Enriching vocabulary tend to be the most crucial part in foreign language learning as it facilitates learners to understand the main idea of the written text as well as express opinions intended fluently, being involved in successful communication. The research deals with new approaches should be taken place in English language learning as a second language for school students. In order to guide vocabulary acquisition article requires more precise specification of the different dimensions of lexical competence, the interrelationships among them, and how they interface with processes of word learning and use. The main purpose of this research paper is to encourage learners of English as a second language being able to implement various strategies for vocabulary enlargement during lessons as well as on their leisure time outside the classroom.
Vocabulary is frequently used as a basic tool for students who has been learning foreign language for a long period of time. Schmitt (2000) claims that “background knowledge is the foundation of communicative competence and to the acquisition of a second language”.
Nation (2001) depicts the connection between vocabulary and language use: vocabulary enables language use and, conversely, language use leads to an increase in vocabulary knowledge.
According to Laufer and Nation (1999), Maximo (2000), Read (2000), Gu (2003), Marion(2008)andNation(2011)andothershave been stated that theacquisitionofvocabulary of foreign language as a second language isimportant forlanguageuseandplaysa pivotal rolein complicated spoken and written texts. In English as a second language (ESL) and English asaforeignlanguage(EFL)learningvocabularyitemsevolve alllanguageskills (i.e. listening, speaking, reading, and writing (Nation,2011). Rivers and Nunan (1991), moreover, claim that through the help of an extensive vocabulary, learners would be incapable to use the structures should have investigated for comprehensible communication.
Research has demonstrated that second language learning is based on vocabulary information and the absence of that learning is foremost problem for L2 to struggle with (Huckin,1995). Furthermore, it would be better for learners to choose from a range of words or utterances, even though this procedure seems complicated in many respects. ''The truth is that when students went to overseas, they bring the dictionaries, not textbooks. Wilkins (1972) claims that: ''Grammatical sentences cannot be done in correct way, if the learner has no necessary vocabulary for conveying the intended message”.
Heltai (1996), in a study of lexical errors in learners’ translations, finds evidence that seems to support the idea of Lado (1964) that the greatest difficulty for the language learner is to master one-to-many correspondences between the first and the second language. The findings suggest that language learners at the intermediate level are not prepared to do translation in the true sense of the term. Their translations are dominated by decoding and encoding processes, and exemplify a kind of semantic translation in which only the referential function of the text is observed. Learners’ translations are clearly different from professional translations in this regard. Learners’ translations also frequently contain errors of syntactic and lexical decoding and encoding, whereas “in professional translation grammatical and lexical contrasts, ideally, do not cause translation” (Heltai 1996: 80). Translation, however, may occur in any language learning situation, whether or not translation is used as a teaching procedure. Thus translation, the objection cited under (9), cannot logically be held to be a consequence of translation.
The approaches in Teaching Vocabulary. The practical part of the research
The practical part of the research provides data on the techniques should be implemented and dwelt on in presenting the meaning and form of vocabulary by teachers. Techniques employed by teachers depend on some factors, such as the context, time availability, and its value for the learners (Takač, 2008). This makes teachers have some reasons in employing certain techniques in presenting vocabulary. Combining the plethora of new methods or used before teachers are able to introduce absolutely unknown vocabulary item, rather than presenting with one, a particular way.
Relying on the fact that most of the learners are visual learners the usage of realia, visual aids, eye-catching materials could help not only in memorizing vocabulary items better,but also in emphasizing the main features of the word demonstrated on the desk or on flash cards. The latter depends on the creativity of the teacher as well as the learners which can prepare it by themselves. Likewise, the teacher students’ comprehension of a particular term or word should be guided by instructional support, including bringing in objects like a newspaper to demonstrate the meaning of “headlines”, and drawing pictures on the board to show meanings of other given lexical items.
The use of oxymorons
Oxymoron defined as the opposite words, meanings contrasting together. For instance, pleasantly-ugly face, low skyscrapers, poor billionaire and etc. Individuals in most cases memorize words better through the use of antonyms, synonyms and stylistic devices (oxymoron).
Non-translational method will be used, in order to improve language skills of learners. While students use translation method in learning English as a second language, recent researches claim that there is a need for these teaching techniques to be reconsidered. Therefore, it may has an essential impact on learners’ remembrance of the meaning of words that have been obtained.
Figure 1. The variety of dictionaries which are used the most among Kazakhstani students.
The outcome of the research are demonstrated based on the structured method and percentage of students who have answered accurately in the test.
From the figure 1 it can be seen that the most persuasive dictionary for students was English-to-English dictionary.
This leads to deducing meaning from the context technique
The results of the investigation acknowledge that characteristics of the non-translation method that may have contributed to the learning and teaching English as a second language. It is undoubtedly apparent that for intermediate, upper-intermediate and advanced level learners’ non-translational method is more effective. According to Sokmen (1997), come from a number of potential problem solving associated with inferring words from context. It facilitates for deducing the meaning from the context for high-level(intermediate, upper-intermediate, advanced levels)learners itself.
Drillingisemployedtomakelearnersgetaccustomedtothewordformespeciallytohowit sounds. To make learners more familiar with the word, drilling should be clear and natural (Thornbury, 2002). Drilling is very necessary since learners need to say the word to themselvesastheylearnittorecallthewordsfrommemory(Ellis&Beaton,1993,inRead, 2000).
Learners’ Active Involvement
Employingthis technique, the teacher encourages the students to find out word’s meaning by elicitation (Takač, 2008). Elicitation maximizes learners’ speaking opportunities, and acts as a way of checking learners’ understanding (Thornbury, 2002). This technique also includes personalization, which is using the word by learners in a context or sentence that is related to their life.
Related to the above techniques, Pinter (2006) argues that teachers are suggested to conduct planned presentations of vocabulary as various as possible, so it is better that teachers present word meaning and form by combining more than one technique. In addition, Takač (2008) points out that in choosing which techniques to be used in the classroom, teachers consider time availability, the content or teaching material.
Vocabulary learning strategies
Beside the above techniques, there are also, vocabulary learning strategies that teachers can take into account. They can train their students to use these strategies. Schmitt and McCarthy (1997) propose strategies to learn vocabulary as follows: (1) guessing from context, (2) using word parts and mnemonic techniques to remember words, and (3) using vocabulary cards to remember foreign language-first language word pairs. It is supported by Murcia (2001) who also proposes three strategies to learn vocabularies. The first strategy is guessing meaning from context; she says that a context is rich enough to give adequate cluestoguesstheword'smeaning.Thesecond strategyismnemonicdevices:sheproposes keyword technique. When seeing or hearing the target word, the learner is reminded of the keyword. The third strategy is vocabulary notebooks; she suggests a memory aid in independent learning by setting up vocabulary notebooks.
Based on the techniques used for presenting new vocabulary and vocabulary learning strategies, the experts suggest lots more techniques that are claimed to be helpful for students to learn vocabulary in an easier way. What the researcher sees as better way to teach vocabulary is by learning in rich contexts.
Finally,teachersmayencouragestudentstokeepavocabularynotebookbecauseagreat dealofvocabularygrowthultimatelydependsonthelearner.Theymayhavestudentswho aresuccessful vocabulary language learners share their notebook methods. For students whoneedhelp,theycandemonstratehowtosetupavocabularynotebookthatisneatand organized in a mannerthat will facilitate multiple retrievals of the words. If the notebook is notsetupwell,thenlearnersarelesslikelytopracticethewords,whichdefeatsthepurpose of keeping thenotebook in the firstplace.
Moreover, in presenting one planned vocabulary item, the teacher usually combine more than one technique, instead of employing one single technique. Teachers are suggested to employ planned vocabulary presentations as various as possible (Pinter, 2006).
This research aims to put an emphasis on vocabularyenlargement as an attempt is made to search for the trends in the area of teaching vocabulary through various techniquesESL/EFLteachers implement when teaching. Beforepresentingthemeaningorformof vocabularyitems,teachersneedtonoticethetypeofthevocabulary,thestudents’leveland characteristics,andalsothevalueofthetechniquesforthelearners. Inotherwords,students' age, level of education as well as English proficiency may affect their learning, so teachers need to be aware of these differences when applying their teaching techniques and further providetheirstudentswithvocabularylearningstrategieswithopportunities to encounter words repeatedly and in more than onecontext. Ultimately, it is crucial that teachers implement their own decision in creating the techniques to teach vocabulary. Teachers should not only maintain merely the ways proposed by the communicative approach, but also the contributions to the growth of learners’ interests and enthusiasms should be taken into consideration.
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