To the problem of lexical aspect in the english language teaching. О проблеме лексического аспекта в изучении английского языка. - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

To the problem of lexical aspect in the english language teaching. О проблеме лексического аспекта в изучении английского языка.

Анашева Д.К. 1, Классен Е.И. 1
1ЕНУ им. Л. Н. Гумилева
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Until recent years, linguists were mostly interested in the formal aspect of language, firstof all, morphology and phonetics, and then syntax. Taking into account the vocabulary, the main attention was paid only to word formation.

Unlike linguists, anyone who studies a language for practical purposes attracts primarily the semantics of the word. Namely, he does perceive a real value for himself, and if he does not seek to master spoken language, then his interests are limited to this. He pays attention to pronunciation insofar as it is necessary to read what has been written, albeit incorrectly in terms of the norms of the language being studied.

Such preferential attention to the meaning of the word to the detriment of its form on the part of the language learner triggers the teacher to explain constantly the meaning of the formal aspect of the language and make every effort to implement it as accessible and practical as possible for the students.

Teaching a student the main parts of the language - its grammar, phonetics and word formation, it is pivotal to instill the idea that the form of the word is not in relation to him, only his outer shell. If by analogy we take two objects, for example, a portfolio and its contents, then whatever shape, color and quality the portfolio would have had, its content would remain unchanged. The form of the word affects its content. So, if we take a sentence and start changing, for instance, the form of the verb, then we can make the real action possible, desirable, etc., and by making the word that carries the phrase stress, unstressed, completely change the purpose and meaning of the statement . Thus, the form of a word makes up its unity with its meaning, influences it, and therefore the study of a form is of such great importance in language [1, pp. 45-48].

However, the student can recognize the importance of the form of the word only if he feels and understands this connection. Hence, the important problem of the relationship between vocabulary, grammar and phonetics when learning a language.

Until recently, grammar and phonetics were often studied in parallel with and independently of vocabulary. One of the most important progressive principles of modern methodology is the organic connection of vocabulary with grammar and phonetics. One cannot assimilate vocabulary without studying simultaneously the grammatical form of a word and its pronunciation, so one cannot study grammar and phonetics at all, without taking into account those specific words to which the rules of grammar and phonetics should be applied.

Vocabulary and phraseology are put in the first place at the present time because, as it turned out from the practice of school teaching of English, the main difficulty in learning English is vocabulary and phraseology. The most important activity now should recognize the systematic operation with the vocabulary of the language. This does not diminish the role of grammar, the grammar should be studied seriously and systematically. It is only that language classes can not be reduced to memorizing grammatical paradigms in isolation from lexicology (words and phraseological units) and to the detriment of it. Grammar information can not be really learned, if their study is not associated with the assimilation of the relevant lexical material. It is necessary not only to memorize the rule of formation of one or another grammatical form, but also to be able to use specific word forms in your speech and directly grasp their meaning when reading. And this is impossible if the corresponding lexical reserve is not accumulated [2, pp. 29-34].

Thus, it is necessary from the first steps to focus on the appropriate method of the study of vocabulary and phraseology, for this it is necessary to build the activity so that it is clear for students that combining the rules of grammar, words in the complex lexical and phraseological relationships, neglect of which is intolerable, since it is precisely in the rules of the combination of words, in the patterns of formation of different types and types of phrases the national specificity are clearly manifested. It is necessary to firmly understand and convince students that in practical study of the language, the focus is not on “why”, not a rationalistic explanation, but actual assimilation, assimilation of alien ways of expressing thought. Therefore, from the very beginning, as a fundamentally the only possible type of work is the selection and systematic study of word combinations for such groups as, for example, the compound of verbs of certain semantic groups and nouns derived from them with the addition (such as Look / stare / gaze / at / looking at / a look at / interested in + -ing / interest in). Phraseological units should also be utilized carefuly.

According to it, one should not conclude that in any case, vocabulary is more vital than grammar and phonetics. The number of words is very important for the opportunity to express different thoughts, but not so important for mastering the specific features of the language being studied, for mastering its models [3, p.522].

Almost all authors concerning the issues of vocabulary learning point out the specific difficulties of lexical material. As stated above, the vocabulary system is not sufficiently revealed in linguistics, unlike grammar and phonetics. Therefore, lexical material is a collection of single facts, a collection of units that do not have a system. In this regard, there are great difficulties in learning vocabulary. In addition, the word itself is a very complex and diverse phenomenon. Each word, as you know, has a certain amount of meanings, shape and usage. The word form is understood as the phonetic and orthographic side of a word, its structure and grammatical forms. The pronunciation and spelling of words in a foreign language are new to students and therefore cause significant difficulties [4, p.224].

Very often, in the process of learning English, difficulties and problems may occur that may be associated with certain errors. The cause of the difficulties may be pursued by the occurrence of problems which both students and tutors can face to. We would like to concentrate on several of them:

1. It is high self-criticism. Many trainees themselves add to the difficulties that they set for themselves very high and sometimes unattainable levels. Teachers in practice often encounter an error when the student tries to achieve the highest possible result in a relatively short period of time. For example, he wants to learn how to write fully competently, or to speak English fluently, without a hitch or accent. But in practice, with this, not only difficulties can arise, but it can be simply impracticable. Having difficulties, the learner often gives up;

2. Thinking in the own native language and translation into a foreign language in your mind. This is a very common mistake, which, however, triggers many difficulties and problems in the process of learning. Its essence lies in the fact that a person thinks in his native language and after that he translates it into a foreign one. The difficulties also lie in the fact that he thinkssimultaneously about the correctness of the grammatical component of his speech, which as a result turns out to be too tiring for the brain. By doing this, if a person communicates, then he does it rather slowly, at the same time he periodically gets off. Therefore, it is necessary to learn how to overcome such difficulties. For this you need to try to think immediately in English. This is what little children who are just learning to talk do;

3. The wrong pronunciation of a teacher. Today, even many professional educators speak with an accent or wrong pronunciation. As a result, their learners memorize an irregular pronunciation, as well as speak with a slight accent. This is quite a serious problem nowadays. Such difficulties can be avoided if we observe them in speech, and this should be done on the basis of the speech of the native speakers, that is, people for whom English is native;

4. The undermining the educational process on the part of teachers. This error relates more to the activities of teachers. Moreover, such difficulties may arise not only with the study of English, but also of many other sciences. You have probably heard the phrase from the teacher that a student has no innate ability to study the subject, so he should not even try, because he still does not succeed. So, this is not true. For example, the matrix method of learning English completely refutes this opinion, since in practice it has already shown that anyone can study the subject without any particular difficulties and problems;

5. Too much attention to grammar. Recall the approach with which you were taught the subject at school, and the difficulties and problems associated with it. The child is given a lot of complex grammatical rules, which a student often does not even understand, but should memorize it. As a result, this causes significant difficulties in the process of study, because a student can give up simply and fail because of the unwillingness to learn hundreds of grammatical rules.

Difficulties and the volume of the meaning of words in comparison with the native language, the polysemy of words, the nature of the compatibility of some words with others, the use of words associated with the volume of meanings and determined by the specific situation of the utterance [5].

In addition to the general features of the vocabulary as a language material, there are particular features of the vocabulary of the language being studied. A characteristic feature of the English vocabulary is polysemy and homonymy. It is obvious that the methodology of teaching vocabulary should take into account the specificity of a particular language.

The problem of obtaining and developing knowledge in teaching the lexical aspect at different stages of learning English is apparently increasing. Exercises are still the leading means of learning vocabulary. During this stage of training, students improve the knowledge, skills and abilities acquired. Foreign language oral speech as a form of direct communication naturally synthesizes in itself the features of dialogue and monologue speech, therefore it is necessary to put forward requirements for the process of speaking as a whole, and not for its forms separately. All kinds of reading are further developed. The latter continues to be used as a means of preparing oral statements and information processing of the text.In general, a foreign language at all stages should act as an effective means of promoting the satisfaction, development and deepening the interests of students in their chosen field of knowledge, in particular as a means of obtaining professionally relevant information.


1.Solovova E.N. Methods of teaching foreign languages. Basic course of lectures. - M .: Enlightenment. – 2002.

2.Ilyin M.S. On the classification of exercises in speech activity // Foreign languages at school. 1961. №5.

3. Maslyko EA, Babinskaya P.K., Budko A.F., Petrova S.I. Handbook of a foreign language teacher. Minsk: "Higher School", 1999.

4. Workshop on the methodology of teaching foreign languages in high school / Under total. ed. K.I. Salomatova, S.F. Shatilova. M .: Education, 1985.

5. Kuvshinov V.I. About working with vocabulary in English classes

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