Nikola Tesla - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

Nikola Tesla

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Nikola Tesla was born July 10, 1856, Smilyan, Austrian Empire, now in Croatia-inventor in the field of electrical and radio engineering of Serbian origin, engineer, physicist. He was born in The Austrian Empire, grew up in Austria-Hungary, in the following years, mainly worked in France and the United States. In 1891 he received U.S. citizenship.

It is widely known for its contribution to the creation of devices operating on alternating current, multiphase systems, synchronous generator and induction motor, which allowed to make the so-called second stage of the industrial revolution.

Development Of Nikola Tesla

Back in may 1888 Tesla received seven U.S. patents for AC systems and brushless motors . The main thing in them was an innovative proposal to build the entire chain of generation, transmission, distribution and use of electricity as a multi-phase AC system, including a generator, a transmission line and an AC motor, called Tesla "induction".

The AC motor was assembled from a synchronous generator excited by permanent magnets and with two mutually perpendicular phases of the rotor winding connected through contact rings and a transmission line with a two-phase induction motor with a stator winding and a rotor in the form of a steel cylinder with cut segments . The action of such an engine, now called asynchronous, was explained by the formation of a "moving", and in modern terminology, a rotating magnetic field. For the long-range transmission line, the inclusion of two-phase step-up and step-down transformers was proposed.

Continuing his research, he soon realized other ideas: a two-phase and three-phase asynchronous motor with a winding in the star, a three-phase generator with neutral and without, three and four-wire power lines, Total, Tesla had 41 patents for multiphase systems.

Undoubtedly, Tesla owns a patent, and Westinghouse industrial priority for multiphase AC systems, because they immediately launched a mass production of engines, generators and other equipment of such systems. The peak of this activity was the construction in 1895 of the largest at that time Niagara power plant on the American coast of Niagara falls, the height of which was 48 meters. The dam was equipped with 10 two-phase generators of 3.7 mW each, as well as a power line of 11 kV length of 40 km in Buffalo, where an industrial area with numerous consumers of AC power was created.

However, Tesla burdened production activities, and he left Westinghouse, wanting to continue to develop the idea of long-range transmission of electricity, but without wires. That's what he became enthusiastically engaged in his own laboratory. His first thought was to create with the help of a high-voltage and high-frequency emitter a powerful electric field acting over long distances from which the consumer could draw electricity. Tesla invents the first Electromechanical microwave generator, used later in the first radio stations and for induction heating, transmitting and receiving antennas, as well as the resonant circuit of the receiver to allocate a certain frequency. Everyone was struck by Tesla's experience, when when the generator was turned on without any wires in his hands, an electric lamp lit up.

Two years later, Guglielmo Marconi in his laboratory in England conducts the same experiment and, knowing about the unsuccessful experience of Tesla, transmits a signal only six km.the Experiment ends successfully, and Marconi first provides the world's first patent for a wireless Telegraph device. A few years later, Tesla provides the same patent in the United States. To demonstrate his device, he also designed a radio-controlled boat and demonstrated his invention in Madison square garden in new York.

In 1900, the U.S. patent Office granted Tesla patent No. 645576 for an induction coil developed by him, giving the scientist ownership of one of the key devices used in radio communications. In the same year, Marconi filed a patent for the development of radio. First, the patent office refused Marconi, based on the fact that his work is completely based on the development of Tesla. But in 1904, for inexplicable reasons, cancels the earlier decision and gives the Italian inventor a patent for the invention of radio

Tesla was one step away from the invention of radio, but did not follow this path, because it was occupied with the idea of transmitting electricity, not information. However, it is he who has the priority in the creation of telemechanics, implemented in 1898 in the form of a remotely controlled water boat.

The problem of wireless power transmission has not been solved yet. The latest advances using a focused microwave or laser radiation for remote power supply of the spacecraft from the satellite with solar panels or controllable drones. Experimentally proved the possibility of transferring about a dozen kilowatts at a distance of kilometers.

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