At present with the development of technology relevant discoveries in the field of automotive vehicles appear. An interesting innovation is the аutonomous control system. Cars equipped with this system are usually called unmanned vehicles.
Speaking about the design of the vehicle, it should be mentioned that the car is equipped with sensors:
LIDAR — rangefinder optical character recognition
Stereo vision system
Global positioning system (GPS)
Driverless car software can include machine vision and neural networks. Some systems rely on infrastructure systems (such as those built into or near the road), but more advanced technologies can simulate human presence at the decision-making level of steering position and speed, thanks to a set of cameras, sensors, radars and satellite navigation systems.
There are several levels of driving automation:
Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control.
Level 1: The driver and the automated system share control of the vehicle.
Level 2: The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering).
Level 3: The driver can safely turn their attention away from the driving tasks, e.g. the driver can text or watch a movie.
Level 4: ("steering wheel optional"): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.
That is cardinal minimization of road accidents and almost complete elimination of human casualties (at least among the passengers inside the car), hence a significant reduction in the cost of insurance and rapid response medicine; reducing the cost of transportation of goods and people by saving on wages and rest time of drivers, as well as fuel economy; improving the efficiency of road usage through centralized traffic management; reducing the need for individual cars through the development of systems such as car sharing; increasing road capacity by narrowing the width of road lanes (in the longer term).
There is an opportunity to move independently on a robotic car for people without a driver's license, possibly including minors; saving time, now spent on the management of the vehicle, allows you to do more important things (for example, start working at the computer during a trip in the car) or relax.
That is transportation of goods in hazardous areas, during natural and man-made disasters or military operations; in the longer term, the reduction of the global environmental burden is due both to the quantitative optimization of the fleet of cars, and due to the wider use of alternative energy for their movement.
That is liability for damage (depends on driving mode); loss of self-driving capability. Perhaps for fans of direct driving, special roads will be allocated with additional security measures on the type of current motoring routes, but separated from the general network of roads for the movement of autonomous cars; unreliability of software vulnerable to hacking and surveillance; loss of privacy; possible use in the role of Jihad mobiles; job losses by people whose jobs involve driving vehicles; lack of driving experience for drivers in a critical situation; an ethical question about the most acceptable number of victims, similar to the trolley problem facing a car computer in an imminent collision.
In conclusion, it should be noted that introduction of such a system as autonomous management is certainly one of the innovative discoveries of our time, but which in connection with the presence of shortcomings requires considerable improvements.