THE COUNTRY OF THREE RELIGIONS - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019


Дудорова А.С. 1
1Владимирский государственный университет имени А.Г. и Н.Г. Столетовых
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Israel is a state in the middle East. It is a country of deeply revered religious shrines, eclectic culture, flourishing cities and diverse natural landscapes, from high mountains to green valleys and arid deserts. It attracts a huge number of tourists, and the journey changes them, because the Holy land leaves no one indifferent. For many centuries, the Holy land has attracted pilgrims from all over the world with numerous religious shrines, an atmosphere of spirituality and mystery. Nothing has changed these days, and Israel is fast becoming one of the world's most popular tourist regions. The influx of immigrants led to the formation of an unusually diverse and interesting culture with an abundance of languages, national cuisines, musical styles and theaters. Despite the political difficulties carefully documented by the world media, modern Israel is a peaceful country whose citizens work hard, love their families, value their free time, nature and communication.

The state of Israel was founded primarily as a "national home" for the entire Jewish people and is defined in the Declaration of independence as a "Jewish state". The law on the return of the state of Israel entitles all Jews, children of Jews and grandchildren of Jews to obtain Israeli citizenship. At the same time, the right of repatriation to Israel does not apply to halachic Jews who have adopted a religion other than Judaism. At the same time, Israel is a democratic state where, along with Jews, all other religious and ethnic groups have equal legal rights: Muslim Arabs, Christian Arabs, Armenians, Druze, Bedouins, Samaritans, etc.

In Israel’s 65 years of statehood, its native Arab population has multiplied, over two million people have immigrated from all over the world under the Law of Return, some quarter of a million people migrated for work, thirty-thousand African refugees have sought asylum from war and genocide, and the birth rate has increased, forming a heterogeneous population all subject to different laws and policies based on their personal status.

While changes in the structure of family have revolutionized the face of the family in Israel and around the world, the law has not kept up. The emergence of single-parent, interfaith, bi-national, same-sex and common-law families have challenged the limits of the law to allow people to live family life in dignity and equality. Orthodox religious authorities maintain exclusive jurisdiction over family life and personal status in Israel, and there is no civil solution to marriage, divorce, family unification, or protection of human rights befitting a diverse, democratic society.

Every resident in Israel has a religious status. Each individual must be registered as one of the recognized religions in Israel-Jewish, Muslim, Christian, Druze, or «religion-less» (a person who does not meet the religious definition of any recognized religion, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Shinto, Messianic Judaism, and more). A person who meets the religious definition of two religions-for example, the child of a Jewish mother and a Muslim or Christian father-might be socially considered having a «double religion». Religious courts determine citizens’ religious status, which then impacts their rights, such as eligibility for marriage, the partner they can marry, divorce rights, reproductive rights, adoption, taxation, inheritance and more.

Statistics information

If we refer to the data of the statistical survey conducted in late 2010, in Israel at that time lived citizens professing:



Christianity-1,98 %;


Another 3.79% of the population does not officially belong to any denomination: for the most part it is "halves", whose Jewish origin is on the paternal line (according to Judaism Jewish roots are transmitted through the maternal line).

Separately note that the Druze in Israel stood out as an independent nation and religious branch, although the foundations of this religion lie in the Shiite sect of Islam. Druzism synthesizes Indian influences, Greek philosophy, and some Islamic dogmas.


The Jewish population is understandably the majority in Israel, but the Jewish faith itself is also heterogeneous and includes several branches and communities.

For example, within Judaism, a particular group of karakisla, emerged in the 8th century, and its proponents are convinced that this is the purest form of Judaism. The Karaites believe that every believer is very individual and must independently determine how and when to apply the law of Moses, in accordance with the rationalist approach.

It is not easy to understand what religion prevails in Israel, even if the representatives of the most numerous of them do not differ in unity and integrity.

The traditional law of Jewish communities, the establishment of Judaism, regulating the social, family and religious life of Jewish believers, the whole set of laws-collected in Halacha, which in the concept of the Orthodox Jewish faith has a Central role. Followers of Orthodox Judaism are followers of a religious Jewish worldview, the formation of which began in the early periods of the state of the Jews in the era of the judges and the era of the kings, and continued until the time of the Renaissance. "Orthodox" constitute the 4th part of the Jewish population of Israel. This group also includes the community "haredim" - ultra-Orthodox groups of Jewish believers, characterized by the most strict and extremely conservative customs.

Among other parts of the Jewish population stand out:

religious Zionists-17%;

Jews who only partially observe the commandments of Judaism (for example, celebrating some religious holidays and Shabbat) - 55%;

secular people, though considered to be Jews by the maternal branch, but not professing Judaism, referring to themselves as atheists – 20%.


Statistics show that if the main religion of Israel was Judaism, then Islam is the second largest religion in the country. The largest percentage of Israeli Arabs (over 80 percent) are Muslims, there are Christian Arabs and Druze Arabs.

As elsewhere in the world, the Arabs in Israel want to live in their communities. Two Islamic movements (Shiites and Sunnis), which stood out at the very beginning of the formation of religion, are represented among the Israeli adherents of Islam, but prevail in the Sunni community. Muslim quarters are located in Haifa and the Galilee mountains; the Negev desert is traditionally inhabited by Bedouin tribes; about 20 per cent of the Arab-Muslim Israeli population is permanently located in the Jerusalem surroundings and in the Holy city itself.

On the temple mount in the city of David-the third sacred Muslim place in the world-are the al-Aqsa mosque and Islamic sanctuary, built over the "Foundation stone", the Dome of the Rock. Here does not stop the flow of believers-pilgrims from all over the world. In different cities of the country there are monuments of religious architecture of Muslims and early Islamic architecture: in Ramla and Abu Ghosh, in Jerusalem and acre and in other Israeli settlements. Secular tourists and pilgrims are happy to visit the covered Arab markets and places of delicious Arab cuisine, ancient architectural monuments, mosques and sacred places for Muslims.


Formally, there is no state religion in Israel, that is, the country positions itself rather secular, and religion is a matter of conscience and choice of every citizen. This freedom is guaranteed by the Israeli Declaration of independence. But in fact, complete separation of religion from the state has not yet been achieved, and in a number of areas, for example, in family relations and marriage, the Knesset has enshrined religious law. Although, we note that no religion has the status of priority.

In order to get married on Israeli territory, you must belong to one of the 4 main denominations. The way out, of course, found, and many marry abroad, that the laws of Israel is allowed.

But back to not too numerous, however, a significant component of Israeli society – Christians. This community unites such trends as:



Armenian church,


and other directions.

Christian religion is preferred by some Arabs, Jews, they are the families of immigrants who arrived Under the law on return from different countries.

If the modern state at the basis pursued the purpose to give a safe haven to Jews of the whole world, then it is impossible to forget also that on this ancient sacred Earth in the first century of our era the new religion – Christianity was born, and therefore many places here are as sacred for Christians, as well as for Jews. Catholic and Orthodox churches in Israel also attract tens of thousands of pilgrims, the sacred Jordan river and the biblical places of Galilee revive the old Testament stories, which, who knows, perhaps, are not legends, but real historical events....

Let today Christianity, like other local religions, is not declared the official religion of Israel, let in our age the Jews found their "home" in the middle East, they speak Hebrew, celebrate national celebrations, listen to Oriental music, but the history of the past cannot be changed. On the Israeli flag-an ancient symbol of Judaism, in the words of the national anthem sounds the old cry of the Jews, but the Israeli land spiritually unites 3 monotheistic religion, and Justice itself requires that between them triumphed all-conquering world.


Daniel J. Elazar Religion in Israel: A Consensus for Jewish Tradition // Ierusalem Center of Public Affairs URL:

Декларация независимости Израиля// Электронная еврейская энциклопедия URL:

Религия Израиля // NICE ISRAEL URL:

Э. Небольсин. Израиль // Православная энциклопедия. — М. : Церковно-научный центр «Православная энциклопедия», 2009. — Т. XXI : «Иверская икона Божией матери — Икиматарий». — С. 611-625. — 752 с.

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