Multilingual education in the world - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

Multilingual education in the world

Баялинова Г.Х. 1, Тазбулатова Г.К. 1
1Евразийский национальный университет им.Л.Н.Гумилева
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INTRODUCTION

Education is a question that interests us all. It is discussed at international forums, sessions, conferences. We attach great importance to education, because we want our children to succeed in life and achieve greater success than ourselves.
Education is not only the gateway to personal success and social development. The right type of education contributes to the cohesion of our societies.

Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev presented his idea of the use of three languages for the first time in 2006 in his speech at the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan. In his 2007 annual address themed "New Kazakhstan in a New World", the President proposed gradual implementation of the "Trinity of languages" cultural project. In the 2008 address, he declared that “the Government should accelerate the implementation of the “Trinity of languages” project and should urgently improve the quality of teaching the Kazakh language, as the state language that unites our entire society” [Nazarbayev, 2007]

We live and work in the age when globalization of all circles of human exercises happens which results to rehash needs in training. That is the reason multiculture together with instructive and open skills these days are dictated by the world instructive network as an essential instructive fitness and one of the primary pattern is to frame world instructive territory. The reality of multicultural and multilingual instruction is characterized by all-inclusive world propensity to the joining into financial, social and political circles. We comprehend multilingual instruction as a pointed procedure of presentation to world culture by methods for languages when these learning languages are the approaches to accomplish the circles of unique information, to obtain social noteworthy and social experience of various nations and people groups.

Once in a while additionally alluded to as "bilingual" (two-language) training, multilingual training uses the utilization of at least two languages as media of guidance in essential [elementary] instruction. In "first language based multilingual training" programs, the understudies' home language, a provincial or national language and a worldwide language are utilized for guidance."

Four percent of the world’s population speaks one or more of the thousands of minority languages found around the globe. Yet minority-language speakers make up almost 50% of the world’s non-literate population. One of the reasons for this is that children from minority language communities are forced to attend schools in which only the language of the majority population is used. The fact is, children cannot succeed in school if they do not understand what their teachers are saying.

We utilize the term 'multilingual education' in this report in agreement to the definition given by Bialystok to the idea of 'bilingual education. It alludes to 'any school program in which in excess of one language is implemented in the educational modules to use non-language scholarly topic or in which the language of tutoring does not coordinate the language of the home or network. The purposes behind joining the languages s, the particular languages s picked, the structure of the program, and the connection between the school languages s and the network, change broadly and impact instructive results' (Bialystok, 2016:2). García (2009) likewise characterizes bi-multilingual training as the utilization of at least two languages s in the guidance and evaluation of students, depending on the prerequisite that the languages s are used as a medium of guidance and not just educated as an extra languages . The motivation behind why we support the expression "multilingual" is that we wish to incorporate the different multilingual methodologies that are presently created and executed in schools with monolingual and multilingual projects to help the tutoring of multilingual students.

The actuality of the research: Describe the impact of multilingual education on students’ academic performance. Identify which countries implement multilingual education methods.

The aim of the research: to clarify peculiarities of multilingual method of education.

The task of the research:

* to observe the literature based on MLE by using innovative technologies

* to consider peculiarities of MLE programs

* to investigate significance of worldwide MLE program

* to identify effect from MLE program on students

The object of the research: multilingual education in the world.

The subject of the research: the process of using the selected programs and methods of multilingual education.

1. Theoretical aspects of MLE

1.1 Significance of worldwide MLE program

Bilingualism and multilingualism is an interdisciplinary and complex field. As is self-evident from the prefixes (bi- and multi-), bilingualism and multilingualism phenomena are devoted to the study of production, processing, and comprehension of two (and more than two) languages, respectively. However, in colloquial usage the term bilingualism is used as a cover term to embody both bilingualism and multilingualism. Although this use of “bilingualism” has been objected to strictly on etymological grounds, it is a common practice since the inception of the field to apply to the term for multilingualism as well as to the dialects of the same language. For reasons of convention, concision, and convenience, the term bilingualism is used as a cover term to include both bilingualism and multilingualism in this article. Still in its primary stages of exploration, bilingualism is a rapidly growing area of linguistics, which is grounded in interdisciplinary approaches and a variety of conceptual frameworks. In linguistics, bilingualism owes its origin largely to diachronic and sociolinguistics, which deal with linguistic variation, language contact, and language change. Outside linguistics, bilingualism is also intimately tied with immigrant and marginalized groups and their educational and economic problems. A case in point is the bilingualism and intelligence debate during the first half of the 20th century. The pioneering phase of bilingualism research in linguistics began with the works of Weinreich 1953, Haugen 1953, Mackey 1967 and Jakobson, et al. 1953 in the latter half of the 20th century. Since then, research in multiple fields of bilingualism has taken interdisciplinary dimensions. The key research areas represented by the field include: the representation and processing of languages in the bilingual mind/brain, childhood and adult language acquisition, bilingual speech disorders, bilingualism and mixed linguistic systems, effects of bilingualism on individuals and societies, bilingualism and educational challenges, language endangerment, and extinction, among others. The oldest accounts of bilingualism can be traced back to Panini’s grammar of Sanskrit, religious texts, such as the Bible, and the accounts of classical languages, such as Greek and Latin, in the context of linguistic prescriptivism, language contact, and spread

If you like learning languages, chances you may have heard the word bilingual or bilingual education. But have you heard of multilingualism? Scientists were recently stumped when they told someone that she was bilingual and he responded that she was actually multilingual. They wondered if there was really a difference. Bilingual means the ability to use two languages fluently, while multilingual means using or having the ability to use several languages with the same amount of fluency.

People, who was born in Brazil, speaks English, Spanish, and Portuguese. In many countries around the world, multilingualism is the norm. When people migrate from one place to another, they take their languages with them. This is how multilingualism occurs.

There are different forms of multilingualism. One form focuses on how languages function in society, such as playing a specific role in society. Some nations have more than one official language, while other languages are used in social contexts. Another form is individual multilingualism, or a person's ability to communicate in different languages in different settings. Nations value language learning and often require students to learn two or more languages.

Language learning happens in two ways. People aren't born multilingual. Children begin acquiring one or more languages as they go about living their lives. As they grow, one language may become the dominant language. This type of language learning is not really optional but a result of an individual's circumstances. Another way individuals acquire language is by deciding to learn it on their own. An example of this is when someone takes a foreign language in high school or college.

Multilingual Education

A multilingual classroom in India looks like any other classroom. If you look and listen closely, however, you might notice two students speaking in their native tongues. Their teacher explains that one student is explaining the previous lesson, which was taught in the Hindi language.

Nations with large migration patterns, such as Germany, use multilingual education models. Students learn the official language and two other languages with the intent of becoming multilingual.

Picture 1. Multilingual welcoming signin Germany schools

In the classroom, multilingual education stresses teaching children while supporting their mother tongue, or native language. Students learn better and outcomes are better when taught in their native languages. This doesn't mean teaching in all of the native languages to all of the students but supporting the primary language of the country with each student's native language.

MLE programm by UNESCO

UNESCO promotes mother tongue instruction in the context of multilingual education (MLE) from the earliest years of schooling because:

It lays a solid foundation for learning

It improves access to education, especially for girls

When used at home and/or at school, it promotes literacy in the mother tongue and later in the second language

It facilitates learning both of academic subjects as well as the second language. At school, children can concentrate on the subject matter instead of struggling to understand the language of instruction as well.

It improves learning outcomes as it promotes dialogue and interaction between learners and teachers by means of better communication and understanding

It raises the quality of education by emphasizing understanding and creativity rather than repetitive memorization. Despite the known benefits of bilingual/multilingual education, the principle of education in the mother tongue is not always respected. More often than not, children are taught in a language that they do not master.

1.2 Features of implementation of multilingual education in the republic of Kazakhstan

Multilingualism is a concept widely spread in the vast multi-ethnic geographical space. The situation in Kazakhstan reflects this concept. Today, more than 130 nationalities live in Kazakhstan. The majority of people of Slavic origin mainly speak only one language, whereas the majority of Kazakhs speak two languages. Multilingualism is prevailing among Uighur, Uzbek, Dungan, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Tajik, Tatar, and other ethnic groups. In German, Korean, and Chechen communities, multilingualism is also more frequent phenomenon. Due to the recent government attention to the knowledge of multiple languages, multilingualism is growing among the Kazakhs, too. According to the 1989 data, in the former Soviet Union, 73 mln people (23.4%) were bilingual; the Russian language was the second language of 61 mln people. A small group of them were multilingual (polyglot) . Multilingualism is often a process of using a combination of more than three languages in a social relationship. "Multilingualism" sometimes refers to many languages. In this case, the issue is not about the process, but rather about language information. Today, countries of the world are, basically, multilingual. Multilingual environment necessitates a common language; that is why international languages are used extensively.

Moreover, the language is experiencing globalization. At present, English is recognized worldwide as the language of globalization. In Kazakhstan, more than one hundred nations and ethnic groups use their ethnic languages in daily life. Officially, the Kazakh and Russian languages are used predominantly. Nowadays, more than 17 million people live in the country; 65.2% of them are Kazakhs, 21.8% are Russians and 13% are representatives of other ethnicities . Continuing the above discussion, in today’s world in general, and in megacities in particular, people are living in the multilingual environment. Such phenomena as bilingualism or even multilingualism are widespread. Our country is also experiencing this global process. One of the main directions of social-economic development of today’s Kazakhstan is to develop an environment where the citizens would speak three languages. Since the achievement of independence, our country has developed a wide range of social, economic and cultural ties with many countries. For these relationships to be effective, the necessity to speak multiple languages is growing every day. It is also important for maintaining the unity and cooperation among people. Multilingual teaching in the education process of young generation is a modern day requirement that would help the students to learn the secrets of science and acknowledge their abilities.

Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev presented his idea of the use of three languages for the first time in 2006 in his speech at the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan. Thus, the Kazakh language was determined as the state language, the Russian language is now the language of interethnic communication, and the English language serves for integration of our country into the world economy and global society. Apart from this, in his address to the people of Kazakhstan “Building the future together” in 2011, the President stated, “I always say that knowing three languages is essential for the success of every Kazakhstani. Our task is to raise the number of citizens speaking the state language up to 80% by 2017. I think, by 2020, the number of Kazakhstanis speaking English should reach 20%”. By decree №110 dated 29 June, 2011, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan approved the state program on the use and development of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for the years 2011-2020. This program aims at increasing the number of citizens knowing three languages (Kazakh, Russian, and English) at the following ratio: up to 10% by 2014; 12% by 2017; and 15% by 2020. The main objective of this program is to maintain an effective language policy that will preserve the languages of all ethnic groups living in Kazakhstan and ensure the extensive use of the state language as an important factor strengthening the national unity. The state organ responsible for the elaboration of this program is the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Kazakhstan. After Kazakhstan gained the independence, the Constitution of the country declared the Kazakh language as the state language and the Russian language as the official language. The document’s main purpose was to preserve the interethnic integrity and to avoid the dysfunction of the language environment of the society. That is why Russian was given the status of the language of friendship, peace and interethnic communication. In the context of globalization, the demand for the knowledge of English is undeniable. Currently, the English language is taught in pre-schools centres; knowledge of English is also important in continuing education. The young generation will lead the country to the future. The system of education is the main social institution that influences the formation of a young person as a competitive professional. Therefore, the education institutions are the main organs responsible for the implementation of the “Trinity of languages” policy in quantitative and qualitative terms. For the implementation of multilingual teaching, we should first solve a variety of issues, such as the study of international experience in multilingual education; the personnel training and their availability; availability of material resources, and etc. Until proper solutions to these issues are found, the implementation of the planned program will create a number of difficulties. We tried to answer the question of how these issues are being solved now. Own experience is seen as not enough. We need the foreign experience exchange. The state program (for 2011-2020) states, “In the process of elaboration of this program, the experience of more than 30 countries in legal regulation of state language policies was examined”. Unfortunately, we were not able to identify these 30 countries in the course of this study. The program of development of education system in the Republic of Kazakhstan for the years 2011-2020 was approved for the purpose of implementation of decree №922 of the President of Kazakhstan dated on February 1, 2010 “On the strategic development of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2020”. According to this program, starting from 2011, the multilingual teaching staff training is carried out. For this training, the state compulsory education standard foresees the increase in number of credits for foreign languages in the cycle of basic classes; and changes are introduced to the education programs. It is expected to increase the number of teachers of natural sciences and mathematics speaking three languages up to 15% by 2020. The network of specialized secondary schools for gifted children has been also formed. There are 33 schools teaching in three languages in the country today [6]. In these schools, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology are taught in English. Educational and cultural activities to increase students' interest in the discipline and to improve the level of education and self-discipline, as well as creative work weeks, creative work ten days, and other cultural events are carried out in three languages . The issues of the multilingual teaching process are difficult and comprehensive. The most pressing, spiritually and historically significant problem is promoting the use of the Kazakh language on the whole territory of the state and in all social relations. It is also important for upbringing the young generation.

The Government provides the material and technical conditions for free for the expansion of use and learning of the Kazakh language by the citizens. Every year, the funds for the state language policy are also increasing. In every city of Kazakhstan, there are centers of “Developing the languages”. In these centers, the teaching Kazakh for adults is provided on free basis, and the students are supplied with all required textbooks and technical resources. The state program on the development and use of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 consists of 3 stages:

1) 2011 – 2013;

2) 2014 – 2016;

3) 2017 – 2020.

During these stages, increasing the level of learning Kazakh is planned as follows: share of adults knowing the state language should reach 20% by 2014, 80% by 2017, and 95% by 2020; number of school graduates knowing the state language on B1 level should amount to 70% in 2017, and 100% in 2020. The development of teaching the Russian and English languages is planned as follows in this program: the share of citizens knowing Russian should reach 90% of total population by 2020; the share of citizens speaking English should be 20% by 2020. Head of State Nursultan Nazarbayev has said: "We must put all our effort on development of the Kazakh language as a main factor of unity of all Kazakhstani people. Besides, we need to provide every opportunity to different nationalities living in our country to speak, learn and develop their own mother tongues”. The tasks of the state program on the development and use of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 are the following:

1) Improvement and standardization of the teaching methodology of the state language;

2) Development of infrastructure for teaching the state language;

3) Stimulation of the process of learning the state language;

4) Strengthening the status of the state language;

5) Increasing the demand for the state language;

6) Improvement and systematization of lexical resources of the Kazakh language;

7) Enhancement of the language culture;

8) Functioning of the Russian language in the communicative language space;

9) Preservation of the linguistic diversity;

10) Learning English and other foreign languages.

The Kazakh scientists' opinions on the trilingual policy can be divided into two parts:

1. Children should learn three languages. But they should study only Kazakh till the age of 13. Then, they can learn other languages.

2. Children learn languages quickly while they are small, so they should be taught three languages from kindergarten.

There are reasons for the existence of these views. The use of Kazakh was damaged by the Soviet language policy. In many families of city dwellers, the Russian language is used solely, or the Kazakh-Russian bilingualism has been established. In order to avoid such practice in the future, the Kazakh intellectuals raise the issue of the role of the Kazakh language in the trilingual state policy. According to the survey of sociolinguist E.D. Suleimenova conducted in 2006, the proportion of respondents who asserted Kazakh was their primary language was 92.4%; 4% had difficulties to answer; and 1.2% of them were bilingual, they considered both Kazakh and Russian languages as mother tongues . In conclusion, we claim that multilingualism is the need of the globalizing world. We appreciate the trinity of languages as the phenomenon strategically significant for our independent country. To meet the needs of the society, we find important the knowledge of the Kazakh, Russian and English languages. It should also be emphasized that in the language policy, the role of the state language – the Kazakh language – is especially significant.

1.3 Pros and cons of multilingual education

A bilingual education provides two or more languages to students simultaneously. Most programs are structured to teach in one language during one part of the day, then the other language for the other portion of the day. Is this an educational structure that is beneficial ? Here are some of the key pros and cons to discuss.

Considerations about positive sides of multilingual education for students. Kids who are presented to a bilingual training get that second language a lot quicker than a grown-up. Learning is a piece of the mind science of a kid. There are bring down dimensions of complex data that must be consumed. There is less shame went rehearsing the new language. The way toward taking in a first language works with the way toward taking in a second, which supports advancement too.

Ask the normal kid what they care most about and it won't be social issues, same-sexual orientation relational unions, or the status of religion or movement. It will be tied in with making companions, having a great time, and being tested at school. Bilingual instruction offers an opportunity to commend the decent variety found in human societies. It is an opportunity to gain from contrasts as opposed to being frightened of them.

Being conversant in two languages rather than one gives various proficient chances to the cutting-edge specialist. Taking in the second language while still in school sets up a kid to exploit those open doors when they are prepared to seek after a professional way. Contingent upon the neighborhood showcase, a language differential can signify 20% to a specialist's pay for every year.

Growing up with different languages s is the simplest, quickest, and most easy approach to take in an outside language. For your child, it will be as normal as learning one language is to all children.

It is simpler to take in another language from birth than it is amid some other time throughout everyday life - child basically has two first languages s.

Your tyke will have a head begin in school. In many nations, an outside language is compulsory.

On the off chance that your youngster needs to examine more languages further down the road, she will have a leg up. The distinctions in sounds, word arrange, push, mood, inflection and linguistic structures will be simpler to learn. For related languages , for example, Spanish and French, the comparative vocabulary will make adapting particularly quick.

Multilingualism has been demonstrated to enable your tyke to create unrivaled perusing and composing aptitudes.

Multilingual youngsters additionally will in general have over altogether improved expository, social, and scholastic abilities than their monolingual companions. Knowing in excess of one language enables your kid to feel quiet in various conditions. It makes a characteristic adaptability and flexibility, and it expands her confidence and self-assurance. Your tyke will build up a thankfulness for different societies and a natural acknowledgment of social contrasts.

Profession prospects are increased many occasions over for individuals who know in excess of one language. Helen Riley-Collins, leader of Aunt Ann's In-House Staffing in San Francisco, said the greater part her customers ask for caretakers who talk another language. "Families who are engaged with worldwide business are thinking ahead," she said of her customers, a significant number of whom work in cutting edge, speculation managing an account or back. "They need to give their youngsters a head begins in business in 20 years."

On the off chance that your local languages are not quite the same as the network language, you likely will feel candidly nearer to your infant when talking your local languages to her. Guardians disclose to us over and over that they lament losing their own legacy languages when growing up, something often provided details regarding by the media too.

Facts that shows multilingual education from negative side. One disadvantage of being multilingual is that it may lend itself to some confusion. Keeping track of so many different languages in your head may cause you to confuse the words of one language with another. This can be further exacerbated if the two languages are similar – such as with Spanish and Italian, for example.

Raising a multilingual infant is a training laden with misguided judgments. Everybody has an assessment and might gladly impart it to you. However, broad therapeutic investigations on languages improvement in the last 10-20 years have refuted the majority of these fantasies.

To settle on an educated choice, you just need to know the realities. Truly there are fundamentally just four potential weaknesses, and even these are not valid for each situation:

Speaking Later. While there's no logical proof that demonstrates multilinguals start talking later, numerous guardians gauge that there is a three to half year defer contrasted with monolingual kids a similar age. Looking at the situation objectively, it bodes well that a tyke learning at least two languages frameworks may take additional time, since they are really adapting twice the same number of words. All things considered, a half year is a little cost to pay for the capacity to talk a few languages !

Blending languages s. Blending words is exceptionally regular in youngsters adapting in excess of one languages at any given moment. In any case, this is an impermanent wonder. At four years old or five it has for the most part vanished. Remember that youngsters who are adapting just a single languages frequently utilize the wrong word until the point when they take in the correct one, and grown-ups regularly say "umm" when the correct word doesn't come rapidly. At the point when multilingual children can't think about a word in Vietnamese, for instance, they may get it from French. This naturally vanishes when the vocabulary in every languages increments. The best cure is to be predictable when conversing with your kid. Your understanding will be compensated, ensured.

Extra exertion for the guardians. This is presumably the greatest issue. Bringing up a multilingual youngster is a responsibility and much like piano exercises - you can't anticipate that your little one will be a virtuoso medium-term. This is a long haul interest in your kid. It will require additional exertion on your part to give enough languages introduction, additional support, keeping your languages rules steady, and sometimes even change the past languages design in the family. It can feel somewhat cumbersome at first on the off chance that you bring another languages into the family when infant is conceived, however rest guaranteed, following half a month it just turns into a piece of your every day schedule. Unexpectedly, it's less demanding to bring up a multilingual second youngster if your first tyke was raised that way. Your first will wind up completing a ton of the work for you by just being a characteristic chatterbox. Guardians of multilingual youngsters concur overwhelmingly that the advantages for their kids are definitely justified even despite the exertion.

Although it is a rare possibility you can obtain native fluency in multiple languages, it is very hard to accomplish. Multilingualism may cause you to lack high levels of proficiency in some languages, whereas you could have learned a second or third language to native proficiency instead. For many, this isn’t much of a disadvantage.

The largest disadvantage of multilingualism is the amount of time it takes to accomplish. Learning even one new language can take upwards of two years – and that’s only to reach an advanced level of understanding, not a native one. Some studies say reaching native fluency can take as long as seven years if you aren’t fully immersed in the culture, such as when moving to a country where that language is the native tongue.

2. Experimental stage of implementing MLE programs

2.1 Attitude of Kazakhstan citizens to multilingual education, analyzing results of experiment made in university of Petropavlovsk.

The introduction of multilingual education in Kazakhstan was predetermined by virtue of the formation of a unique multicultural space. According to President N. A. Nazarbayev: “... Kazakhstan is unique and strong with its multinationality. Polyculturality of Kazakhstan is a progressive factor in the development of society. The Eurasian roots of the peoples of Kazakhstan allow us to combine Eastern, Asian, Western, European streams and create a unique Kazakhstan version of the development of multiculturalism. ” [1;Nazarbayev, 2011]. Of course, this topic is associated with the solution of a number of problems related both to planning, defining strategic and tactical goals, content, and imperfect methods and technologies, since for the first time a unique project initiated by the head of state is being implemented in the post-Soviet space - the trinity of languages. According to the concept of UNESCO, the concept of "multilingual education" implies the use of at least three languages in education: native, regional or national and international languages. The use of these languages is “an important factor of inclusiveness and quality of education”. Multilingualism - “the use of several languages within a certain social community (primarily the state); the use by an individual (group of people) of several languages, each of which is selected in accordance with a specific communicative situation ”.According to B. A. Zhetpisbayeva, a multilingual personality is an active carrier of several languages, representing: the personality of speech is a complex of psycho-physiological properties that allow an individual to carry out speech activity simultaneously in several languages; communicative personality - a set of abilities to verbal behavior and the use of several languages as a means of communication with representatives of different linguistic societies; personality dictionary-a set of ideological attitudes, value orientations, behavioral experience, integrated reflected in the lexical system of several languages

According to JSC "IAC", the Center for the study of public opinion, in Kazakhstan, traditional language training as a subject can be attributed to a weak model of multilingual education, when languages are studied as a discipline, and to improve the efficiency it is necessary to use a strong model of multilingual education, when languages are studied as a discipline, as well as some disciplines are conducted in English. While the picture is such that graduates of schools with Russian language of instruction almost do not speak the Kazakh language, and graduates of schools with the Kazakh language of instruction level of Russian is extremely low (especially in the Southern and Western regions of Kazakhstan). The level of English is traditionally low, at the level of A1-A2.

Theoretical analysis of the problem of introduction of multilingual education required clarification of some provisions. In this regard, were conducted a study to determine the initial level of students ' knowledge of foreign (English) language in order to predict the formation of multilingual groups in NKSU. After M. Kozybaev (Petropavlovsk, Kazakhstan). To determine the level of foreign language proficiency at the initial stage of training (September, 2015), an entrance monitoring were made, where students were offered a lexicographic test consisting of 60 questions, as well as conducted an interview to determine the availability of speaking skills on General topics: "Acquaintance", "Family", "Hobbies", "Friendship", "Appearance", etc. the Assessment is carried out according to European standards in alphabetic equivalents:

1. A1 (Breakthrough) = Beginner – Initial.

2. A2 (Waystage) = Pre-Intermediate – below average.

3. B1 (Threshold) = Intermediate – Medium.

4. B2 (Vantage) = Upper-Intermediate – above average.

5. C1 (Proficiency) = Advanced 1 – Advanced.

6. C2 (Mastery) = Advanced 2 – Super Advanced.

Picture 2. Results of monitoring

It should be noted that the level of foreign language proficiency after the school program leaves much to be desired. In 80 % of the test - the level of A1-A2; 15 % - B1; 5 % – B2. At the end of 1 year of study at the University, students are also invited to pass the final monitoring on the same test to track progress. As a rule, 85% of students have a higher level of proficiency. Despite the fact that at the beginning of the school year the test results and the interview level of English language proficiency could be considered as average, in the future, 80% of students ' activity in learning a foreign language has increased significantly. Only 20% of all students remained passive because of their low level of English. At each lesson there was an active activity in all four types of work, and students performed additional tasks at will, so we have in the course of teaching English groups were formed for multilingual training in the future. They were treated by groups with both Russian and state (Kazakh) language of instruction. Taking into account the conducted research, we have developed a special program of gradual introduction and implementation of multilingual education at the University on the basis of E-learning technologies, aimed at the formation of foreign language communicative competence of students (hereinafter the Program), which will display a strong model of education.

2.2 Experimental part of implementing MLE and its effect on level of academic performance among students.

Results of survey made by myself in order to identify the knowledge and experience of people about multilingual education. 56 students answered on questions by using questionnaire. Some results were inadequate and inappropriate, therefore only 50 students were taken into account.

Graph 1. Number of students who met or heard about MLE

Pie chart shows awareness of respondents about MLE. According to this chart we can identify that majority of polled people at least heard about term multilingualism or multilingual education. About 5-7 percent of all respondents never met this term and it was new for them. One positive side after taking questionnaire we increased awareness among students to this extremely important topic. Third of interviewers met multilingualism in their school program (NIS, KTL students) or in universities. There were questions about effect of mixing languages in their core subjects and graph number 2 is depiction of these responds.

Graph 2. Students opinion about MLE’s effect on academic performance

On the graph 2 depicted above horizontal axe is students’ mark on MLE impact on studying process and vertical axe is number of respondents. Most of respondents’ answers is positive, it means that learning subjects on several languages effects in good way to their academic performance at all. Results of this questionnaire shows that more than half of respondents learn new language by studying core subject by using multilingual teaching methods. For example, comments of respondents were similar, that learning English in subject of English language is about learning main grammar rules and learning speak on main topics. But studying biology, physics and math in English help students increase their knowledge of language in specific areas, therefore increasing their overall English level dramatically in short period of time.

Lesson was made to improve knowledge of students about effect of multilingual education and methods of using it in everyday life. As sample was taken model of lessons in Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools, where they use one Russian/Kazakh teacher and one international teacher. As a result, students of these school know English in a high level and can easily participate in international olympiads because they learn core subjects in English and Russian language at the same time. Using main language help for detailed understanding, second language is creating an opportunity to new materials and studies.

Conclusion

The first wide documentation about multilingualism in literature was written back in 1970 by Leonard Forster. Although highly elaborated, his work was not taken into account as properly, because domains such as Translation Studies and Literary Studies have neglected its importance. Literary Multilingualism is to remain overshadowed by other branches of literature, until major figures in this field publish their own contributions, and so change the general perspective. Rainier Grutman clarifies the matter when he associates the authors who write in two languages with the visible part of the iceberg of literature.

Within the borders of multilingualism one can distinguish two types of bilingualism: the biographical and the literary kind. The biographical type of bilingual authors is when more than one language is used in the communication process, but only one when writing. The literary type comes into discussion, when an author composes a book in various languages. So, authors create bridges between different cultures and ways of communicating, by means of commenting about other literatures or by means of translating them.

Generally speaking, bilingual authors are forced to take the decision in which language they literary express themselves, whether it is the mother tongue or the foreign tongue. There is also the option for both languages to serve as a tool of self-expression, either for more than one work or for the same piece of writing that was self-translated. Such situations determine various ways of reaction for those who find themselves in such circumstances.

Four percent of the total populace talks at least one of a large number of minority dialects found far and wide. However, minority-dialect speakers make up relatively half of the world's non-proficient populace. One reason for this is kids from minority dialect networks are compelled to go to schools in which just the dialect of the lion's share populace is utilized. The truth of the matter is, youngsters can't prevail in school on the off chance that they don't comprehend what their instructors are stating.

Usage of the term 'multilingual instruction' in this report in consent to the definition given by Bialystok to the possibility of 'bilingual training. It implies 'any school program in which more than one language is actualized in the instructive modules to utilize non-dialect academic subject or in which the dialect of coaching does not facilitate the dialect of the home or system. that made and executed in schools with monolingual and multilingual tasks to help the mentoring of multilingual understudies.

Conducted questionnaire and lesson made were extremely useful for me and for respondents. Identifying awareness of students on related topic and analyzing their answers developed my skills of gathering and working with big data. Increasing people awareness about multilingual education was one of this paper work goals which was achieved. The reasons behind joining the languages, the specific language picked, the structure of the program, and the association between the school language and the system, change comprehensively and affect informative outcomes. The inspiration driving why we bolster the articulation "multilingual" is that we wish to join the diverse multilingual strategies

References

1. Nursultan, Nazarbayev A. 2011. Message from the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the people of Kazakhstan: “Let's build the future together!”

2. Nursultan, Nazarbayev A. 2007. Message from the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the people of Kazakhstan: “New Kazakhstan in a New World”.

3. Weinreich, Uriel. 1953. Languages in contact: Findings and problems.

4. Richard, Tucker G. 1999. A Global Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education.

5. Jan, Nelson. 2015. 9 of the world’s multilingual counties.

6.Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Grady C, Chau W, Ishii R, Gunji A, Pantev C. 2005. Effect of bilingualism on cognitive control in the Simon task: evidence from MEG.

7. Elena, Madden. 2008. Our trilingual children.

8.Baker, Colin. 1998.Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education.

9. Alexander, Dzhurinsk N. 2008. Challenges of the XXI century.

10. Lyazzat, Bazarkulova. 2017. Bilingual and multilingual education: tasks and expected results.

11. Hurshidam, Tashbolotovna M. 2018. Multilingual education is the main tool in the development of the quality of education.

12. Haugen, Einar. 1953. The Norwegian language in America: A study in bilingual behavior.

13. Aida, Markosyan S. 2004. Essay on the theory of mastering a second language.

14. Nicolay. Pavlenko. 199. Second language in the educational complex.

15. Komorowska, Hanna. 2011. Issues in Promoting Multilingualism. Teaching – Learning – Assessment.

16. Shalve, Tabadadze. 2014.Positive effects of bilingualism on cognition and language acquisition.

17. Alexa, Pearce. 2016. Ted Talks transcript on topic: The Multilingual Mind.

18. Samuel, Aguirre. 20414. Ted Talks transcript on topic: Bilingualism and multilingualism.

19. Crystal, Lombardo. 2017. 14 Pros and Cons of Bilingual Education.

20. Natsuki, Atagi. 2016. The benefits of multilingual education.

6 .Appendix A

Survey on multilingual education. Questionnaire
• Do you know the term “multilingual education”?
a)Yes b) No
• How do you feel about multilingual education?
a) Positive b) Negative c) Neutral
• Have you met multilingual school / university studies?
a) Yes b) No
• Assess how well you understand the subject in a foreign language on a five-point scale.
a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 d) 5
 
• Is it right to introduce multilingual education in primary school?
a) Yes b) No
• Why yes / no?

 
 
 
 

Thank you !

Optional:

Age: _____________________

City: ______________________

Appendix B

Lesson plan:

This lesson is experimental hour, which is made in order to analyze effect of multilingual education on students’ academic performance, also their opinions about this method of learning.

Aims:

to develop English vocabulary in specific and narrow topics.

to develop higher level critical thinking skills by mixing languages.

to encourage students about importance of other languages for studying core subjects

to demonstrate positive efect of multilingual education to students

Age: Teenagers

Level: CEF level A2 and above

Time: 45-50 minutes

Materials: Electronic gadgets, posters, notebooks and interactive board.

Procedure:

Before the lesson

Prepare devises to making presentation and showing videos related to subject. Connect laptop to interactive board and download all material needed

1.Warmer (5

minutes)

Make welcoming lecture about important of learning languages on English and Russian languages. Introduce new term and explain briefly some historical aspects of multilingualism

2. (10

minutes)

Show them video about multilingualism and its importance in learning core subjects. Also show them TED talk about how multilingualism effects to speakers’ life and studying methods

3. (15

minutes)

Give time to students discuss these videos in pairs in order to analyze and understand videos. In order to check their understanding each pair should come up with idea how to use multilingualism in their everyday life by depicting some pictures on posters

4. (15 minutes)

Play game with students about difficulties of learning English and translation problems. Role play were people meet difficulties to speak with people who speak in other language

5. End of lesson (5 minutes)

Pep talk in order to motivate students to start using MLE in their studies and answer questions if there will ask

6. Extension

Materials:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nchNoLr2U10

TED Talk on a theme “The Multilingual Mind

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMmOLN5zBLY

Training video on a theme “The benefits of a bilingual brain

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