XII Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2020


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The formation of national education and public education in Libya begins around 644 with the conquest of the state by the Arabs. However, the active Islamization and Arabization of Libya began only in 1050. Islam is one of the foundations of the structure of modern Libyan society. It is the official religion, and the norms of religious law (Sharia) are the most important source of the Libyan legal system. The Quran was proclaimed the supreme constitution of Libya, in 1993, decisions were adopted on the wider application of Sharia law in legal proceedings, and in 1994 fatwas of the spiritual leaders of Libya were also recognized as a source of law. Radical Islamic movements operated in Libya in the 1900s, but their activities were effectively interrupted by the government.

A new stage of nationality and state formation began in Libya in 1963, with the transformation of Libya into a unitary state. Prior to this, the processes of nation formation took place in each of the three historical regions separately. The reform of the territorial structure allowed to create the foundation for the national social system. An integral part of the political system of Libya is the high authority of the central government among the majority of the population. The ruling elite is characterized by cohesion, and the central government itself is distinguished by persons. Modern elements of political culture in Libya are almost completely absent. Religious Libyan society is immune to external influences. Westernization of Libya was not carried out by any of the political regimes, with the exception of the colonial administration. The armed forces play an equally significant role in the processes of the state and national formation of Libya. The organization "Free Officers" in 1969, having made a coup, laid the foundation for the republican period of the history of Libya. The armed forces to this day constitute the support of the ruling regime. The fact that M. Gaddafi, having officially left all posts, retained the post of Supreme Commander-in-Chief, is symbolic.

However, the above traditions are only the historical background of the formation of the modern political tradition in Libya. A new stage in the development of political processes in Libya began in 1969, after the overthrow of the monarchy by a group of officers led by M. Gaddafi. At the first stage of development, the political system perceived many features of the A. Nasser regime that existed in neighboring Egypt. An authoritarian presidential regime has emerged in the country, claiming to be the leader of the unification of the Arab world. Not only the system of state institutions was copied, but even individual names.

The most radical changes in state formation processes were made by the transformation of the country into the Jamahiriya - the “state of the masses". Formally, in Libya, all traditional state institutions have been abolished, and power is concentrated in institutions directly consisting of the country's population. But in fact, this entails the creation of a regime that is close in its characteristics to a totalitarian one. The regime is based on the ideology formulated in the “Green Book” of M. Gaddafi, which examines in detail the structure of Libyan society. However, another aspect of such a political system is the presence in Libya of a civic culture different from other Arab countries. The state has created a developed system of social protection and a network of social ties. Women in Libyan society have the same scope of rights as men.

According to the constitution of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, which was valid until August 3, 2011, article 2 of the Declaration on the establishment of the power of the people (Jamahiriya) in 1977, the Qur'an is the spiritual constitution. The text of the secular constitution of the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya does not exist. The absence of a constitution is compensated, on the one hand, by the active legislative activity of M. Gaddafi, who is the only real holder of the highest state power in the country, on the other hand, by a number of sources: the Constitution of the Libyan Arab Republic (1969) (hereinafter referred to as the Constitution), the Declaration on the establishment of the power of the people (1977) and the Green Book of M. Gaddafi.

The rights, freedoms and duties of Libyan citizens are partly devoted to the 1969 Constitution and the Green Book (third volume). In particular, the constitution guarantees the right to work, the equality of all citizens before the law, the right to asylum, the inviolability of home and private property, freedom of speech, the right to equal access to education and health care. The duties of citizens of Libya under the constitution are labor and military service. The Green Book, in addition to confirming all of the above rights, substantiates in detail the need for equal participation of all Libyan citizens, regardless of gender, nationality and race in public life. Despite the absence in Libya of mechanisms for realizing the socio-economic and cultural rights of citizens, this category of human rights is being implemented quite effectively by the Libyan government, which determines the high support of the regime by the population and the stability of the domestic political situation.

In Libya, a political regime has developed that has the features of a totalitarian and authoritarian regime. In traditional categories, the form of government can be defined as a republic, but the specificity and uniqueness of the political system allows us to call this kind of "republic" Jamahiriya, by name. None of the constitutional documents provides for the post of head of state. In terms of legal authority, the post of head of state corresponds to the Secretary General (Chairman) of the VNK (since November 18, 1992 - Mohammed al-Zanati). But the fullness of real power is concentrated in his hands by Muammar Gaddafi, who has not held any political posts since 1979, remaining the Supreme Commander-in-Chief and the “Brotherly Leader and Leader of the Revolution”. In fact, an alternative official system of state institutions was created in the country, personally subordinated to Gaddafi. The dictator’s residence is located in the city of Sirte, where his personal office, the General Staff (the only official institution), and the staff of advisers are located. Relatives of M. Gaddafi, in particular, two of his sons, also play a role in government administration. At the local level, control over political processes is carried out with the help of revolutionary committees appointed personally by Gaddafi. In fact, the functions of the judicial branch of power are not performed by the official judicial system, but by revolutionary courts, which are also formed by Gaddafi and his advisers. Article 1 of the Libyan Constitution of 1969 proclaims: “Libya is an Arab, democratic and free republic in which power belongs to the people. The Libyan people are part of the Arab nation. Its goal is a comprehensive Arab unity. The territory of Libya is part of Africa. ”

Sunni Islam from the Maliki School of Law is the dominant religion in Libya. In addition to the vast majority of Sunni Muslims, there are also small Christian communities consisting exclusively of foreigners. Coptic Orthodox Christianity, which is the Christian Church of Egypt, is the largest and most historical Christian denomination in Libya. There are more than 60,000 Egyptian Copts in Libya, as they contain more than 1% of the population alone. There are about 40,000 Catholics in Libya who are served by two bishops, one in Tripoli (serving the Italian community) and one in Benghazi (serving the Maltese community). There is also a small Anglican community consisting mainly of African immigrant workers in Tripoli; it is part of the Anglican diocese of Egypt.

Christianity is a minority religion in Libya. The largest Christian group in Libya is the entire Coptic Orthodox of Egyptian immigrant workers, with a population of over 60 thousand. (Egypt) The Coptic Church, as you know, has several historical roots in Libya long before the Arabs pushed west from Egypt to Libya. However, Catholics have a large number as well, with 40,000 members. There is one Anglican community in Tripoli, mainly from African immigrant workers in Tripoli, and which belongs to the Egyptian Anglican diocese. The Anglican bishop of Libya has seen him in Cairo, since most Christians in Libya come from Egypt, including the Copts. There are relatively peaceful relations between Christians and Muslims in Libya.

A 2015 study estimates about 1,500 Christians of Muslim origin living in the country. Jews have had a presence in Libya, at least since Hellenistic rule under Ptolemy Lagos in 323 BC in Cyrene. Once home to a very large and prosperous Jewish community, Libya was deserted due to anti-Jewish pogroms and immigration to Israel.

During World War II, the Jewish population of Libya was subjected to anti-Semitic laws in fascist Italy and deported by German troops. After the war, anti-Jewish violence forced many Jews to leave the country, usually for Israel. Wild Mayhem in Tripoli November 5, 1945, killed more than 140 Jews and hundreds more injured. Almost every synagogue was ransacked. In June 1948, when 38,000 Jews were recorded in Libya, the rebels killed another 12 Jews and destroyed 280 Jewish houses.

Thousands of Jews left the country after Libya gained independence and membership in the League of Arab States in 1951. After the Six Day War, 7,000 Jewish people were again subjected to pogroms, in which 18 were killed, and many were injured, igniting the almost total flight that remained less than 100 Jews in Libya.

Without the former ruler of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, the situation became much worse, since all Jewish property was confiscated, and all debts to Jews were canceled. In 1999, the synagogue in Tripoli was renovated, however, was not renewed. The last Jew living in Libya died in February 2002. This put an end to one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world that traced its beginnings in the 4th century BC.

With 0.3% of the population identifying itself as a Buddhist, Libya has the largest proportion of Buddhists in any North African country. Many Buddhists are immigrants from Asia. However, there are no Buddhist pagodas or temples in Libya. There are very few Indians, mostly from India to work. About 15-16 thousand Indians lived until 2011, but when the war broke out, many returned to India.


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