Abstract: The article presents the tasks and features of isotherapy, its influence on the formation of speech. Special attention is paid to the variety of techniques that contribute to the development of fine motor skills.
Keywords: art-therapy, isotherapy, chromotherapy, drawing, motor skills, imagination.
Isotherapy is a technique of correction that involves the use of fine art(drawing, modeling, photography, arts and crafts, etc.). It is one of the most common types of art-therapy. The advantage of this type of correction is that, from psychologists' point of view, it does not give side effects and can not harm the patient. In addition, children's attention is unstable, there is no perseverance. That is why the use of traditional methods is often difficult, and it would be rational to involve non-standard methods and techniques, of which art-therapy is the most available.
Fine motor skills are developed through isotherapy. This process is a prerequisite for the subsequent development of various mental processes, including the formation of speech which is one of the main tasks of art-therapy in speech therapy.
Mastering various drawing techniques helps one develop one's creativity. Another one task of art-therapy is to identify the problems of children who have difficulties in the process of communication, their experiences. Topics in isotherapy are selected so that children can express their thoughts graphically and verbalize them.
There is a great variety of isotherapy techniques. The most common ones are:
- Palm painting/finger painting
- Drawing with soft paper
- Drawing with a poke
- Drawing with leaves
- Modeling of salt dough
1. Blotting is the drawing of blotches, spots, and drops, in which one need to see a complete image. This technique allows one to develop creativity, imagination, and is ideal for children, as it does not require special skills and abilities. Among the techniques of blotting are:
- Usual blotting.
- Blotting with a tube.
Put a spot of paint on the paper, and then inflate it at an angle with a tube in different directions.
- Blotting with spreading.
Put blotches on thick paper or cardboard, and then tilt the sheet, allowing the paint to spread.
- Blotting with plasticine.
Allows one to create a three-dimensional image and develops fine motor skills.
Characters are created from plasticine, and their habitat is created with paint.
- Blotting with a thread.
It is necessary to moisten the threads in the paint, spread them out on paper. Then one needs to press the threads to the sheet and pull one of the ends.
2 . The tactile perception of the texture of paper and paint is a special feature of such techniques as palm drawing and finger painting.
In drawing using one's fingers there is the rule is that there is one specific color on one finger.
3. Monotype is also called "print". A sheet of paper is folded in half, unfolded, and paint is applied to one of the halves. The sheet is folded again, and the paint is mirrored.
5. Drawing with a poke is carried out using any object (a cotton swab). It is enough to dip it in paint and leave a clear imprint on a piece of paper.
6. To draw with leaves one will need leaves from different trees. They are covered with paint and pressed tightly against the paper, leaving an imprint.
7. While using the technique of modeling of salt dough tactile receptors are affected, sensory sensitivity increases, and fine motor skills develop. In addition, the work of both hands is synchronized, which has a positive effect on the development of speech.
Over the past 20 years, so-called albums for the development of creativity by Taro Gomi have been popular. Their peculiarity lies in the fact that the author retains the vision of the child. In albums, you are invited to finish drawing a picture drawn in a special style that is close to children's one. Drawings do not require detailed drawing, so children do not form a fear of mistakes.
Isotherapy is also closely related to chromotherapy. Chromotherapy is the therapeutic effect of color on the human body. The human eye is able to perceive light signals and color effects. By changing these parameters, you can influence the activity of the endocrine glands and the autonomic nervous system.
Blue color relaxes, reduces appetite, stimulates mental activity.
Light blue color has an inhibitory effect.
Purple color reduces mood, depresses mental and physiological processes.
Red color activates, improves performance
Green color calms, creates a good mood, and stimulates the immune system.
Pink color has a tonic effect.
The yellow color neutralizes the negative effects.
Thus, the main task of isotherapy is to have a therapeutic effect on the development of the child, the formation of speech, the development of fine motor skills and eliminate communication problems through the use of fine art techniques. In addition, isotherapy is one of the few methods that do not have contraindications, do not give a negative effect and are suitable for everyone without exception.
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