Theoretical substantiation of energy saving efficiency
The development of business entities in our country is significantly negatively affected by the high share of energy costs in production costs, which is 8-12% on average in industrial enterprises and has a steady upward trend due to the large moral and physical deterioration of the main equipment and significant losses in the transportation of energy resources. One of the determining conditions for reducing costs in industrial enterprises and Improving the economic efficiency of production as a whole is the rational use of energy resources. At the same time, an energy-saving path for the development of the domestic economy is possible only with the formation and subsequent implementation of energy conservation programs at individual enterprises, which requires the creation of an appropriate methodological and methodological base. Postponing the implementation of energy-saving measures causes significant economic damage to enterprises and negatively affects the overall environmental and socio-economic situation. In addition, a further increase in costs in industry and other sectors of the economy is accompanied by a growing shortage of financial resources, which delays the updating of the production base of enterprises in accordance with the achievements of scientific and technological progress. To prevent financial losses in the formation of a set of energy-saving measures, it is necessary to develop and improve efficiency assessment methods energy saving programs that take into account the multivariate use of investment sources first intended to implement them. Reducing the energy component in production costs will allow you to get additional funds to ensure an acceptable level of moral and physical deterioration of technological equipment . Various authors under the fuel and energy resources (FER) mean the totality of all natural and converted resources used in the country's economy. Economists refer to FER “natural fuel resources, natural energy resources, fuel processing products, combustible (fuel) side energy resources, electricity, compressed air and blast furnace, thermal energy (steam and hot water). There is no doubt that, according to the species classification, FER should be attributed to material resources, although in some production processes at the enterprise FER affects the subject of labor directly. It should also be noted that some of them are used both as fuel and as raw materials for processing (for example, oil). Generalizing the above, applying the terminology of legislative documents, energy resources can be divided into primary renewable, non-renewable and secondary (secondary). Of resources it is possible to choose one resource from several possible ones - for example, to use peat, gas or fuel oil in boiler rooms. At the same time, the choice of a specific resource from among the possible is determined not only by the specifics of production, but also by the economic situation of the region, its provision with one or another type of resources, and some other factors. However, it should be noted that such a choice is not always carried out rationally: for example, regions lacking some resources and do not plan to switch to other energy resources.
The most common reference point for control actions is the energy saving potential, which means reserves that can be developed in time. When analyzing and evaluating the economic energy resource potential, it is necessary to consider not only its quantitative and qualitative characteristics, but also the possibility of rational use of energy resources.
The efficiency of energy conservation in industrial enterprises
Engineering is an energy-intensive sphere of industrial production, where, as a result of the moral and physical aging of fixed assets, there is a constant and continuous increase in energy consumption. The increase in energy costs and the resulting increase in the cost of engineering products means the need to reduce the energy component in production costs. At the same time, engineering enterprises are not interested in the development and implementation of energy saving programs, which is caused by relatively low energy prices (for example, the price of electric energy is 0.86 rubles, while the economically feasible tariff is -1.6 rubles), and the lack of economic incentives for energy conservation, limited financial resources. As a result, energy saving programs at machine-building enterprises are either not developed at all, or the implementation of existing programs is practically not carried out. To obtain the maximum effect from the implementation of the energy saving program at engineering enterprises, it should be an optimal combination of energy-saving measures for it. For this, it is necessary, on the one hand, to classify energy-saving objects and their socio-economic results, and, on the other hand, to formulate and justify a system of indicators of energy-saving efficiency. In this case, the most important is the assessment of the economic efficiency of the set of energy-saving measures, which in each case is determined by the specifics of the technological process at various stages of production of the final product. Proceeding from this, it is necessary to take into account the features of evaluating the economic efficiency of measures in accordance with the results of energy saving at a machine-building enterprise: in the preparation of the main production, in the process of main production, in auxiliary production, during storage of products, modernization of the main and serving industries.
These features should be taken into account in the relevant calculations by making changes in determining the profits and losses of the enterprise, which, in turn, are caused by various socio-economic results of energy saving measures included in the energy saving program. Today, energy conservation programs are usually developed by experts in the technology sector who are not familiar with the economic mechanism of energy conservation. In this regard, most of the existing programs do not contain estimates of the economic effect and do not create incentives for energy conservation. It can be concluded that the rational use of energy resources at the enterprise is an important component of reducing production costs, and, therefore, generating additional profit, gaining a larger share market and solving social problems based on: - implementation of the production preparation process in accordance with the optimal modes of commissioning fixed assets; - the use of the most cost-effective production technologies; - the development, development and implementation of new equipment and technologies in which energy resources are used more efficiently; - the improvement of the social sphere for the staff of a machine-building enterprise and the social climate of the population living in the territory assigned to the corresponding enterprise. Of this, energy conservation is not seen as an aimless saving of energy resources, often carried out by reducing the volume of production, but as a factor of economic growth, improve living standards, ensure appropriate environmental and social-household conditions. Thus, energy conservation should be one of the priority areas of the economic policy of an industrial enterprise. At the same time, an assessment of the efficiency of energy conservation and its components deserves close attention today, which must be taken into account in the subsequent development of targeted energy conservation programs and scenarios for their implementation. 2. Saving fuel and energy resources is the most important area of rational nature management. One of the characteristic features of the modern stage of scientific and technological progress is the increasing demand for all types of energy. An important fuel and energy resource is natural gas. The costs of its extraction and transportation are lower than for solid fuels. Being an excellent fuel (its calorific value is 10% higher than fuel oil, 1.5 times higher than coal and 2.5 times higher than artificial gas), it is also characterized by high heat transfer in different plants. Gas is used in furnaces requiring precise temperature control; it produces little waste and smoke polluting the air. The widespread use of natural gas in metallurgy, in the production of cement and in other industries made it possible to raise the work of industrial enterprises to a higher technical level and increase the volume of production received per unit area of technological plants, as well as improve the ecology of the region. The economy of fuel and energy resources in At present, it is becoming one of the most important directions in transferring the economy to the path of intensive development and rational nature management. However, significant opportunities for saving mineral fuel and energy resources exist when using energy resources. So, at the stage of enrichment and conversion of energy, up to 3% of energy is lost. Currently, almost all of the electricity in the country is produced by thermal power plants. Therefore, the question of the use of alternative energy sources is increasingly being put on the agenda. At thermal power plants, only 30–40% of thermal energy is useful for generating electricity, the rest is dissipated in the environment with flue gases heated by water. Of no small importance in saving mineral fuel and energy resources is the reduction of specific fuel consumption for electricity production. Thus, the main areas of energy saving are: improving technological processes, improving equipment, reducing direct losses of fuel and energy resources, structural changes in production technology, structural changes in manufactured products, improving the quality of fuel and energy, organizational and technical measures. These measures are caused not only by the need to save energy resources, but also by the importance of taking environmental issues into account when solving energy problems. In the last decade, the existence of the mutual influence of a healthy environment and sustainable economic development has gained increasing recognition. At the same time, major political, social and economic changes took place in the world, as many countries began implementing programs of radical structural restructuring of their economies. Thus, the study of the environmental impact of general economic measures has become a serious problem and needs to be resolved as soon as possible. It should also be said that general economic reforms sometimes lead to unforeseen damage to the environment. The existence of obsolete policies, imperfections in the market and organizational structures elsewhere in the economy may inappropriately interact with more general economic reforms and create incentives for overuse of natural resources and environmental degradation. Correction of this situation usually does not require abandonment of the original economic policy. Instead, certain additional measures are required to eliminate the imperfection of the market, organizational structures, or outdated policies. Such measures usually not only have a favorable effect on the environment, but are also a decisive component of the success of general economic reforms. Although general economic measures are not aimed at purposefully influencing the state of nature and the environment, they can affect it, for the better and for the worse. Such measures include: changing exchange rates or interest rates, reducing the state budget deficit, freeing up markets, liberalizing trade, strengthening the role of the private sector and strengthening the institutional base.