Gauss Karl Friedrich - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

Gauss Karl Friedrich

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Gauss Karl Friedrich (1777 - 1855) is a German mathematician, astronomer and physicist.

Dedicated to Research devoted to many sections of physics.

In 1832 he created the absolute system of measures (GHS), introducing three basic units: the unit of measurement of time - 1 s, the unit of length - 1 mm, the unit of mass - 1 mg.

In 1833, together with V. Weber, he built the first electromagnetic telegraph in Germany.

As early as 1845, thoughts about the finite velocity of propagation of electromagnetic interactions.

Studied terrestrial magnetism, invented in 1837 a unipolar magnetometer, in 1838 - bifilar.

In 1829, he formulated the principle of least coercion (the Gauss principle).

One of the first to express in 1818 the assumption about the possibility of the existence of non-Euclidean geometry.

Gauss Karl Friedrich (30.4.1777-23. 2. 1855) - Johann Friedrich Karl Gauss was born on April 30, 1777. Barely three years old, he already knew how to count and perform elementary calculations. One day, when calculating his father, who was a plumbing master, his three-year-old son noticed a calculation error. The calculation was checked, and the number indicated by the boy was correct. In 1784 Carl went to school. The teacher was very interested in little Gauss and in 1786. he received a special arithmetic text from Hamburg. Karl left his parental home in 1788 when he entered the school of the next grade. Gauss did not lose time in the new school for nothing: he had learned Latin well, which was necessary for his further studies and career. In 1791 Gauss, as a gifted young citizen, was introduced to the sovereign. Apparently, the young man made an impression on the duke: for a start, he granted Gauss a scholarship of 10 thalers a year. In 1792 -1795 Gauss was a student of the new Karl College. It was a school of the elect. He was accepted there for his academic excellence. During his studies, Gauss studied the works of Newton, "Algebra" and "Analysis" of Euler, the work of Lagrange. First spectacular success came to Gauss, when he was not yet nineteen - proof that you can build a correct 17 - gon with compass and ruler.

in childhood, according to legend, a school math teacher, in order to occupy children for a long time, offered them to count the sum of numbers from 1 to 100. Young Gauss noticed that pairwise sums from opposite ends are the same: 1 + 100 = 101, 2 + 99 = 101, etc., and instantly received the result 50 × 101 = 5050. From 1795 to 1798 Gauss studied at the University of Gottingen, where on March 30, 1796 he proved the possibility of constructing a regular seventeen-square with a compass.

A regular seventeen-square is a geometric figure belonging to the group of regular polygons. It has seventeen sides and seventeen angles, all its angles and sides are equal to each other, all vertices lie on the same circle


The astronomical works of Gauss (1800-1820) are very significant. He calculated the orbit of the small planet of Ceres, was engaged in perturbation theory, wrote the book The Theory of the Motion of Celestial Bodies (1809), which contain the provisions that still underlie the calculation of the planetary orbits. In drawing up a detailed map of the Kingdom of Hanover (approximately 1820-1830), Gauss actually created a higher geodesy, the foundations of which he outlined in his essay "Studies on Higher Geodesy Subjects" (1842-1847). Geodetic surveys required improvements in optical signaling. To this end, Gauss invented a special device - heliotrope. The study of the shape of the earth's surface required a general geometric method for the study of surfaces. The ideas put forward by Gauss in this area are set forth in the essay "General Studies on Curved Surfaces" (1828). Gauss’s studies in theoretical physics (1830–1840) were the result of close communication and collaboration with V. Weber. Together with V. Weber, Gauss created an absolute system of electromagnetic units (1832) and built (1833) Germany’s first electromagnetic telegraph. Gauss created a general theory of magnetism, laid the foundations of the theory of potential.

The Gauss method (or the method of successive elimination of unknowns) is applicable for solving systems of linear equations in which the number unknowns can be either equal to the number of equations, or different from it.

The system m of linear equations with n unknowns has the form: A system of the form (5) is called triangular.

The process of bringing the system (1) to a triangular view (5) (steps 1 and 2) is called the direct course of the Gauss method.

Finding unknowns from a triangular system is called the backward Gauss method.

For this, the found value x3 is substituted into the second equation of the system (5) and x2 is found. Then x2 and x3 are substituted into the first equation and find x1.


Gauss Gun - one of the varieties of the electromagnetic mass accelerator. Named after the German scientist Karl Gauss, who laid the foundations of the mathematical theory of electromagnetism. It should be borne in mind that this method of mass acceleration is mainly used in amateur installations, since this method is not effective enough for practical implementation. By its principle of operation (creation of a traveling magnetic field) is similar to a device known as a linear motor.

Gauss series - a widely used expression for the scalar magnetic potential of the Earth’s magnetic field. Written in geocentric spherical coordinates r, θ, λ, it is used as the international standard of the normal geomagnetic field: If a straight line that does not pass through the vertices of triangle ABC intersects its sides BC, CA, AB, respectively, at points A1, B1, C1, then the midpoints of segments AA1, BB1, CC1 are collinear.

In 1839, the 62-year-old Gauss mastered the Russian language and, in letters to the Petersburg Academy, asked him to send him Russian magazines and books, in particular Pushkin’s Captain's Daughter. It is believed that this is due to the work of Lobachevsky. In 1842, on the recommendation of Gauss, Lobachevsky was elected a foreign corresponding member of the Royal Göttingen Society.

Gauss died on February 23, 1855 in GottingenГаусс,_Карл_Фридрих

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