The purpose of this work is to investigate and analyze the teaching of speaking in English at the middle stage the existing complexities associated with learning to speak.
The object of the work is teaching speaking at the middle stage, the subject is the process of learning a foreign language from the point of view of group communication.
As a hypothesis, the following is put forward: teaching speaking at the middle stage will be efficient if correctly outline the lesson, prepare special exercises and tasks after reading the text, since the creation of sets of exercises in conjunction with reading and listening contribute to the development of speech.
Awareness of the requirement to speak at least one foreign language has come to our society. Students learn a foreign language as a means of communication and should be able to use it orally and in writing. During studying English at school the main purpose of teaching students is consistent and systematic development of speech activity, namely: speaking, writing, reading and listening. Speaking is a kind of spoken communication through which the exchange of information carried out by means of language established contact and mutual understanding has an impact on the conversationalist in accordance with the communicative intention of the speaker. [3,190] The purpose of teaching speaking in a foreign language lesson is the formation of such speech skills that would allow the student to use them in non-educational speech practice at the level of common household communication. The group form of organization of educational work has a number of advantages: it helps to increase motivation for learning teaches to objectively assess themselves and others improve the business status of the student in the team diversifies the lesson. Working in a group, students show speech independence. They help each other successfully correct the statements of interlocutors, despite the absence of such a task. In order for group speech cooperation to be effective, it was found out the need to purposefully teach students communication technologies clearly observing the basic principles of learning in cooperation. In the formation of speaking skills at the English lesson, it is important that the learning process takes place in the target language, but at the same time it should not focus only on language problems. Modern pedagogical technologies such as training in cooperation, project methodology, the use of new information technologies help to implement a personality-oriented approach to learning, provide individualization and differentiation of learning.
Cooperative learning in English lessons
The basic ideology of learning in collaboration was developed in detail by three groups of American educators from Johns Hopkins University ( R. Slavin), University of Minnesota (Rogers Johnson and David Johnson), a group of J. Aronson, California state University. The main idea of the technology of learning in collaboration (cooperative learning) is to create conditions for active joint learning activities of students in different learning situations. Education in cooperation, being a technology of personality-oriented approach, humane in its essence, as it implies the presence of the student in the learning center with his personality, interests, motives, level of knowledge and skills, that is, the student as a person. [1, 10]The need for close attention to the development of each learner means that in the pedagogical process the student becomes a central figure, and his activity becomes active. Learners are different some quickly grasp all the explanations of the teacher easily master the lexical material communication skills, others need not only much more time to understand the material also additional examples and explanations.Such students hesitate to ask questions in front of the whole class, and sometimes just do not realize what exactly they do not understand, cannot formulate the right question. If in such cases to unite learners in small groups (3-4 people) and give them one common task specifying the role of each pupil of the group in this task then there is a situation in which everyone is responsible not only for the result of their work but most importantly for the outcome of the whole group.In this way, gaps are being addressed jointly.This is the General idea of learning in collaboration.
Difficulties in teaching speaking and ways to overcome them
With practice as a teacher of English in educational centers, as well as at the school - gymnasia No. 22 in Astana, I found that one of the most urgent and a complex problem of contemporary methods is teaching spoken language.The practical part consisted in teaching speaking at the middle stage, drawn up in the form of a plan of the lesson held at school- gymnasia No.22 for the period of pedagogical practice. To teach students to communicate in a foreign language in the educational process is a difficult task. After all, natural speech stimulates not the need, but the need for real communication. The lack of active oral practice in the English lesson, the desire to improve the efficiency of training, prompted me to use group work (to teach in cooperation) of students. Since in the process of learning they exchange ideas, opinions, information, learn from each other. Education in cooperation is distinguished not only by the opportunity to give the process of language education a personality-oriented character, but also its flexibility. Working in small groups, everyone has the opportunity to realize what his strong point is, and get help in what he is weaker than others.During the lesson, specially selected methods were used, which contributed not only to overcome problems, but also to the effective development of speech skills, namely — special exercises aimed at developing skills and learning new material. The methods used fully prove the hypothesis, as the creation of sets of exercises in conjunction with reading and listening contribute to the development of speaking skills. Cooperating, my students learn to work without control on my part, together with friends, striving for the goal. Teaching group interaction in my lessons has become not only a method of teaching oral speech, but a natural component of the educational process.
Psychophysiological features of learners at the middle stage give rise to a number of difficulties in the process of teaching speaking. The most common problem is the motivation of students. Learning to speak a foreign language is a very long and time-consuming process, so one of the main problematical cases faced by a foreign language teacher is the problem of shortage of motivation of learners.Targets that are aimed at the formation and improvement of speaking skills require great effort on both sides both on the part of the student and the teacher in relation to the inclusion of effective factors, as an attempt to reproduce anything in English in front of an audience or class can lead to a high level of excitement.. In this regard, Penny Ur in the training manual "Coursebook for Language Teachers "[5, 121], identifies four main types of difficulties that prevent successful mastering of oral speech in English:
Psychological discomfort. Moreover, unlike reading, listening and writing, speaking requires more emancipation in front of the audience. Learners often experience psychological discomfort trying to speak English in the classroom, above all. This is due to the fear of mistakes, critical attitude of others, the loss of their status or simply shyness before the attention that their speech can attract;
"Have nothing to say" is a problem that indicates a lack of thoughts on any issue. Therefore, learners do not have a strong motivation for verbal expression with the exception of guilt, which obliges them to say something;
Low and unequal level of participation. This difficulty is compounded when there is a tendency for individual learners to prevail, while other speak either too little or not at all;
Use of the native language. In groups where all students or part of them speak the same language, there is a tendency to use it, as it is easier and there is a sense of artificial speaking to each other in a foreign language.
In the process of checking whether many of the students are faced with these difficulties were identified the following motivational problems related to the learner's activities:
leaners are shy to speak a foreign language, afraid to make mistakes, to be criticized;
leaners do not understand the speech problem;
leaners do not have enough language and speech resources to solve the problem;
leaners are not involved in the collective discussion of the subject of the lesson for one reason or another;
leaners do not maintain the required amount of duration of communication in English.
Foreign methodologist Penny Ur [4, 120] in own manual "Coursebook for Language Teachers" gives the following ways to overcome the problems in teaching speaking:
use group work which allows learners to speak without discomfort, because after discussing or completing the task not all of them respond the teacher cannot correct mistakes in the speech of each. However, let students speak with errors and with a mixture of native language when they cannot find the appropriate word or do not know it.
the language level is lower than the level of the task language; the language in which the discussion takes place should be one level lower than the level at which the tasks are given, which is why the learners' speech becomes more fluent and without any obstacles;
to make the right choice in the topic of the lesson and tasks, so that students have an interest;
Therefore, the main task of an English teacher is to create a comfortable atmosphere in the classroom in which students are willing to take risks and experiment with the language.
Speaking is revealed to us as the most difficult type of speech activity, the same applies to speech in particular, and entails certain difficulties, the ways to overcome which are diverse and described in detail in many methodological publications. The main difficulties of teaching speaking include motivational problems. Thus, the study was able to reveal the concept of speaking, to identify the purpose of training, as well as to find out what is the content of teaching speaking, namely: the expression of thoughts and the transfer of information orally. It turned out that it contributes to the implementation of the main goal of teaching speaking and what is included in the content of teaching speaking, taken into account in addition to everything and the educational aspect in learning, revealing some of its components. In conclusion, the difficulties associated with teaching speaking at the middle stage were considered, as well as some ways to overcome them, based on the opinions of methodologists. But let's not forget that the main task of an English teacher is to create a comfortable atmosphere in the classroom, in which learners are willing to take risks and experiment with the language. Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that the ability to communicate, motivated, logically consistent and coherent language to express thoughts orally is the meaning of mastering a foreign language.
Dee Dishon and Pat Wilson O'Leary A Guidebook for Cooperative learningpublications, INC. Holmes Beach, Florida, 1984. – p.10;
Guy R.Lefrancois “Psychology for Teaching”, 1991
Halskova N. D., GEZ N. And. Theory of teaching foreign languages. - 4th ed. - Moscow: publishing center "Academy", 2007. - p. 190;
Penny Ur A Course in language teaching: Practice of Theory. – Cambridge University Press, 1991. – с.120
Penny Ur A Course book in language teaching (Trainee book) - Cambridge University Press, 1999. – p. 121