Sofia Kovalevskaya was born on January 15, 1850 in Moscow. Her father, Vasily Vasilyevich Korvin-Krukovsky, was Lieutenant-General of artillery.
Sofia spent her childhood in the estate of her parents, in the village of Palibino, Vitebsk province. She got great at that time, upbringing and education. Commitment and perseverance in achieving this goal were a characteristic feature of S. V. Kovalevskaya. In her own words "the intensity was the very essence of her nature." The teaching of all the Sciences led in the family of Korwin-Krukowski home teacher Joseph Ignatievich Malevich. He was an educated teacher with vast experience who was able to arouse interest in the subject. Sophia Vasilyevna later said that the solidity of the knowledge acquired from Malevich, she owes the ease with which she was given further study of science. The parents of Sophia Vasilievna's opposed too free development of her mind and tried to keep her usual routine in a way that could not satisfy her ardent and susceptible nature. She tried to give education accordingly, concepts of the environment in which her family lived, i.e. tried to make it secular well-bred young lady. Sophia Vasilyevna had to fight for the freedom of her education. In the family of Korwin-Krukowski was conducted sometimes of a conversation on mathematical topics. Many contributed to the arousal of love Sophia Vasilyevna to mathematics her uncle, P. V. Corvin-Krukovsky, mathematical reasoning which "acted on the imagination of the girl, instilling her reverence for mathematics as a higher science and mysterious, opens to the dedicated to her new wonderful world, inaccessible to mere mortals" (from "childhood Memories"). Mathematical conversations have also been visited Corwin-Krukovsky Lavrov Professor of mathematics and Professor of physics Titovym. The latter drew attention to the mathematical abilities of a fourteen-year-old girl who tried, not knowing trigonometry, to understand the meaning of trigonometric formulas that she met in the course of physics. From that moment on, Sophia's father changed his views on her education. Proud of the recognition of his daughter's outstanding abilities, he allowed her to take lessons in higher mathematics from a teacher of the Sea school. Oddly. From the age of fifteen Sofya Vasilyevna systematically studied mathematics during her family's winter visits to St. Petersburg.
In 1889 the Russian Academy of Sciences elected S. V. Kovalevskaya as its corresponding member. At this time, Sophia Vasilyevna was in Stockholm and learned about her election from a telegram sent from St. Petersburg: "Our Academy of Sciences has just elected you a corresponding member, allowing this innovation, which has not yet been a precedent. I am very happy to see one of my most ardent and just desires fulfilled. Chebyshev."
S. V. Kovalevskaya died February 10, 1891 in Stockholm from pneumonia, which she received, returning after the winter holidays from Italy to Sweden. She was only 41 years old, she was in the Prime of mental strength and talent.
S. V. Kovalevskaya was the first woman scientist in the field of exact Sciences and aroused great interest in her versatile living nature and artistic talent. The name of Sophia Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya will forever remain in the history of science crowned with well-deserved glory.
The main works of S. V. Kovalevskaya:Zur Theorie der partiellen Dufferen-tialgleichungen, "Journal die reine und angewandte Mathematik", Berlin, 1875, Bd 80; Sur le probleme de la rotation d'un corps solide autour d'un point fixe, "Acta Mathematica", Stockholm, 1899, Bd XII; Literary works of S. V. Kovalevskaya: Literary works, St. Petersburg., 1893; the struggle for the happiness, drama (with A. S. Leffler), Kiev, 1892; she was a nihilist, a novel, Kharkiv, 1928; Memories of childhood and the letters of nihilists, M., 1935. Translation of the work of S. V. Kovalevskaya on the motion of a solid body around a fixed point and further work in this direction are contained in the collection "motion of a solid body around a fixed point" (M. - L., 1940), dedicated to the memory of S. V. Kovalevskaya. About S. V. Kovalevskaya:Litvinova E. F., S. V. Kovalevskaya, her life and scientific activities of St. Petersburg., 1893; Strauch S., S. Kovalevskaya, M., 1935 (with attached bibliography). A detailed review of the mathematical works of S. V. Kovalevskaya placed in the "Mathematical book", Moscow, 1891, vol. XVI (articles: stoletova A. G., Dimitrova N. E. and P. A. Nekrasov).