Bell Alexander biography - Студенческий научный форум

XII Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2020

Bell Alexander biography

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The telephone, bell's most famous invention, made him rich. Much of bell's research and invention was devoted to improving the means of communication for the deaf and dumb. He lectured and studied with deaf and dumb students. Many of them he taught to speak. One of his most gifted students was Mabel Hubbard. She was 15 when bell started teaching her to speak.

On her 18th birthday, they were engaged. Since then, this day has always been celebrated by them as a special holiday. A year and a half later, bell had saved enough money to convince Mabel's parents that they could already be husband and wife. Mabel once wrote to her mother: "Every day I get to know him in a new way, find something that I love and admire." In a later letter, she put it more practically: "I am beginning to realize that my happiness in life will depend on how well and tasty I can feed him." This remark turned out to be prophetic, as within a few years bell began to weigh more than 100 kilograms, almost 40 kilo grams more than he weighed on the wedding day.

After the wedding, which took place in 1877, the newlyweds honeymooned in the small town of Niagara falls. Bell was often away on business trips, and in one letter Alexander wrote to his wife: "I hate it when you're not around... Let's settle this once and for all: we must be together all the time."

Perhaps the only cause of conflict in the Bell family was Alexander's habit of working only at night. His working day finished at around 4 am. In her diary, Mabel wrote: "the most serious quarrels between us were only because of this."

Then, however, she added: "No, after all, perhaps the most serious flashed on ut RAM, when it was necessary to get up..."Several times bell tried to change the schedule of his working day to please his wife, but these attempts were unsuccessful. During the years of marriage, Mabel gave birth to two daughters and two sons, but both boys died in early childhood. Their deaths were a great blow to the couple, but Mabel tried to be philosophical about it. She wrote of her sons: "I did have Them, and now my whole life seems happier just because of the realization."

The teacher and his student lived together for 45 years a happy family life. August 2, 1922 was the last day of the life of the talented inventor. Alexander bell suffered from a serious illness and was bedridden for a long time. He came to himself that day, saw Mabel sitting beside his bed, and smiled at her. "Don't leave me," Mabel said. With a light pressure of his fingers he answered, " Never." This was the last silent message of the inventor of the telephone, and Alexander bell passed away peacefully.

Childhood and youth

Alexander Graham bell was born in the Scottish city of Edinburgh on March 3, 1847, in a family of philologists. The scientist's grandfather was the founder of the school of oratory and the author of the book "Elegant passages". It is noteworthy that my grandfather began his career as a shoemaker, but the craving for beauty led him to the stage.

First, the man performed in the theater, then became a reader, reciting passages from Shakespeare's plays. His success inspired him so much that he began to give diction lessons and opened his own school of oratory in London. Thus was born the family business, the successor of which was the father of the inventor Alexander Melville bell, who at one time even published a treatise on the art of eloquence.

The future scientist grew up in an atmosphere of music and reverent attitude to the sounds of the human voice. At the age of 14, he moved to London, to his grandfather. And three years later, after receiving medical and philosophical education in Edinburgh and Wurzburg, he began an independent life, teaching music and oratory at the Academy of Weston house.

Having thoroughly studied the acoustics and physics of human speech, bell became an assistant to the head of the family, who by then was working on a method of developing competent diction.

It is known that the mother of the Creator of the seaplane was hard of hearing and it was intended for her all the novelties in the field of studying sounds. My father invented a system of "Visual speech" in which the sounds of speech were indicated by written symbols and pictures indicating what the facial expressions of the speech apparatus should be at this time (a kind of transcription of words, but for people who had never heard the sounds).

After Alexander's brothers died of tuberculosis, the family moved first to Canada and then to America in 1870. There they continued to work with people and sound. The work in Boston was successful. The younger bell opened his own school in the city, where he taught the basics of family methods to other teachers.

As soon as Alexander Graham had a steady source of income, the scientist returned to the experiments on voice transmission by wire, which he was interested in back in England. Bell created a small laboratory in which he experimented at night, in his spare time.

Among the wards who restored the hearing was the future wife of a scientist-Mabel, the daughter of businessman Gardner Hubbard, and the five-year-old son of a leather merchant named Thomas Sanders.

Inventions and science

In 1876, at the world science fair in Philadelphia, bell presented his new invention called the telephone. On March 7 of the same year, Alexander received a patent for his invention. It is noteworthy that at the exhibition representatives of the scientific community called the phone a useless toy.Bell, to pay off debts, was ready to sell the invention for $100 thousand to the Western Union company, but representatives of the Western Union did not consider the purchase profitable. LATER, Wu's management realized that they had made a mistake and offered the scientist cooperation.

It is worth noting that in the initial stages the phone was not perfect-the device distorted the sound, and it was possible to talk with it only at a distance of 250 meters. Therefore, the inventor continued to constantly improve the device. In February 1880, bell, along with an assistant, invented a device called a photophone, designed to transmit sounds over a distance using light.

In 1881, the scientist improved the metal detector created in the XIX century to search for ore-bearing veins. Tragic events contributed to the appearance of the metal detector. In 1901, bell invented the pyramidal kite. It consisted of four triangular sides. The device was incredibly light, strong and durable. According to some reports, it could lift a person into the air.

With his wife, bell formed the "experimental Aeronautics Association"in 1907. In 1909, an aeroplane called the Silver dart was built. The first flight of the aircraft made February 23, 1909. This date is considered to be the birthday of canadian aviation.

In 1919, according to the drawings of the scientist, the boat HD-4 was built, which set a new speed record on the water. It is known that this hydrofoil swimming apparatus developed a speed of up to 113 kilometers per hour.

Death

Bell suffered from a serious illness for a couple of years and was bedridden for a long time. On the day of his death, the businessman recovered only for a couple of minutes. Then Alexander saw his beloved Mabel sitting beside his bed and smiled at her. The woman tearfully asked not to leave her, but there was no answer from the Creator of the phone. The man squeezed his wife's hand weakly and closed his eyes forever.

The eminent inventor died on August 2, 1922 (75 years), in his estate in the province of Nova Scotia, located in Eastern Canada. It is reliably known that on August 4, 1922, all telephones in the United States were switched off for a minute. So the country gave the last honors to the man who gave people the opportunity to communicate with each other, regardless of distance.

The name of the scientist is immortalized in his inventions and documentaries, which are based on biographical facts from the life of the genius. Few people know, but in 2002, the us Congress recognized that the phone was not invented by bell, but by the Italian Antonio Meucci. A man created invention on couple of years before Alexander, but not received on him patent and died in poverty. After this news, the world scientific community began to believe that bell simply took advantage of the failure of a competitor and appropriated his discovery.

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