Soil compaction.Construction technologies of the international company Menard. - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

Soil compaction.Construction technologies of the international company Menard.

Евдокимов А.А. 1
1ФГБОУВОКостромскаяГСХА
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The Menard Group develops foundation solutions based on ground improvement and reinforcement technologies. Its treatments eliminate the need for the deep foundations traditionally used to support surface structures.[1].

History

1954 INVENTION OF THE PRESSUREMETER

In 1954, Louis Ménard, a student at the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées in Paris, set himself the goal of devising a single test to measure the ultimate pressure of the soil and its deformation modulus in order to calculate its bearing capacity and settlement. He developed and filed a patent for the device that was to revolutionise geotechnical work: the pressuremeter. [2]

1957 CREATION OF THE COMPANY "LES PRESSIOMÈTRES MENARD"

In 1957, Louis Menard simultaneously worked on the marketing of his invention, setting up a company called "Les pressiomètres Menard" (Menard pressuremeters). Success was quick to follow and he soon had four licensees using his devices. He also convinced the French Laboratoire Central des PontsetChaussées (Central Civil Engineering Laboratory) to use his equipment. [2]

1962 LAUNCH OF THE "SOLS-SOILS" JOURNAL & REORGANISATION OF THE COMPANY

Ever anxious to share his knowledge of the use of the pressuremeter, Louis Ménard launched the bilingual journal "Sols-Soils", with Michel Gambin as editor in chief. This highly technical quarterly publication was initially distributed within the network of licensees but was soon put on general sale. 

In the same year, Louis Ménard split the company in two, with "Les techniques Louis Ménard" (Louis Ménard tehcnologies) on the one hand and "Les études pressiométriques Louis Ménard" (Louis Ménard pressure measuring) on the other. This reorganisation gave him the opportunity to develop new products and really establish himself as an entrepreneur, always setting himself apart from his competitors by including structural design and ground improvement follow-up in his offers. [2]

1975 DEVELOPMENT OF DYNAMIC REPLACEMENT FOR CLAYEY SOILS

If the ground cannot be dynamically compacted directly due to high fines content within the soil, a fill material must be added. The incorporation ratio is generally between 10 and 15%, and is higher than that of stone columns.

The technique can be carried out with or without pre-excavation. Pounding and filling of the reinforcement pilars alternates accordingly during execution. The material incorporated is either placed over the whole treatment surface prior to pounding and pushed into the pilars during the project, or stored at a regular intervals around the worksite and directly incorporated in the pilars.

The technique is particularly well suited to areas under high load (high backfill, storage tanks, etc.) and also allows for rapid drainage of the ground.[3]

1977 FIRST MAJOR CONTRACT OUTSIDE FRANCE

STABILISATION OF THE SECOND RUNWAY OF THE CHANGI AIRPORT, SINGAPORE AND FIRST 43 M DEEP VERTICAL DRAIN

For the construction on the second runway of Changi airport, 7 m of hydraulic fill were placed over varying layers of both old and recent marine clays. Settlement of these clays could amount to several metres over a ten year period. The combination of dynamic compaction and vertical drains up to a depth of 43 m (a first at the time) convinced the local authorities (PSA – port of Singapore Authority) of the effectiveness of Menard techniques.[4]

1978 DEEPEST DYNAMIC COMPACTION APPLICATION (27 M, 4,000 TM ENERGY)

NICE AIRPORT, FRANCE

The challenge was to compact 20,000,000 m³ of land reclamation while maintaining air traffic. The 'giga-machine' was designed and custom-built for this job. The machine itself sets a record with 168 wheels and 7 km of hydraulic hoses. The 200 ton pounder was assembled with the aid of 600 kg nut screws tightened by a bulldozer. After 3 drops, the pounder made a 70 m³ crater, needing 7 truckloads to fill it.[5]

1987 marked a further turning-point in the history of the company, becoming independent once more, when it was sold by its shareholder and taken over by two company managers, Jean-Marie Cognon and Pierre-Marie Bic. The nama "Menard Soltraitement" was adopted. [2]

1989 FULL SCALE 300 T LOAD TEST ON DYNAMIC REPLACEMENT PILLARS

ARIANE 5 SPACESHIP LAUNCH PAD IN KOUROU, FRENCH GUYANA

For the foundations of one of the most heavily loaded railways in the world (2,000 tons of the space rocket), Menard developed an alternate solution combining dynamic replacement and vertical drains as an alternative to excavation and replacement of the mangrove, a difficult task, given Guyana’s weather conditions. A 300 t full-scale load test was carried out confirming the results of 3D finite element calculations. The final measurements showed less than 2.5 cm of settlement.[6]

1994 DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROLLED MODULUS COLUMNS

Menard developed Controlled Modulus Columns in the 1990s to overcome problems of lateral confinement in highly compressible and organic soils. They are now used in all types of soil (cohesive or granular) up to depths of 30 metres or more.

These inclusions are installed with or without soil displacement by low-pressure injection (generally up to 2 bars) of a grout or concrete through the hollow core of the drilling tool. These columns generally have a diameter of between 250 and 500 mm.

The main advantages of Controlled Modulus Columns are rapid execution and significant reduction of settlement compared to untreated soil.[7]

1998 LARGEST INDUCED SETTLEMENT

JANGYOO SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, SOUTH KOREA

One of the most impressive Menard Vacuum™ work site was in South Korea in the Pusan area. The technique was used to consolidate the ground under a sewage treatment plant located in a vast alluvial plain with 20 m to 43 m of compressible soft deposits (clay and silt). The maximum measured settlement reached 6 m. The project also involved the construction of a cut-off soil-bentonite wall and dynamic compaction.[8]

2001 GROUND IMPROVEMENT OF 1,600,000 M² OF RECLAIMED PLATFORM

AIRBUS A380 ASSEMBLY FACTORY IN HAMBURG, GERMANY

In Hamburg, Menard signed one of its most important ground improvement contracts for the consolidation of the ‘quasi-liquid’ muck under the 1,200,000 m² platform for the A380 assembly factory. Menard was in charge of the planning of the whole works and designing and executing the ground improvement using a combination of vertical drains and Menard Vacuum™ consolidation. 30 million lm of drains were installed and 11 million m³ of sandy fill were placed within the very stringent EADS-imposed schedule.[9]

2006 DEEPEST BARRIER WALL CONSTRUCTED

MAYFIELD DECONTAMINATION PROJECT, AUSTRALIA

At the site of the former steelworks in Newcastle (New South Wales), Menard constructed a slurry wall, the deepest in the world, designed to prevent leaching of contaminants into the Hunter River. The up-gradient cut-off wall, 1.5 km long and 28 m to 49 m deep, was constructed to isolate the contaminated zone from the groundwater. The system is completed by constructing a low permeability horizontal cap effectively preventing ingress of surface water. As a result, the hydraulic gradient between the river and the contaminated zone is progressively exhausted with the amount of contaminants leaching into the river falling rapidly below acceptable levels.[10]

2008 LARGEST VIBROCOMPACTION PROJECT

PALM JUMEIRAH AND PALM JEBEL ALI, DUBAI (UAE)

The Palm Jumeirah and Jebel Ali are iconic developments of Dubai consisting in the reclamation and development of artificial islands near the shores of Dubai.

Vibrocompaction Ltd, a Menard affiliated company, undertook the vibrocompaction of part of the Pal Jumeirah and the entire Palm Jebel Ali for a volume in excess of 180,000,000 m³ in order to guarantee post construction settlements, improve bearing capacity and mitigate the risk of liquefaction.

This feat has contributed to the UAE city’s economic and coastal development.[11]

2009-2010 12,000,000 M² OF DYNAMIC COMPACTION

KUWAIT NEW CITIES

The state of Kuwait through the Public Authorities of Housing and Welfare  developed new districts in the suburbs of Kuwait city to provide its citizens with housing and new facilities. Menard undertook the ground improvement works of the whole area of Jaaber Al Ahmed and Northwest Suleibikhat cities for a total area of approximately 12,000,000 m². The dynamic compaction and dynamic replacement methods were used as an alternative to a full replacement of the natural soil, therefore gaining 12 months on the initial project planning.

2010-2012 GROUND IMPROVEMENT UNDER AN IMPORTANT ROAD PROJECT

SOUTH RING ROAD IN GDAŃSK, POLAND

The Ring Express road joins the existing 3-city Bypass (Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia) and the Highway A1 (Gdańsk – Katowice) in the North of Poland.

This area had extremely bad soils conditions for road construction. There was very organic soil (peat and sludge) with high water content index. The thickness of weak deposits varied from 6 to 25 m with average depth of 12 m.

Two ground improvement methods were proposed: Controlled Modulus Columns and pre-consolidation treatments using vertical drain with surcharge. This solution fulfilled the technical and economical requirement of the investor.[12]

2011 DEEPEST VIBROFLOTATION FOR THE LARGEST ONSHORE WINDMILL

LAUTSITZ RING, GERMANY

The largest onshore windmill with 7.5 MW is installed on top of an old brown coal dump area. A combination of vibrocompaction up to 68 m deep and additional stone columns 20 m deep were installed night and days.

This is a new record of depth and improvement quality in line with the stringent requirements of less than 4 cm differential settlement with up to 68 m of loose material above the natural soil.

2011 THE CRANEY ISLAND EASTWARD EXPANSION

CRANEY ISLAND TERMINAL, USA

The Virginia Port Authority and US Army Corps of Engineers partnered to construct the Craney Island Eastward expansion. The 500 acre land development project will extend the life of the island as a dredged material management area and houses a state-of-the-art marine terminal.

2012 LARGEST GROUND IMPROVEMENT PROJECT IN FRANCE

LNG TERMINAL IN DUNKIRK

At the end of 2015, an LNG terminal with an annual regasification capacity of 13 billion cu. metres opened in the Port of Dunkirk. In early 2012, the consortium, that included Menard, was awarded the port development works. The project consisted in building the dock to receive the tankers, filling and consolidating the platform on which the port infrastructure was to be built, and building the related external breakwaters. Menard reinforced the soils below the underwater batters to a depth of 30 m.

The purpose of this operation was to stabilize the sand and silt to prevent them from liquefying in an earthquake and ensure platform would be available for emptying the storage tanks several months after a seismic event.

To carry out the work, Menard used onshore and offshore treatment methods. The acceptance of the stone columns required geophysical testing to determine the shear modulus under small strain of the treated materials as well as the stone used for the columns. 120,000 tonnes of stone were used to build 100,000 linear metres of stone columns.

2014 WORLD DEPTH RECORD FOR CONTROLLED MODULUS COLUMNS

OIL TANKS IN RACELAND, LOUISIANA-USA

In the United States, very soft clay deposits are frequently found along the Gulf coast. This raises the cost of foundations for oil storage projects in the region, which is ideally located between Texas and the oil-rich Gulf of Mexico. Menard USA was asked to propose a ground reinforcement solution able to support four 43-metre diameter tanks with a height of more than 12 metres. Preliminary ground investigations showed a clay deposit of nearly 60-metre thickness, with the clay becoming harder at a depth of 40 metres.

The use of 40-metre Controlled Modulus Columns  was therefore recommended. Because none of the drilling rigs in the company’s fleet could reach this depth, the US subsidiary of Menard called on Bermingham, a subsidiary of Soletanche Bachy in Canada specialising in the production of drilling and pile driving equipment. In less than eight weeks, two drilling rigs able to reach 50 metre depths were designed and built. On the strength of this engagement and the technical appeal of the solution, Menard was awarded the contract to improve the foundation soil. The technological feat paves the way for Menard to win further Controlled Modulus Columns contracts in the United States.

2016 INTEGRATION OF REME

Subsidiary of Menard, specialising in the activity, REMEA has been developing state-of-the-art expertise in three areas of excellence for the past 10 years

REMEA deploys a team of multidisciplinary engineers able to analyse the problematics and to devise, test and implement the most suitable treatment strategies. Treatments can include a chemical, biological or physical actions to break down, extract or neutralise the pollutant.

This is the optimum solution in terms of cost and environmental impact since pollution is treated on the spot and there is no transfer of materials. Along with additional measures, if necessary, it also keeps the population and activities around the sites without destabilizing neighbouring buildings or underground networks. When adopted, in-situ treatment are prefered (without excavation).

Chlorinated solvents, which penetrate deep into groundwater down to the more impermeable layers, where they concentrate, are more difficult to remediate. To remove them, Sol Environment has developed techniques tailored to the specific type of soil. The method can use soil mixing or injection via sleeve tubes of reagents such as iron particles to neutralise the solvents by oxidation-reduction.[13]

MENARD TECHNIQUES

Vertical drains

Prefabricated drains are made up of a plastic core surrounded by a geotextile that acts as a filter to prevent clogging. There are various types of prefabricated drains (round and flat) and various sizes. Networks of drains are designed according to the type of ground and the degree of consolidation targeted.

Depending on the ground, static, dynamic or static-dynamic installation methods are employed. The machines used can conventionally install drains up to depths of about 50 metres. The mandrel is attached to a sliding mast, which is turn attached to the arm of an excavator or a crane.

Cohesive soils (clayey soils) are generally characterised by having a low permeability. Consolidation of a soil relies on the ability to evacuate water out of the soil matrix. By installing a network of drains and the placement of preloading or surcharge programme of the site, induces or forces settlement within a limited period of time. This allows the control of residual settlements during the life time of the structure to within acceptable limits.[14]

MenardVacuum

Menard Vacuum™ is used to accelerate consolidation of cohesive, highly compressible soils. The process consists in creating a negative pressure under an airtight membrane laid over the soil, which generates atmospheric pressure on the soil, equivalent to the pressure exerted by a 4 metre embankment.

It generally takes between 1 and 3 months between start of the project and the creation of the Menard VacuumTM negative pressure (the time needed to install the vertical drains, horizontal drains, instrumentation, airtight membrane, trench around the site).[15]

Compaction Grouting

It is a the use of a mortar or concrete to laterally compact soils without vibration.

The treatment involves the injection of a mortar, generally with high viscosity, under pressure and at controlled flow rate, which displaces the soil around the drilling tool and subsequently compacts it. Compaction ratios for this technique can be quite high and are generally in the range of 6-10%.

Horizontal compaction of the ground makes it possible to treat soils against liquefaction. Continuous columns are not needed however the method will normally ensure continuity of the columns formed as this can also help reinforce the soil. The final product can therefore be both reinforcement and increase in density of the soil.[16]

Dynamic Compaction

Dynamic compaction is a technique that is used to increase the density of soils at considerable depths by creating high-energy shock waves. Menard devised and developed the technique in the 1960s.

Dynamic compaction requires the use of pounders weighing between 12 to 40 tons released in free fall from a height of 10 to 40 meters. The arrangement of the impact points and the other parameters of the treatment -energies, phasing, rest periods- depend on the characteristics of the soil to be treated and on the results obtained from the initial trial zone.

This ground treatment process is used for the foundations of buildings, or to stabilise large areas of embankment work or loose soil.[17]

Phase 1-ramming with maximum impact energy on a given grid.

Phase 2-ramming with lower impact energy on the grid between the primary grid.

Phase 3-Ironing. Performed after the end of the ramming area.

Vibro Compaction

Loose soil or fill can be compacted at depth through insertion of vibrating probes together with a large volume of water to generate localised liquefaction of the soil. This enables the particles to rearrange themselves in a denser formation and thus increases the overall density of the soil.

The use of a vibrating probe makes it possible to reach large depths compared to compaction carried out at the surface (dynamic, rapid impact). Vibrocompaction relies on overburden pressure of soils above the treatment level (included collapse) therefore it is not very effective in the top two metres of soil generally due to a lack of vertical confinement.

This technique is usually employed to stabilise or treat hydraulic fill, for example to prevent liquefaction or limit thrust behind quay walls.[18]

Rapid Impact Compaction

Rapid impact compaction is a high-frequency controlled energy soil compaction technique used to densify surface layers of soils (to a depth of 5 to 7 metres in most cases) with minimum impact on the immediate worksite environment.

A compaction plate is placed on the ground to be treated and a hydraulic hammer, generally weighing less than 10 to 15 tonnes, is fitted to an excavator and used to transmit compaction energy to the soil via repeated impact.

Rapid impact Compaction is widely used to densify loose granular soils (sand or gravel) as well as loam fill and industrial brownfield sites.[19]

Список литературы:

Whoweare [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/who-we-are/ (дата обращения: 01.03.2019).

 History [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/history/ (дата обращения: 09.03.2019).

Dynamicreplacement[Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/techniques/dynamic-replacement/(дата обращения: 09.03.2019).

Ground improvement under the second runway of Changi airport [Электронныйресурс]. – Режимдоступа:https://www.menard-group.com/en/focus/changi-airport-singapore/ (датаобращения: 09.03.2019).

The 'giga-machine' was designed and custom-built for this site [Электронныйресурс]. – Режимдоступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/focus/nice-airport-france/(датаобращения: 09.03.2019).

Spaceship Ariane 5 Launch Pad in Kourou, French [Электронныйресурс]. – Режимдоступа:https://www.menard-group.com/en/focus/spaceship-ariane-5-launch-pad-in-kourou-french-guyana/(датаобращения: 09.03.2019).

Controlled Modulus Columns [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/techniques/controlled-modulus-columns/(дата обращения: 09.03.2019).

Consolidate the ground under a sewage treatment plant[Электронныйресурс]. – Режимдоступа:https://www.menard-group.com/en/focus/jangyoo-sewage-treatment-plant-south-korea/(датаобращения: 09.03.2019).

Airbus Factory in Hamburg, Germany [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/focus/airbus-factory-in-hamburg-germany/(дата обращения: 09.03.2019).

Construction of the deepest slurry wall in the world [Электронныйресурс]. – Режимдоступа:https://www.menard-group.com/en/focus/decontamination-in-mayfield-australia/(датаобращения: 09.03.2019).

Supporting economic development in Dubai [Электронныйресурс]. – Режимдоступа:https://www.menard-group.com/en/focus/palm-jumeirah-and-jebel-ali-dubai-uae/(датаобращения: 09.03.2019).

Road construction on an organic soil [Электронныйресурс]. – Режимдоступа:https://www.menard-group.com/en/focus/south-ring-road-of-gdansk-poland/(датаобращения: 09.03.2019).

Soil remediation[Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/techniques/soil-remediation/(дата обращения: 09.03.2019).

Verticaldrains [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/techniques/vertical-drains/ (дата обращения: 09.03.2019).

Menard Vacuum [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/techniques/menard-vacuum/ (дата обращения: 09.03.2019).

CompactionGrouting [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/techniques/compaction-grouting/ (дата обращения: 09.03.2019).

DynamicCompaction [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/techniques/dynamic-compaction/ (дата обращения: 09.03.2019).

VibroCompaction [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/techniques/vibrocompaction/ (дата обращения: 09.03.2019).

RapidImpactCompaction [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: https://www.menard-group.com/en/techniques/818-2/ (дата обращения: 09.03.2019).

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