country to the top of the developed countries have been presented.
Keywords: applied technologies, science-intensive products, qualifications of personnel, to stimulate science, a national scale, development costs.
In the economic literature and in practice, much attention has been paid to the problems of the development of science-intensive industries because science-intensity is one of the most important factors of economic development in modern world. It is due to the significance of information and high tech technologies in post-industrial economy. A science-intensive enterprise is a research and production organization, the purpose of which is the development and production of science-intensive products, and its distinctive features are: a high share of research and development costs, a high level of qualifications of personnel and applied technologies.A high-tech enterprise concentrates in its hands both the development of the most innovative high-tech product and the technology of its release, as well as its production and sale. They provide impetuous economic development and profit from the sale of high technology products gives the biggest increase in GDP. Competitiveness of science-intensive products is much higher then, for example, of extractive industry.
Science-intensity concept is inextricably linked with term «innovation». Innovation is a result of innovative activities that have a high degree of risks. That is why many companies do not want to invest in innovative projects. The biggest share of innovation is concentrated in the service sector. It means that efficient functioning of post-industrial economy is impossible without innovations.
In modern Russia, a very low level of innovation activity still remains. The goals of stimulating and institutional support for the development of Russian science and innovative technologies are not being implemented on the scale required by the existing challenges from highly developed countries. On a national scale, the effect of the introduction of innovative developments is practically invisible, as there are no close ties and contacts between science and business, and this is an indicator and reason that the national innovation system is functioning ineffectively. Besides, dependence on imported high technology products, low level of financing national projects and investment in science development are the other reasons. One more reason of Russia`s lag is leakage of qualified personnel to more advanced countries so called «brain drain» causing serious economic damage to the country.
In Russia development of innovative activity is impossible without developing the sphere of education, stimulating science and supporting private business, which is focused on producing innovative products. In the context of global competition, Russian companies in the process of creating and introducing innovative products should focus on world markets, and this factor should become the main factor in the economic development of Russia as a whole.
Also, the way to the world`s top of economically developed countries for Russia is investing in human capital. Human capital is unique and differs from any other capital. It is needed for companies to achieve goals, develop and remain innovative. Companies can invest in human capital, for example, through education and training leading to improved levels of quality and production.
Nowadays human capital is the main factor of knowledge economy, the highest step of world`s economic development. The knowledge economy is a system of consumption and production that is based on intellectual capital. In particular, it refers to the ability to capitalize on scientific discoveries, basic and applied research. This has become the main component of all economic activities in most developed countries. In the knowledge economy education and knowledge serve as a productive asset or business product to be sold and exported to yield profits for individuals, businesses, and the economy. This component of the economy relies greatly on intellectual capabilities instead of natural resources or physical contributions. In the knowledge economy, products and services that are based on intellectual expertise advance technical and scientific fields, encouraging innovation in the economy as a whole.
ThusRussia will not be able to achieve the economic growth and the increase of GDP without increase in state budget expenditures for research and development work. At present, increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the Russian economy is a priority task set by the President of our country. Now Russia is implementing innovation support programs (for example, science town Skolkovo). But it is not enough and Russia is steal weak in high tech sphere. The state`s task is creating favorable conditions for the development of science-intensive potential of the country. There are many talented scientists and ambitious businessmen in Russia and they can bring the country to the top of the developed countries. The development of science-intensity and introduction of innovation into the economy are the main factors of economic leadership. So we need to use every way to improve Russia`s position on the world market and support national science and business.