Великий британский физик Майкл Фарадей - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

Великий британский физик Майкл Фарадей

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Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was a famous British scientist who became famous in the field of experimental physics. He is known for his discovery of electromagnetic induction, which later formed the basis of industrial production of electricity. Faraday was a member of numerous scientific organizations, including the Royal society of London and the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. He is considered to be the largest experimental scientist in the history of science.

Michael Faraday was born on September 22, 1791 in a working-class family. His father and older brother were engaged in blacksmithing. They lived very modestly in one of the poor quarters of the British capital. Chronic poverty has not allowed the boy to get a full education and 13 years instead of school, he works as a peddler of Newspapers, and then settles in a bookshop. The hard life only increased his thirst for knowledge, and young Michael enthusiastically read any book that came to his hands.

After returning home, Michael worked with Davy for a while, and then went into independent research. By that time he had become a full-fledged scientist who published about 40 works in the field of chemistry. In the course of the experiments he was able to liquefy chlorine, as well as to obtain benzene and ammonia. Faraday discovered the hypnotic effect of ether vapor. At the same time, he conducts an experiment on smelting steel with the addition of Nickel, as a result of which the properties of stainless steel were discovered.

Relationship with Davy began to deteriorate and although both eyes were saying to each other compliments, and in General, Humphrey called his best achievement, "the discovery of Faraday", alienation is growing. In 1824, Michael was elected a fellow of the Royal society, but it was Davy who spoke out against it.

Studying the relationship of different types of energy, Faraday decided to turn magnetism into electricity. And this task he performed with brilliance. Michael tried to use the properties of the electromagnet in the opposite direction to produce an electric current using a magnet. In August 1831, the scientist was able to detect the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, which helped him to create the first electric generator on the planet. Modern devices for domestic and industrial use have become more complicated by several orders of magnitude, but they continue to work on the basis of the principles laid down by the brilliant English physicist. This is how locomotives function and how generators in power plants generate energy.

In support of the open law of electromagnetic induction, the scientist created a visual device for the transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy, called the Faraday disk. Due to a number of features, it has not been widely used, but played an important role in further scientific research.

Before Faraday, mankind was aware of two manifestations of electric energy – static electricity and galvanic current. Both because of their features could not find a wide practical application, which can not be said about induction electricity. It has a significant tension, acts constantly and manifests itself in large quantities.

According to the first law of electrolysis, the amount of electrochemical action is determined by the amount of electricity in the circuit. The second law States that the amount of electricity is inversely proportional to the atomic weight of the substance. This means that the decomposition of one molecule requires the same amount of electric current. The scientist made significant adjustments to the conceptual apparatus of electrochemical phenomena – instead of the poles of the galvanic pair, a new term electrode was approved. The substance of the decomposing current, was named the electrolyte, and the process of electrolysis.

Back in 1820, Faraday was interested in the experience of Hans Oersted: the movement of the electric current circuit caused the movement of the magnetic needle. Electric current was the cause of magnetism. Faraday suggested that, accordingly, magnetism may be the cause of the electric current. The first mention of the theory appeared in the scientist's diary in 1822. Ten years of experiments were spent on solving the mystery of electromagnetic induction.

The victory came on August 29, 1831. The device, which allowed Faraday to make a brilliant discovery, consisted of an iron ring and a set of turns of copper wire wound on its two halves. In the chain of one half of the ring, closed by wire, there was a magnetic needle. The second winding was connected to the battery. When the current was turned on, the magnetic needle oscillated in one direction, and when it was turned off — in the other. Faraday concluded that the magnet is able to convert magnetism into electrical energy.

The phenomenon of" occurrence of electric current in a closed circuit when the magnetic flux passing through it " was called electromagnetic induction. Detection of electromagnetic induction opened the way to the creation of a current source — an electric generator.

The discovery marked the beginning of a new fruitful round of experiments scientist who gave the world "Experimental research on electricity." Faraday experimentally proved the unified nature of the occurrence of electric energy, independent of the method by which the electric current is caused.

In 1832, the physicist was awarded the Copley medal.

Faraday was the author of the first transformer. He owns the concept of"dielectric constant". In 1836, through a series of experiments, he proved that the current charge affects only the conductor shell, leaving the objects inside it untouched. In applied science, a device made on the principle of this phenomenon is called a "Faraday cell".

Michael Faraday was sick. In the brief moments when the disease receded, he worked. In 1862 he hypothesized the motion of spectral lines in a magnetic field. Peter Zeeman was able to confirm the theory in 1897, for which he received the "Nobel prize"in 1902. Faraday Zeeman called the author of the idea.

Michael Faraday died at his Desk on 25 August 1867 at the age of 75. He was buried next to his wife at Highgate cemetery in London. The scientist asked before his death for a modest funeral, so only relatives came. The name of the scientist and years of life are carved on the tombstone.


1 https://ru.wikipedia.org

2 https://24smi.org

3 ttps://elektroznatok.ru

4 http://elementy.ru

5 http://biografix.ru

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