Stoletov Alexander Grigoryevich - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

Stoletov Alexander Grigoryevich

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Alexander Grigoryevich Stoletov was born in 1839 in Vladimir in merchant family. Rod Stoletovykh belonged to ancient merchants and at the tsar Ivan III was sent for disobedience.

The ten-year-old boy in 1849 Alexander Stoletov came to the Vladimir gymnasium. Here he showed big abilities to physics and mathematics, to languages: for years of training mastered German, French and English languages. These years Alexander was interested in history of the hometown and edge, he was fond of literary creativity.

Upon termination of a gymnasium in 1856 Alexander Stoletov entered the Moscow university on physical and mathematical faculty. According to the petition of N.A. Lyubimov heading department of physics he was left at faculty after the termination of the university for preparation for teaching activity as proved as one of the best students.

In 1860 Alexander Grigoryevich Stoletov quickly and successfully passed master examination and in 1862 acquired the right for a foreign komandarovka most of which part he carried out in Germany: from 1862 to 1865 improved the knowledge at Gustav Magnus in Berlin, at V. Weber in Goettingen and most of all at G. Kirchhoff in Heidelberg. For a while Stoletov leaves to Paris for acquaintance with Sorbonne. During this period in Germany works of many famous scientists create physics of an exact experiment with wide use of mathematics.

After return from a foreign business trip in 1866 Alexander Stoletov becomes the teacher of the Moscow university and gives a course of mathematical physics. Having returned home with a rich stock of theoretical and practical knowledge of physics and also with the studied system of its teaching at the universities of the West, he is deeply convinced of need of broader development and education of illiterate segments of the population of Russia. Working much over courses of lectures, Stoletov takes absence at the Moscow university of necessary base for experimental scientific work hard — physical laboratory.

In 1869 he successfully defends the master dissertation on a subject: "The general problem of an electrostatics and its reduction to the simplest case" then to him the rank of the associate professor was given. He begins to be engaged in preparation of the doctoral dissertation "A research about function of a namagnicheniye of soft iron" which idea ripened at it during the first business trip to Heidelberg. For performance of such work the good laboratory was required, and in 1871 Alexander Grigoryevich goes to Heidelberg in laboratory of the famous creator of the spectral analysis G. Kirchhoff who offered to the young colleague the services. In four months of work on creation of installation, developments of a technique and carrying out an experiment in November, 1871 results were reported to the Moscow mathematical society. Stoletov for the first time managed to receive dependence of magnetic susceptibility on tension of external magnetic field and also to remove a curve of magnetic permeability of a ferromagnetic. This curve was called later Alexander Stoletov's curve. This work represented great practical value as knowledge of properties of iron of rather temporary magnetization is necessary at the device and use of electromagnetic engines and magnetoelectric machines.

After protection of the doctoral dissertation in April, 1872 Alexander Grigoryevich Stoletov is approved as extraordinary professor of the Moscow university and will organize the first physical laboratory which trained many Russian physicists at the end of 1872. In this laboratory in 1888 — 1890 it executed a cycle of the works on a research of the phenomenon of external photoeffect which brought it international recognition. The phenomenon of photo-electric effect was revealed the German physicist Heinrich Gerts in 1887, but it did not manage to find conditions under which ultra-violet light has effect on electric discharge. It was not succeeded to make it and V. Galvaksa and A. Righi in 1888 at a research of effect of light on electric discharges of high voltage.

Alexander Grigoryevich Stoletov brought this phenomenon out of confusion of difficult relations of electric discharge, simply and purely reproduced the phenomenon of photo-electric current, having offered very simple method of studying. A result of its work was discovery of direct proportionality of force of photocurrent from intensity of incident light — the first law of external photoeffect. Experimental regularities and the quantum nature of this phenomenon were proved in 1905 by the German physicist Albert Einstein. Stoletov also thought up a simple design of the first photo cell, having laid the foundation for fruitful studying of the phenomenon and its application in practice. The name of Alexander Grigoryevich Stoletov by right costs among pioneers of photo-electric effect.

In 1890 Alexander Grigoryevich continued the researches of a gas pressure role in a photo cell. He established that at the maximum current the relation of electric field strength to pressure of gas is the constant which received the name of a constant of Stoletov.

It brought up the whole group of the physicists who occupied departments of the Russian universities. The number of his pupils quickly grew. When there was no physical laboratory of the university yet, they gathered on the apartment of the head on meetings of a physical circle which center N.N. Schiller, N.A. Umov, G.B. Fischer, Nikolay Egorovich Zhukovsky and P.A. Zilov were. This circle laid the foundation for the Moscow school of physicists. Alexander Grigoryevich treated the colleagues with exclusive attention, always sought to help them both business, and council. His pupils held close connection with the mentor, at various universities continued and developed methods of his work.

The recognized head of the Russian physicists Alexander Stoletov was an initiator of creation of physical institute at the Moscow university and reorganizations of the existing laboratory. Thanks to its huge efforts it was succeeded to reconstruct physical laboratory and to equip it at the level of the best scientific centers of Europe. But during lifetime of Stoletov the physical institute was not created.

In December, 1892 in the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences the vacancy of the ordinary academician appeared. Alexander Grigoryevich Stoletov as the scientist with versatile scientific interests, the worthy representative of the Russian science abroad, the vice president of the International congress of electricians, was unanimously recommended for this position by the commission as a part of Panfutiya Lvovich Chebyshyov, G.I. Vild, F.A. Bredikhin, F.F. Beylstein and N.N. Beketov. However the president of the Russian imperial academy, the grand duke Konstantin rejected Stoletov's candidacy. Instead of him the young physicist, the prince Boris Borisovich Golitsyn whose thesis shortly before it Alexander Stoletov subjected to severe criticism was nominated. Reactionary adjusted group headed by the rector of the Moscow university turned a scientific dispute between professor Stoletov and the prince Golitsyn into punishment over the scientist. To Alexander Grigoryevich, along with such advanced scientists as Dmitry Mendeleyev, Ivan Sechenov and Kliment Timiryazev, there was no place in Academy.

This story considerably affected his health. The letter of the trustee of the educational district received during summer holiday in 1893 which Stoletova informed that in connection with the expiration of 30-year service life its place appears vacant was new blow for it.

All advanced public was deeply revolted that election of the scientist in members of Academy did not take place. Summing up the results of the IX congress of the Russian scientists and doctors which took place in Moscow at the end of 1893 — the beginning of 1894, K.A. Timiryazev highly appreciated activity Alexander Grigoryevich Stoletova and his sections of physics. The words of gratitude rolled in standing ovation which participants of a congress arranged to the scientist.

On December 21, 1895 Alexander Grigoryevich the last time gave a lecture. A month later he transferred heavy erysipelatous inflammation, and in May, 1896 at the age of 57 years died of pneumonia

References:

1. Hramov Yu. A. Stoletov Alexander Grigoryevich / / Physicists: The biographic reference book / Under the editorship of A.I. Akhiyezer. - Prod. the 2nd, ispr. and dopoln. - M.: Science, 1983. - Page 255. - 400 pages - 200 000 copies (in the lane)

2. Lazarev P. P. And. G. Stoletov, N.A. of conditions, P.N. Lebedev, B.B. Golitsyn. - Leningrad: Chemical - tekhn. prod., 1927.

3. Stoletov, Alexander Grigoryevich / / Brockhaus and Efron's Encyclopaedic dictionary: in 86 t. (82 t. and 4 preschool educational institutions.). - SPb., 1890 1907.

4. Imperial Moscow university: 1755 1917: encyclopedic dictionary / A.Yu. Andreyev, D.A. Tsygankov. - M.: Russian political encyclopedia (ROSSPEN), 2010. - Page 690 692. - 894 pages - 2 000 copies - ISBN 978 5 8243 1429 8.

5. A.G. Stoletov (obituary) / / "Messenger of skilled physics and elementary mathematics". - 1896. - Issue 234, the XX semester. - No 6. - Page 141 142.

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