Planck Max-German theoretical physicist, founder of quantum theory, member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences (1894) , indispensable Secretary in 1912-1938. 23.04.1858 was born in Kiel. He graduated from the University of Munich, 1885-1888-Professor of theoretical physics of Kiel, 1889-1926 – Berlin University. His works are related to thermodynamics, thermal radiation theory, relativity theory, quantum theory, history and methodology of physics, philosophy of science. In 1900, based on the assumption alien to classical physics that atomic oscillators emit energy only in certain portions – quanta, and the quantum energy is proportional to the oscillation frequency (the quantum hypothesis) , the law of energy distribution in the spectrum of an absolutely black body was derived. Introduced a fundamental constant (the Planck constant) with the dimension of action. The formula of Planck's law immediately received experimental confirmation. Evaluating the value of opening the Bar, Einstein wrote “ " it was Planck's law of radiation that gave the first accurate definition of the absolute values of atoms, regardless of other proposals. Moreover, he convincingly showed that, in addition to the atomistic structure of matter, there is a kind of atomistic structure of energy controlled by the universal constant introduced by Planck. This discovery became the basis for all research in physics of the 20th century and since then almost completely determined its development. Without this discovery, it would be impossible to establish the real theory of molecules and atoms and the energy processes that control their transformations. Moreover, it destroyed the core of classical mechanics and electrodynamics and set a task for science: to find a new cognitive basis for all physics” Planck's Constant or quantum of action is one of the universal constants in physics. The day of December 14, 1900, when Planck reported to the German physical society on the theoretical derivation of the law of radiation, was the date of birth of quantum theory (Nobel prize, 1918) . However, although the Planck radiation formula was accepted as simply describing experimental facts, the theory proposed by Planck as a formula did not attract the attention of scientists until 1905, when the revolutionary idea of quantum was used by Einstein, extending it to the radiation process, and predicted the photon. Of great importance were the works of Planck on the theory of relativity. He was one of the first to realize it, adopted and strongly supported. In 1906, he derived the equation of relativistic dynamics, obtaining expressions for the energy and momentum of the electron, and thus completed the relativization of classical mechanics. He also introduced the term “theory of relativity” (1906) . In 1907 he made a generalization of thermodynamics in the framework of the special theory of relativity. He gave a General conclusion of the laws of chemical equilibrium in gases and dilute solutions (1887). In the solution of specific scientific problems standing on the materialist position, speaking out against “power” in defense of L. Boltzmann, pointing out that they misunderstood the real meaning of the second principle of thermodynamics, criticized E. Mach, defending atomistics, struggled with the later currents of positivism. In General, however, he could not rise above contemplative materialism. Active struggle against the physical plant of idealism at the turn of 19-20 centuries, it played an important role in the history of the development of cognition. Foreign member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1926) , Royal society of London (1926) . The scientific society in Germany is named after Planck. The German physical society established a medal to M. Planck. Died Planck Max Karl Ernst Ludwig 04.10.1947 .
Planck, M. (1900a). "Über eine Verbesserung der Wienschen Spektralgleichung". Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft. 2: 202–204. Translated in ter Haar, D. (1967). "On an Improvement of Wien's Equation for the Spectrum". The Old Quantum Theory
Planck, M. (1900b). "Zur Theorie des Gesetzes der Energieverteilung im Normalspectrum". Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft. 2: 237. Translated in ter Haar, D. (1967). "On the Theory of the Energy Distribution Law of the Normal Spectrum". The Old Quantum Theory