Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.

Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF

Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF

Augustus Ada king , Countess of Lovelace, better known as Ada Lovelace (10 December 1815, London, United Kingdom — 27 November 1852, London) was an English mathematician. Primarily known for creating descriptions of computing machines, the draft of which was developed by Charles Babbage. Made the world's first program (for this machine). Introduced in use terms "cycle" and "labor cell", is considered the first programmer in history Ada Lovelace in youth.jpg

After meeting Babbage and his invention, Ada took mathematics seriously. She met him at the age of 17 and for many years, until his own death was in constant correspondence. Ada's main and only scientific paper also grew out of Babbage's work. She became close to Mary Somerville, a Scottish scientist, translator of Laplace and popularizer of science. Under her leadership, Ada continued her studies in mathematics, and then began to teach herself to the daughters of her mother's friends.

Later, after getting married and having three children, Ada continued her scientific work. Her new teacher was the famous Scottish logician and mathematician August de Morgan. Under de Morgan Ada was already studying mathematical analysis, and the teacher rated Her abilities very highly. At the same time Ada continued to teach herself and did not stop correspondence with Babbage.

Babbage started to develop his differential the car at the end of 1810 years. The idea was to create a mechanical way to do complex mathematical calculations. Logarithmic and trigonometric tables, widely used in navigation and astronomy, were calculated manually at that time.

Babbage realized that part of the computing process could replace the mechanics. In 1822, he presented the idea of his difference machine to the British government and received funding for it. As a result, Babbage tried to build a working computer for more than 20 years, but he could not do it. The government was tired of waiting for the result and stopped funding. While on paper has been a proliferation of different designs and variations – Babbage, for example, developed his idea for the analytical machine, which could perform the specified sequence of operations, not just addition and subtraction. In fact, Babbage's analytical engine was already the prototype of the modern computer.

For the purpose of historical and scientific experiment, the full version of the difference machine of Babbage was built in 1991. And exactly according to the drawings of the scientist, which made only one correction. The machine worked perfectly.

Attitude to Bobbijo in England was restrained. The main idea his life was understood wasn that Ada. However, in 1840 the analytical engine of the English scientist became interested in Turin.

At the invitation of the Italian government, Babbage gave a detailed account of his invention, and engineer Luigi Menabrea carefully wrote it down and later published it as an article in French.

After learning about this, Ada took up the translation of the article into English, because Babbage's own description of the analytical engine and did not give. Ada not only made the translation, but also commented on it in detail. These comments significantly complemented the article, giving it a new quality.

In the process, Ada kept constant correspondence and consulted with Babbage. Her description of the analytical engine was much clearer and more detailed than the original text of Menabrea's paper. But the main thing-in the comments she gave illustrative examples of the use of the analytical machine in practice.

One such example was the calculation of Bernoulli numbers. Ada described in detail, step by step, the algorithm of calculation on Babbage's analytical engine. At the same time, it has already operated in practice such fundamental concepts of programming as "cycle" and "cell".

In fact, she created the first program designed to be executed by the machine. Experts note that such an algorithm for calculating Bernoulli numbers is used up to the present day. That is, the program created by Ada was ahead of its time by more than a hundred years.

Hence the somewhat strange, at first glance, definition - "the first programmer in history." But da-Ada Lovelace wrote the first computer program, having only the idea of Babbage's analytical engine (in fact, the first model of a universal computer) in her head, and therefore she is a real programmer. And she was the first. It is no coincidence that the us Department of defense in 1980 named its programming language after Ada.

The scale of the discovery of Babbage and Ada Lovelace became clear only in the XX century, when mankind has made significant progress in the field of computer technology and noticed that it was already.

Having given a clear description of Babbage's analytical engine, Ada went further and came close to the idea of universal computing, which is the basis of absolutely all computer technologies of our time.

Well-known scientist Stephen Wolfram notes that if Babbage just wanted to build an effective machine for creating mathematical tables, then Ada introduced a large-scale abstract vision into his ideas. It was she who described the principles of the analytical engine and gave concrete examples of the implementation of these principles.

Subsequently, the idea of universal computing was revived in the works of Alan Turing in 1936, thanks to which a new information revolution was launched.

References

Лори Уоллмарк « Ада Байрон Лавлейс - первый программист»

Джесси Рассел «Лавлейс, Ада»

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Лавлейс,_Ада

Просмотров работы: 6