Жуковский Николай Егорович биография и достижения - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

Жуковский Николай Егорович биография и достижения

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Russian scientist, creator of aerodynamics as sciences. Honored professor of the Moscow university, professor of theoretical mechanics of Imperial Moscow technical school (since 1918 — the Moscow highest technical school); the corresponding member of Imperial Academy of Sciences on discharge of mathematical sciences (1894).

Was born 5 on January (17), 1847 in the village of Orekhovo near Vladimir (nowadays Sobinsky district of the Vladimir region) in family of the engineer. The manor in the village of Orekhovo was acquired by the father on a dowry of his wife, Zhukovsky's mother. All the life Zhukovsky with the greatest pleasure spent the summer holiday in Orekhov.

In February, 1858 Nikolay Zhukovsky came to the 4th Moscow gymnasium. Studying in a gymnasium, Zhukovsky dreamed to become — as the father — the railway engineer, to study at the St. Petersburg institute of means of communication, but it very limited means of his parents did not allow; the tuition fee at the Moscow university was significantly lower. Therefore, having finished in 1864 a gymnasium with a silver medal, Nikolay Zhukovsky without examinations was enlisted on physical and mathematical faculty of the Moscow university.

Upon termination of the university in 1868, tried to study at the St. Petersburg institute of means of communication, but not successfully. On August 15, 1870 Zhukovsky took the place of the teacher of physics in the 2nd female gymnasium instead of professor of physics N.A. Umov who went to Odessa.

In 1871 passed master examinations and began to teach mathematics (since the end of 1871) and to mechanic (at first 1872) in the Moscow highest technical school.

On September 14, 1874 Zhukovsky is approved as the associate professor of analytical mechanics of school.

On November 4, 1876 public protection of the master thesis took place.

On April 30, 1882 Zhukovsky defended the dissertation on degree of the doctor of applied mathematics, having presented work "About durability of the movement". Since 1886 N.I. Zhukovsky is extraordinary professor of the Moscow university of department of applied mechanics.

In 1890 the publication was published in the Mathematical collection of the Moscow university of a lot of work "Modification of a method of Kirchhoff for definition of the movement of liquid in two measurements at the constant speed given on the unknown line of current".

Zhukovsky's works in the field of aerodynamics were a source of the main ideas on which the aviation science is formed. He comprehensively investigated dynamics of flight of birds, on November 3, 1891 gave the report "On soaring of birds".

In 1892 gave the report "Concerning a flying shell of Chernushenko", having worked out the main equations of dynamics for the center of gravity of the planning body (that is, at a constant angle of attack), Zhukovsky found trajectories under various traffic conditions of air, including theoretically predicted a possibility of a loop.

Since 1893 — the valid councilor of state. In 1894 Zhukovsky was elected the corresponding member of Academy of Sciences.

In 1897-1898 N.I. Zhukovsky investigated the causes of accidents in the Moscow water supply system.

On February 21, 1898 made at a meeting of scientists and engineers in Polytechnical society the report on the phenomena of water hammer, having opened its mechanism, removed the formulas connecting the current speed, pressure, density and radius of a pipe time-dependent and distances of the considered section from the chosen beginning of coordinates.

In the fall of 1898 at the X congress of the Russian scientists and doctors Zhukovsky read the survey report "About aeronautics".

In 1904 Zhukovsky opened the law determining the carrying power of a wing of the plane, defined the main profiles of wings and blades of the screw of the plane, developed the vortex theory of the air screw.

In 1905 he was elected the president of the Moscow mathematical society.

In 1909 Zhukovsky headed creation of aerodynamic laboratory in the Moscow highest technical school.

After October, 1917 with active participation of Nikolay Egorovich Zhukovsky the Central aero hydrodynamic institute (TsAGI), the Moscow aviatechnical school (Military and air academy) were created.

In commemoration of the 50 anniversary of scientific activity of Zhukovsky and his big merits as "father of the Russian aircraft" in 1920 the decree of Council of People's Commissars signed by V.I. Lenin about institution of an award of N.E. Zhukovsky for the best works on mathematics and mechanics, about the edition of works of Zhukovsky and also about a number of privileges for the most scientific was issued. But in February, 1920 N.E. Zhukovsky got sick with pneumonia, in June there was a blow, in the end of the year he got sick trouser with typhus, under new year the blow repeated, on March 17, 1921 Nikolay Egorovich Zhukovsky died.

List of sources:

M.S. Arlazorov. Zhukovsky.

A.A. Kosmodemyansky. N.E. Zhukovsky is a father of the Russian aircraft.

E.V. Druzhinina-of St. George. The person flies. The biographic story about N.E. Zhukovsky's life.

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