Foreign language is objectively a social value. Its inclusion in the secondary school curriculum is a kind of social order of the society, because at present our society needs more than ever to have people speak foreign languages. Interest in foreign languages and methods of teaching them has not waned for many years old. First of all, this is due to the desire to master one or more foreign languages. Currently, knowledge of foreign languages gives the younger generation indisputable advantages: the possibility of better integration in a society with a market economy, better employment, more complete understanding of the world as a whole. The practical purpose of mastering a language is to use it to deepen their knowledge in various fields of science, technology, public life, personality development, capable and willing to participate in the dialogue in the studied language at the level of free communication, which should be carried out competently. In teaching English as a second focuseson many type of methods. I will describe communicative and project method and show their role in the teaching FL. In the research I prove that the method of communicate is very effective by analyzing the practice of Mercer and compare our practice. In recent decades, there has been a desire to excessively reduce the role of grammar, which has led to a significant increase in the number of errors in pupils' speech due to the use of a communicative approach to learning foreign languages. Thus, the problem of this work will be the search for ways, the development of pupils' communication skills in the framework of the communication-oriented orientation of training.
The subject of research :selection and application in the practical part of the most effective techniques in teaching a foreign language (English in particular).
Relevance of the topic: The teaching methodology in Fl is a search for such teaching methods that would most fully correspond to the pupils.
The purpose of the research: effective methods of teaching English as a second foreign language for pupils.
Objectives of the study:
- Determine the main purpose of teaching English as a second foreign language.
- Describe modern methods of teaching FL.
- The methods of development of speech of the English language in school
- Describe the communicative method of teaching English as a second.
-To get acquainted with the point of view of foreign methodologists on communicative method teaching of grammar;
The author-compiler sees the main goal in providing future foreign language teachers with high-tech material explaining the most important methodological phenomena in the system, and laying the foundation for theoretical training in their specialty. The author hopes that young teachers, as well as teachers with experience, will be able to find useful information from the field of methodology for improving their professional training and pedagogical skills in the field of foreign language education.
Structure of work: Final qualifying work consists of introduction, two chapters, conclusion and references. In the introduction substantiates the relevance of the topic, defines the goals and objectives, object and subject of research, practical the significance of the work. In the main part consistently solved objectives to achieve the goal of research. The first Chapter presents the theoretical basis of the study topics. The second Chapter is devoted to its practical development. In the conclusion on the results of the research are presented. List literature includes.
Chapter I Teaching English (as a second language) at school
Teaching is a complex process that includes, above all the activities of the teacher and the activities of the pupils. In modern conditions it is necessary to pay great attention to the development the creative abilities of pupils, their cognitive needs and interests. One of the main features of a foreign language as an academic discipline is a professionally oriented character, reflected in the purpose and content of education. The greatest interest is shown by pupils when the material is built on the basis of their chosen specialty, which stimulates the study of a foreign language, increases and expands their professional knowledge. The role of the teacher is to create an enabling environment. Teaching is a guide involves the presentation, the communication of the teacher with certain knowledge and the management of their skills of all pupils in the classroom. Therefore, the teacher not only provides information on his subject, but also plans, organizes and controls the pupil’s academic work, develops the skills of academic work, thinking, abilities, and the ability to apply knowledge in practice.
Due to the fact that the position of the English language in the world as a leading means of international communication is increasingly increasing, and there are no significant trends to stop or slow down this process, the problem of creating an effective method of teaching English is extremely important. As you know, the human brain is most actively perceives and remembers information and works productively during the first half of life; thus, in the case of English, as well as with a huge variety of other disciplines, it is extremely important to provide the opportunity to learn the language at a relatively early stage of human development. This work is devoted to the review of the so-called communicative methods of teaching English in high school, which seems to the author the most effective and promising of all existing and currently used. It should be noted that the effectiveness of this technique is confirmed by the results of its application in European countries over the past 15-20 years. It is also gratifying that in recent years there have been, albeit not ubiquitous, but already significant experiences of the integration of communicative methods in the system of language education in Kazakhstan
Teaching foreign languages involves the acquisition of skills andabilities of foreign languages. An important role in this process is played by the methodology of a foreign language, which is expressed in the need to organize professional communication. Therefore, much attention should be paid to the structure of the lesson, its logic, the nature of the tasks and the organization of the whole work of the teacher and pupils, who are increasingly acquiring the features of genuine communication. In modern conditions it is necessary to pay great attention to the development of methods and methods of teaching a foreign language. Methods and techniques of training - one of the most important components of the educational process. Without the use of appropriate methods, it is impossible to realize the goals and objectives of teaching your subject planned by the teacher. Every teacher should be able to competently use the methods and techniques in the teaching process. One of the leading directions in the methodology of teaching a foreign is the search for such teaching methods that most fully correspond to the goals set. As noted by doctor of philology Professor S.S.Kunanbayev in the "Concept of foreign language education of the Republic of Kazakhstan", one of the main directions of improving the training of teaching staff in a foreign language is "mastering modern methods of teaching a foreign language". In the modern world, teaching English of using methods in foreign language lessons is highly relevant, as the social order of society in the field of teaching foreign languages puts forward the task of developing the personality of pupils, enhancing the humanistic content of education, more fully implementing the educational, developmental potential of an educational subject in relation to individuality each pupil. Practical learning objectives have already been defined by us: provide professionals with the opportunity directly get acquainted with the level of development of science and technology for abroad, critically evaluate foreign experience. Any type of training is a purposeful activity, in which involves both the teacher and the pupil. Throughout the learning process in front of them there are certain goals: the end to which they should strive throughout the learning process; the immediate ones that should determine their activities in every moment of training. Coordinate daily goals the most important task of training. It is a direct the educational task of the teacher, it will help him properly organize the entire learning process, provide the right training materials, find ways and means of mastering them. Choosing learning goals foreign languages at the school— the most important social factor. What to teach pupils-has always been determined social order of the society. If you follow target settings of a number of programs in the historical chronology, it will be easy to verify this. With all the practical orientation teaching at school objectives are threefold character: practical, educational.
The general educational goals are: to develop pupils' scientific understanding of the features language as a means of communication, form their materialistic worldview. The teacher in the classroom in foreign languages teaches pupils a dialectical approach to assessing linguistic phenomena, introduces them to the features of the formation vocabulary in connection with the history of the people and societies with particular functioning language categories. Pupil studying language practically, with the help of a teacher will be able to understand how language dictionary reflects features development of the country. Pupils meet new words in foreign languages compare their meaning in native and foreign.
Therefore, main goal of teaching foreign languages at the present stage of development of education is the pupils’ personality, who is able and willing to participate in intercultural communication in the studied language.
1.1 Modern Methods of teaching FL
At present, when there are fundamental changes in teaching, when the content and methods of teaching are radically revised, it is advisable to return to the history of teaching foreign languages and the main trends in its development. Now no one doubts that the method of teaching foreign languages is a science. The very first definition of the methodology was given by E.M.Rytm in 1930, who wrote: “The Methodology of teaching foreign languages is a practical application of comparative linguistics”. A similar position is held and A.V.Shcherba. The direction in the definition of methodology as a science originated in the late 40. The technique is recognized as a science that has its own laws and its own research methods. The most complete definition of the methodology States “teaching Methods-science that explores the goals and content, patterns, tools, techniques, methods and systems of training, as well as studying the processes of teaching and education on the material of a foreign language”.
At the beginning of the XX century there was also another problem. That was the problem of the method. This was quite natural, since after the October revolution of 1917 the "new" school required the use of new methods. At this time, the direct (natural) method was promoted. It was believed that this method is based on the correct principle – the Association of foreign words with the objects themselves. It was a method of natural (associative) learning a foreign language, which is the most economical, the fastest reaching the goal.
Why is the direct method being promoted at this time, when ideas of the mixed method are already emerging in the West? This was due to a number of reasons.
First, in the regal educational institutions dominated grammatical-translation and textual-translation methods based on cramming, from which it was necessary to get rid of. The direct method in relation to them was more progressive, as it came from a living language, from teaching speech as the main means of language functioning.
Second, then only the direct method involves the training of communication.
Thirdly, pedagogy was not familiar with the proposals of other methods that arose in the West after me world war, as this war, and then the civil war, broke all contacts. In addition, for many Methodists and teachers, the direct method was something new, attractive, and they sincerely believed in its effectiveness.
It should also be noted that the promoted direct method differed from the Orthodox direct method of the Western sense, as it contained the requirement of comparison with the native language, albeit not at the initial stage, which is incompatible with the direct method. There were also recommendations of the following content: "that the study of a foreign language should not be neglected the study of grammar, of course, in its main features, which can be easier to understand indicate the similarity with the grammar of the native language, and their difference, that for a more solid assimilation should be introduced grammar exercises." It was also recommended to introduce elements of comparative linguistics into the direct method. All the above recommendations do not correspond to the ideas of the direct method. All these facts allow us to say that the "Russian version" of the direct method was gradually formed, which then acquired its final form in the manuals of the second half of the 20s. The changes introduced in the direct method are closely related to the progressive ideas of Russian pedagogy. Later, a comparative method of teaching foreign languages was formed, which got its name from the fact that the study of a foreign language is supposed on the basis of its comparison with the native language. The founder of this method is Considered L.V.Shcherba. And with a combination of direct and comparative methods, a mixed method was born. Depending on which principles prevail, it may be closer to either the direct or the comparative method. Over time, changed not only the purpose of learning a foreign language, and the requirements for their possession. Methods of teaching a foreign language got into a crisis situation. The crisis situation always requires a radical turnaround. So, in the conditions of insufficiency of fruitful ideas the transition to communicative training was made. The crisis has revived active and methodical search, which contributed to the development of modern methodological concepts of teaching foreign languages: communicative (I.L.Bim, E.I.Passov), intensive (G. A.Kitaygorodskaya), activity ( I.I.Ilyasov), and others. Currently, a crucial role is played by communication-oriented techniques, which are based on communication and creativity of pupils.
At this stage of development of methods of teaching English the most widely used communication–oriented concepts. Among them, the most popular are communicative, project, intensive and activity methods.
Communicative method: The Promotion of a foreign language culture as a learning goal has raised the question of the need to create a new methodological system that could achieve this goal in the most effective and efficient way. Then the staff of the Department of foreign language teaching Lipetsk states pedagogical Institute for a number of years led the development of the principles of communicative techniques. The logic of the development of communicative methods and led to the final promotion of foreign language culture as the goal of teaching foreign languages at school. And such a system can be built only on a communicative basis. In addition, as the practice of using communicative techniques, it provides not only the assimilation of a foreign language as a means of communication, but also the development of comprehensive personal qualities of pupils. The communicative method was the basis for the creation of English textbooks in high school.
Project method: The Teaching of foreign languages, as an integral part of the General education system, is subject to the main trends in the development of this system. This is most evident in teaching methods. In the last two decades, such a tendency as projectivity has been formed in education. This concept was formulated in the context of the program of restructuring of education, proposed in the late 70s by the Royal College of arts of Great Britain. It is closely connected with the project culture, which arose as a result of the unification of humanitarian and artistic, scientific and technical directions in education. Design culture is the common formula, which is implemented in the art of planning, invention, creativity, performance and design and that is design. Mastering the culture of design, the pupil learns to think creatively, independently planning their actions, predicting possible options, solutions to the challenges facing them, implementing the tools and methods of work. Design culture is now included in many areas of educational practice in the form of project methods and project teaching methods. The project method is actively involved in teaching foreign languages. A striking example of the application of the project method is the textbook "Project English", published in 1985 by Oxford University press. The author of the course is T. Hutchinson, a specialist in communicative grammar teaching.
Intensive method: In modern conditions of rapid development of science and technology, the problem of transition to an intensive path of development is and is being solved in all spheres of society and at all stages of formation of personality and specialists. It is also relevant for teaching foreign languages. The search for optimal solutions to this issue, caused in the late 60's-early 70's of our century, the emergence of a method based on suggestive impact on pupils. Suggestopedia direction appeared in connection with an attempt by the Bulgarian psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov in a way to use the suggestion as a means of strengthening the reserve mental abilities in the learning process, particularly in teaching foreign languages. The ideas of G. Lozanov were the starting point for the construction of a number of methodical systems of intensive foreign language teaching. Initially, the model of intensive foreign language training was developed for the use of an adult contingent of pupils in the conditions of short-term courses, but in the future the experience of successful implementation of the intensive method of training in other conditions was positive. Currently, intensive foreign language training is implemented in various developing, newly created and operating methodological systems. This is due to the variety of specific goals of teaching a foreign language to different contingent of pupils, as well as a variety of learning conditions (the grid of training hours, their number, and occupancy of the training group). Followers of G.Lozanov, developing his ideas, became G. A. Kitaygorodskaya, N. B.Smirnova, I.Shekter, etc.
The most well-known at present time is the method of activating the reserve capabilities of the individual and the team of the city of China. The method of activation most clearly and fully reflects the concept of intensive foreign language teaching.
Activity method of teaching English is based on the activity concept of teaching, represented by the theory of gradual formation of mental actions. Based on this theory, for several years, the development of training technology was conducted, which was then called the activity method. The work was conducted under the guidance of Professor P. Galperin and associate Professor I. I.Ilyasov. In fact, the activity technique is correlated with the activity approach, which is based on the idea of the activity of the cognizing object, learning as an active, conscious, creative activity. This technique involves learning to communicate in the unity of all its functions: regulatory, cognitive, value-orientation and etiquette. It can be used both in work with adult contingent, and in high school.
1.2 Communicative method in the teaching FL.
The basis of any teaching process is communication. Language and speech are combined together as means and methods of implementing various types of speech activity in order to interact with people. Modern scientists- define the communicative approach in teaching as an approach aimed at shaping the pupils' semantic perception and understanding of foreign speech, as well as mastering the linguistic material for constructing speech statements. A communicative approach in teaching foreign languages, above all, is designed to teach you how to navigate freely in a foreign language environment, and also to be able to respond adequately in various speech situations.
The representative of the communicative method of learning. E.I.Passov believed that communicativeness consists in the fact that our learning must be organized in such a way that, in terms of its basic qualities and features, it would be like a process of communication. Communicative method of teaching foreign languages today is the most popular in the world. And even those who vaguely imagine what this method is firmly believe that it is the most progressive and most effective method of teaching a foreign language.
I.M.Kolker dwells on the following point in detail: "in recent decades, the traditional teaching of foreign languages is usually opposed to communicative and intensive methods" According to the same point Of view. Winter "speech activity is a process of active, purposeful, mediated language and caused by the situation of communication, interaction between people (with each other)" Therefore, the author concludes, and the training of speech activity in a foreign language should be carried out from the position of formation and independent, determined by the fullness of its characteristics. The peculiarity of the activity type of training is that it is for its purpose and in its essence is associated primarily with a separate type of speech activity, therefore, we find its widespread use when it comes to teaching reading, listening, translation, etc. and only in one of the methods known to us, trying to cover the teaching of a foreign language in General, namely in the communicative method, we find the main signs of the activity type of training. The modern communicative method is a harmonious combination of many ways of teaching foreign languages, being, probably, at the top of the evolutionary pyramid of various educational methods.
At the present stage of teaching foreign languages, most teachers-linguists consider the most effective "communicative "and criticize traditional methods, working on the principle of" from grammar to vocabulary, and then the transition to the exercises to consolidate." Artificially created exercises do not form the user of the language, and the person learning the language by this method is more likely to remain silent than utter the wrong phrase. And "communicativeness", on the contrary, is intended to “untie” the language.
Among the most frequently discussed issues are whether communicative learning can be applied at all stages of learning; whether it is equally suitable for teaching English as a second and as a foreign language; whether it requires a complete abandonment of the grammatical curriculum or only its revision and adaptation; how this approach can be evaluated; how it is suitable for teachers who are not native speakers; and how it can be used in case the student has to pass a grammar – oriented test. All of the above issues require further study and analysis. However, at the present stage of development of methods of teaching foreign languages communicative training in one or another of its embodiment is the most common, which undoubtedly contributes to the activities of the Council of Europe. The project “Common European framework of reference for languages", published in 2003, is based on the principles of communicative teaching. Study, teaching, assessment” ("Common European Framework of Reference: Learning; Teaching, Assessment”).
“The communicative method of teaching English is more focused on practical needs: grammar – in a very limited form as needed, vocabulary – as needed for practical tasks, practice – in the form of dialogues and life situations, " Witlin wrote.
The communicative approach to teaching foreign languages is based on the communicative theory of language. The purpose of language learning is what Hymes calls "communicative competence". Hymes coined the term to contrast the communicative point of view with the language of Chomsky's competence theory (Chomsky), which believed that language theory deals with the ideal speaker-listener in a completely homogeneous speech community. Such a perfect person perfectly knows the language and is not affected by factors such as limitations of memory, absent-mindedness, volatility of interest, etc. For Chomsky, the main task of language theory to characterize the abstract abilities of the speaker which enable him to produce grammatically correct utterances in a foreign language, Hymes believed this view is unproductive, because the theory of language must be seen as part of a more General theory of communication and culture. Hymes' theory of communicative competence has become a definition of what a speaker needs to know in order to be understood in a particular speech community
Another linguistic theory of communication that formed the basis of the communicative approach is the functional use of the Holliday language. "Linguistics deals with the description of speech acts or texts, while only through the study of language in action it is possible to consider all its functions and shades of meanings.” Proponents of the communicative approach believed that the assimilation of a foreign language occurs on the same principles – as the assimilation of linguistic means of expression of a function.
For several years, this approach to learning has won a leading position in the Western European and American methodology, as well as in the domestic teaching methods. It is essential in determining the objectives of communicative training that at least two parties involved are involved in the interaction, where one of the parties has an intention (intention), and the other develops or reacts to it in one way or another. Discussion of real life situations attracts students, is of great interest and desire to share their ideas. The teacher directs students to perform a language task. The main place in the communicative teaching of a foreign language is occupied by game situations, work with a partner, tasks to find errors that not only allow you to increase the vocabulary, but also teach you to think analytically. Very important position of the teacher during the game and his ability to prepare the details of the game. According to the observations of E. N. Solovevoj the game in the classroom is able to simulate a real conversation that is so important for the communicative approach.
In this paper, we are of the opinion that the communicative approach is, first of all, a pragmatic approach to the study of a foreign language. To a certain extent, it sacrifices the fundamental nature of knowledge in order to prepare the student for the use of a foreign language in life in a shorter time.
The communicative approach assumes that the learning process is centered on the student. Therefore, the task of the teacher as an organizer of the educational process is to create an atmosphere in the classroom, conducive to communication and the implementation of communicative tasks. Speaking about educational materials used in communicative teaching of a foreign language, it should be noted their almost unlimited diversity. Proponents of the communicative approach consider educational materials as a way to influence the quality of educational communication and language use. Educational materials thus play a primary role in stimulating the communicative use of language. Traditionally, there are three main types of educational materials: text-based, based on the communicative task, realities. There are many textbooks focused on communicative teaching of a foreign language. The content of many of them on the selection and presentation of the material is not much different from traditional textbooks. Such textbooks are oriented towards a structured curriculum with minor changes that are supposed to explain their focus on communication. Others have fundamental differences from traditional. Such textbooks offer tasks containing various visual, informational and other means of stimulating communication. Common exercises with information gap.
The characteristic features of the communicative method: the fundamental is the meaning; language learning is the teaching of communication; the aim is the communicative competence (the ability to effectively and adequately use the linguistic system); by attempts and mistakes the pupil grows his own language system. The communicative Approach develops all language skills - from speaking and writing to reading and listening. Grammar is mastered in the process of communication in the language: the pupil first remembers the words, expressions, language formulas and only then begins to understand what they are in the grammatical sense. The goal is to teach a pupil to speak a foreign language not only fluently, but also correctly.
In foreign language lessons, the teacher creates situations in which pupils communicate in pairs with each other, in groups. This makes the lesson more diverse. Working in a group, pupils show speech independence. They can help each other; successfully correct the statements of the interlocutors.
The teacher in the classroom takes on the functions of the organizer of communication, asks leading questions, and draws attention to the original opinions of the participants, acts as an arbitrator in the discussion of controversial issues. Most of the time in the classroom is oral (although reading and writing are also given attention). At the same time, teachers speak less and listen more, only directing the activities of pupils. The teacher sets the exercise, and then, "talking" pupils, takes a back seat and acts as an observer and arbitrator. It is preferable that he uses only the language he is learning.
Communicative training involves the organization the process of teaching as a model of communication process. In the teaching process - pupils learn communication techniques, its operating side, master speech etiquette, learn to solve various communication problems, master strategy and tactics of dialogue and group communication, learn to be speech partners. As a planned useful result should to speak the main types of speech activity:
Means of training: - various dictionaries -textbook; - book for reading; - manuals; - computer programs and the Internet. Educational and cognitive competence types of exercises using a communicative-oriented approach.
1) The use of non-verbal means of communication. (The use of nonverbal means of communication-facial expressions and gestures - is a tried and tested way of explaining the meaning of new words for beginners. This allows you to avoid constant translation into Russian language. For example, the command "sit down" can be accompanied by a wave of the hand from top to bottom, the command "listen to me" - the palm near the ear, the command «enough "-the hand is raised with the palm forward, the command "try again" - an incentive gesture with the hand "to itself").
2) Methods of memorizing new words a) when writing English words in a notebook-dictionary instead of verbal translation, a picture is drawn, i.e. pupils do not remember the Russian meaning of the word, but its image) - a dog - a cat - a ball; b) exercises with a list of words. (The idea is that pupils perform a number of tasks in which words are not the goal, but a means of performing them – the principle of involuntary memorization works.)
3) Methods of activation of oral speech. a) Brainstorming (Pupils Express their ideas on the question, all these ideas are recorded, then from the whole list of ideas and suggestions the most appropriate one is selected). b) Search for missing information (communication gap activity) - a communicative task for the development of oral speech skills, performed by couples or groups. Partners have partial information about anything. They need to find out from each other the missing information to get a collective response (for example, which nightclub to choose). c) Pros and cons (Pupils are divided into groups, the 1st group expresses all the positive aspects on this issue, and the 2nd only negative, following the results of the dispute, the winners are selected). g) Priorities (from the list you want to distribute the points according to their degree of importance). e) Tasks on establishment of compliance of the given statements to the listened (read) text, multiple choice, multiple correspondences, and arrangements of events in the correct order.
It is necessary to form the ability and willingness to carry out interpersonal and intercultural communication with native speakers in four types of speech activity (speaking, reading, listening and writing). To lay the foundations of communicative competence, it takes quite a long time, because pupils need to get acquainted with the studied language as a means of communication from the first steps. This means that they must learn to understand foreign language speech by ear (listening), Express their thoughts by means of the language (speaking), read (reading), that is, to understand a foreign language text read to themselves, and write, that is, learn to use graphics and spelling of a foreign language when performing written tasks aimed at mastering reading and speaking, or be able to Express their thoughts in writing. To lay the foundations for each of these types of speech activity, it is necessary to accumulate linguistic means, which will ensure the functioning of each of them at the elementary communicative level.
As you know, the construction of the initial stage may be different in terms of language material, its volume, organization; sequence in the formation and development of oral and written speech; taking into account the conditions in which the educational process is carried out; disclosure of the potential of the subject itself in solving educational, educational and developmental tasks facing the school. That is why the initial stage in the study of a second foreign language allows you to lay the foundations of communicative competence, necessary and sufficient for their further development and improvement in the course of studying the subject.
The techniques described above can be summed up less than one heading: “the best communicative training is communication”.
II. Teaching English as a second by using communicative method
The researchers note that the principles of communicative activities resulting in the finished text (logical statement) largely determine the specifics of language phenomena, including the functioning of vocabulary in the act of speaking. The process of speaking is conditioned by the specific speech situation, including the main components:
- Participants of communication-teacher-student;
- Place of communication-school, University (defines business / official genre communications);
– Time communication (synchronous/non-synchronous perception statements limited to different time – depending on the type testing-framework);
- Subject of communication (circle of authentic topics and tasks in English language);
- The purpose of communication (to identify the level of communicative competence student);
- Feedback between participants of communication (active-dialogue; passive – the letter), the understanding between the communicants, assessment statements. Thus, the lesson as a communication situation is a fragment reality, including the purpose of communication, the subject of speech, direct the parties to the communication – teacher and learner, and the nature of their interactions.
Conversation as a way of forming speech in the dialogical learning “People create each other by communicating”. D.Likhachev. Dialogue is a special form of communication with pupils, because during the conversation we can establish contact with pupils, identify class problems, and identify gaps in knowledge. The teacher Frieri believes that education should be dialogical - focused on the problems that are considered and solved in the framework of the dialogue. Research findings show that dialogue is central to the lesson. Mercer and Littleton in their work showed that the dialogue in the classroom can contribute to the intellectual development of pupils and their effectiveness in learning. L.Vygotsky assumes that knowledge is acquired as a result of engaging the pupil in a dialogue. Pupils learn more easily when there is a possibility of a dialogue with others, more knowledgeable, in the role of which classmates or teachers can play. The teacher should not manage and control the conversation, but guide it in the right direction. "The teacher should be helped to understand that conversation is a way of solving the problem and a tool of learning” - Mercer. The way teachers and pupils talk to each other, ask questions, Express their opinions, do not hesitate to make comments, Express their opinions and honestly reveal themselves makes it possible to develop pupils ' thinking and creates an atmosphere of cooperation, a favorable psychological climate of the class. According to Mercer's research, conversation is an integral part of pupil learning. He distinguishes between three types of conversation: conversation-debate, cumulative conversation, research conversation. Pupils in conducting this type of conversation together made decisions, tried to be tolerant of each other's ideas. The positive thing was that the children of these conversations were studied to reflect, to appreciate and accept the ideas of other guys. Barnes and Mercer prefer a research conversation. They argue that exploratory conversation is the type of conversation that teachers need to develop. When involving pupils in a research conversation, work in small groups is usually used, in which participants have a common problem, create a joint understanding of it; exchange ideas and opinions, discuss and evaluate each other's ideas, create collective knowledge and understanding. In other words, pupils think together.
What is learned through dialogic teaching and learning?
Key researchers in the field converge on the view that the quality of educational dialogues is a key factor in academic attainment. Our own and others’ research (reviewed by Mercer, 2008) indicates that dialogic teaching can increase children’s capacity for dialogue and reflective thought as well as developing subject knowledge. A series of studies has shown that Exploratory Talk training stimulates the development of (individual and group) reasoning skillswhile also enabling attainment in science (Mercer, Dawes, Wegerif, and Sams, ) and mathematics (Mercer and Sams).
There has been some debate about whether being able to conduct effective dialogue is a valuable “end in itself” and whether teaching dialogue skills might divert activity from teaching curriculum subjects. While it is certainly the case that teachers often feel under pressure of time to ‘deliver the curriculum’, we believe that there need be no conflict between curriculum learning and learning to think and learn together with others; they go hand in hand. As Phillipson and Wegerif (2016) put it:
Being better at dialogue means learning how to ask better questions, how to listen better, hearing not only the words but also the implicit meanings, how to be open to new possibilities and new perspectives, while of course learning how to think critically about new perspectives through comparing different points of view. More than all these specific skills… to be more dialogic means to be more open to learning.
This learning includes teachers as well as their students; teachers’ understandings of the teacher-learner relationship itself may change as they begin to take a socio-cultural perspective, use opportunities to generate more productive dialogue with their students, and provide students with guidance on how to think collectively. They can devise suitable activities to create spaces which open up dialogue.
Having made the case above for language as a cultural tool for knowledge building and argumentation, we also need to consider the important role in learning played by other cultural tools prevalent in classrooms today, especially digital technologies. We have chosen two examples from our various studies in this area to illustrate the key role that technology use can play in supporting joint reasoning through the exploration and evaluation of different ideas.
2.1 Conversation as a way to form speech in teaching FL
Our study took place 8 " G " class in 38 schools. This class offers three academic hours a week to learn English. It is important to provide some information about the class in which the study took place, because in order to more rationally select materials and tasks for solving speech problems, the teacher must have an idea about the educational and extracurricular interests of pupils, the level of their sociability, emotionality, social status. The level of training in a foreign language is not always the leading criterion for the organization of the speech group and the selection of educational material, including speech situations.
So, practice English in 8"G" class was for 1month. Language training load is 3 hours per week. Pedagogical practice has shown that in 8 "G" class was very low motivation to work in the classroom and to the subject; many pupils have problems with behavior in the classroom. Although the teacher tried to ask everyone, some pupils kept silent, which led to a waste of time in the classroom. . When answering the teacher's question, these pupils make a lot of mistakes, not understanding what they really say, or keep silent. In General, the class was defined as rather weak, low-motivated.
In the process of teaching pupils with problem pupils established positive contact, which served as a more successful and coordinated work in the classroom. If necessary, pupils complement each other and help each other. Based on the data obtained during the observation of pupils, the following tasks were set: - in 8"G" class to increase the level of motivation, in particular-the level of motivation of speaking; - try to increase pupils ' knowledge in the field of vocabulary.
What do you think your pupils would answer to the question about the most boring and unloved lesson in English lessons? That's right: the study and development of grammatical structures. And I'm even ready to agree with them. The fact is that for many years the study of grammar in the school was conducted on the principle of monotonous performance of monotonous exercises, repeated them, which quickly tired, but did not bring any satisfactory results to either pupils or teachers. On the contrary – has often caused a sense of rejection and loss of interest in activities. So is it possible to make the process of mastering the grammatical side of speech interesting, productive and creative?
My answer - of course. The methodological standard today is, of course, communicative method, which prepares pupils for practical communication in a foreign language. Do not think that this approach is all about communicating in English. The word "communicative "does not mean "conversational". Rather, it emphasizes active interaction, "communication", and in many cases does imply active communication. However, in General, communication between people can occur through text, video and audio materials: when reading books, writing letters, listening to music, or simply during exercises, when it seems that between the author and the reader as it passes invisible connecting thread. What is important is not the form of communication, but the presence of interest and feedback.
The theme of Subject: “Great Britain” pupils can talk through the comprehensive analysis of the text below.
The purpose of the subject: Pupils' knowledge of the correct use of the concepts of phonetic, lexical, grammatical material in English, the ability to freely express their thoughts in real, systemic expression is associated with the correct organization and work on the development of speech.
1. Country Great Britain
2. Population 57 million
3. Capital. London
4. The area of UK 244.100 square kilometers
5. Parts England. Scotland. Wales. Northern. Ireland.
6. Islands 5500 islands
7. Climate Mild climate
8. Rivers the Thames/the Seven
9. Weather often rains in England
Pupil1: What do you like to read?
Pupils 2: I like to read the detective stories.
Pupil 1: What is your favorite author?
Pupil 2: My favorite author is Agatha Christie. But what about you?
Pupil 1: …
a) Listen the stories and find the difference.
b) Listen the text and remember for life how to be the safe in the road.
c) Read and compare these school uniforms with your school uniform.
a) Complete the text.
b) Interview your classmate about his/her hobby (favorite subjects).
c) Write a plan of a holiday. Advertise the programme. Whose programme and advertisement are the best?
Ex. Make up exclamatory sentences according to the model.
Model: competent advice — what competent advice! Good question — what a good question!
1. Original advice great idea
2. Beautiful nature difficult character
3. Fashionable furniture big refrigerator
4. Modern equipment ancient fortress
5. Unexpected money great fortune
6. Wonderful music sentimental tune
2.3 Analysis of research results
Interactive learning, I used to develop critical thinking and involve everyone in the learning process. “Class dialogue promotes the intellectual development of pupils and their effectiveness in learning.” (Mercer and Littleton). It is through the dialogue in the lesson that the close relationship “pupil-pupil”, “pupil-pupil”, “pupil-teacher” is established. It is important to note that the use of verbal means allows pupils to move from the category of passive listeners to the category of active interlocutors. What is studied independently by the pupils themselves is well absorbed and remembered for a long time. These courses have helped my pupils to reflect more, shape and develop their critical thinking, speech.
Using these methods and techniques, I was convinced that, according to Mercer's research, the form of dialogical learning research conversation is a very effective approach to the formation of pupils ' speech skills.
Thus, in accordance with this society, I will contribute to the improvement of teaching practice, using research conversation in the education of a literate pupil.
According to Mercer's study, conversation is an integral part of pupil learning and has described three types of interview. Types of interviews used in training:
→ a research interview.
According to Mercer, in successful discussions within the framework of achieving a corporate understanding of education, the priority will be the research form of conversation.
Conducted research conversation:
1) Everyone provides reasonable information;
2) A thorough evaluation is carried out, although the idea of each has been evaluated as useful;
3) Participants ask each other questions;
4) Participants ask questions and prove what they are saying, so the speech also looks like "proof";
5) Group members strive to reach an agreement (they can come and come to an agreement, and most importantly-to seek an agreement).
The considered types of work involve the expression of their own thoughts, personal involvement of students in the process of communication and, therefore, are truly verbal in nature, which is most consistent with the objectives of the formation of communicative competence.
Communicative-oriented tasks for the development of grammatical rules are of interest to students and attract them to participate actively in their implementation. An entertaining topic of the task, discussion of some important problem or educational game forms the inner motivation of students. As a result of the use of communicative-oriented tasks, they master the ways of practical actions with grammatical material and integrate it into speech in the form of questions, explanations, stories, expression of thoughts, ideas. These techniques greatly contribute to the solution of educational problems. Experience shows that learning grammar with the use of communicative technology can be used from the earliest stage and studied on the material of speaking, reading, listening and writing. Communicative-oriented teaching grammar improves motivation, enhances the expressive capabilities of speech and gives naturalness to the statements of students in the learning environment.
In Communicative teaching, according to Mercer and Littleton, increases the pupils' interest in the subject, promotes the growth of the level of knowledge that allows a deeper understanding of the topic. According to Barnes and Mercer, exploratory conversation is a form of conversation that teachers need when engaging pupils in conversation. During the research conversation, pupils work with their classmates in small groups. They will have a common problem; a common understanding is being formed on this issue. Exchange of opinions with the ideas, discussing each other’s ideas, evaluates, creates understanding for the collective knowledge. In other words, pupils think together. Pupils involved in the research conversation, Express their thoughts aloud, and discuss forecasts. In this scenario, pupils listen to each other, analyze their answers. The result of the exchange of views is the arguments of pupils who have worked in this direction. On my research topic, pupils showed what was said in class. Pupils are able to speak correctly about what they have learned, expressed their opinion. For me and for the pupil was an achievement, they learned to take part in a simple debate competition, to argue and argue their thoughts.Pupils gain knowledge with the use of the dialogue method, for example, through discussion, collaborative building of knowledge, understanding and skills. At each lesson, pupils have the opportunity to ask questions, Express their thoughts on the topic. Mutual discussion showed that there are different thoughts, help each other to understand. As practice shows, in a normal class hour lesson, pupils were very active during the dialogue.
Analyses of Survey Monkey:
There are 6 question, 30 pupils answered this question.  The first question is “How long have you been learning English”. 16 pupils have been learning English for 3-5 years. And 9 pupils study English more than 5 years. Rest of 30 study for 2-4 years.
The second question about “What kind of method is the most effective in teaching English for pupil?” the pie chart shows 25 pupil of 30 they choose communicative method, 2 pupil think the effective method is direct method, like this 2 pupil choose project method. Only 1 people choose intensive method.
The third question mentioned for pupil that they know about communicative method. Question: “Do you know about communicative method?” 23 pupils know about communicative method, 5 pupils do not what is a communicative method. 2 pupils never used this method.
The fourth question “Are you agree that communicative method is the most effective method in teaching foreign language for pupils?” 26 pupil agree with this method is very effective, 1 pupil is not agree. 3 pupils they do not know.
In the fifth question “Why do we use communicative method in school?”16 pupils the don not know but they prefer this method. 14 pupil said ‘helps to improve language skills”, “this method plays an important role, it helps to create their own thoughts by using speech”, “because it is mixed method”, “by this method we learn that structure of sentences, pronunciation of some words and also improve our speaking skill” and etc.
The sixth question “What methods do you prefer to study in foreign language?” 27 pupils confidently answered communicative method to the question communicative method, and rest of pupils prefers direct method.
In this experiment, we used the communicative on the principle of speech orientation. Each of the methods is unique and effective in its own way, but we need it was to track the growth. The communicative method was effective in the second week, and continued to increase in the next two, after its implementation in training, which is important, in a short time we managed to achieve good results'. The communicative method also showed the results, there was an increase in knowledge of the language, the third week he stabilized and fixed, which indicates the effectiveness of the method, but to achieve great results will have to spend more time.
It should be noted that the communicative method in teaching speaking
English language pupil gave us excellent results, high efficiency, increase knowledge of students. The use of this the method allows you to bring learning a foreign language to a new level:
- accelerates the assimilation of knowledge
- reduces fear of wrong answers in groups
- motivates for further study.
Reply of the survey monkey 90% of the pupils confidently answered the most effective method is communicative method in teaching foreign language. 27 pupils prefer to study English by communicative method.
So, we have considered modern methods of teaching. Is there a common basis on which they are all based? Yes, undoubtedly, the basis of these methods is a number of General methodological principles. But first of all, we must say that all these methods have a common goal of learning: to teach pupils to communicate in English, as well as to participate in the formation and development of the personality of pupils.
The main purpose of learning a foreign language at school-the formation of foreign language communicative competence. The situation in the classroom is speech communication situation, which in addition to the participants of communication (teacher and student). Learning to speak like a productive kind of speech activities that are communication in a foreign language, is given a crucial role in modern research, today's school curriculum in foreign language is focused on the formation of students skills of oral communication, culture of foreign language communication. In the course of this study, the effectiveness of formation of speaking skills in primary school children, through using the communicative method of teaching.
Specific features give each of these methods their own appearance, and they cause those positive and negative qualities that are inherent in each of them.
After analyzing the positive and negative features, it can be concluded that the most effective, successful and harmonious is the communicative method of teaching foreign culture. The communicative method of teaching English is objectively the most effective of all existing, especially when it comes to the organization of secondary school education. At the school level, it is necessary to lay the foundation for proficiency in English as a means of communication, which opens up the possibility to move from considering English as an object of study to using it in practice as a useful tool. In particular, if successful in this direction, pupils will have the opportunity to develop their knowledge of English in the future in any direction they choose, for example, in terms of studying any specific areas (for example, professional terminology, "technical" language, etc. ). Thus, the further introduction of the communicative system of education and, possibly, its gradual modernization in accordance with the changing realities of the modern world is necessary.
It should be noted that when choosing a method of training should take into account not only their own preferences, but above all should focus on age, ability, interests and psychological characteristics of pupils. Focusing on them, you can choose the most appropriate and effective method.
We can distinguish the following trends in the development of methods of teaching English at the present stage:
- Increasing differentiation of methods, methods and content of education, depending on the objectives and planned levels of language proficiency, the characteristics of the contingent of pupils and learning conditions and culture;
- Stable trends in reduction of translation methods;
- Strengthening the role of interaction and speech activity of pupils; the use of mental States in the educational process;
- Application in training of new technical means;
- Integration of elements of different methods in modern learning systems.
At the moment, there is no universal method, as the effectiveness of a method depends on many factors. In order to achieve sustainable high results, it is necessary to apply an integrated approach that incorporates the best elements of different methods.
Special attention is paid to the education of a person with knowledge, creative work, able to develop and improve themselves in accordance with the needs of modern society. Akhmet Baitursynov said in his work "school data ". “The soul of the school is a teacher. What is a teacher, so is the school. That is, if the teacher is educated, then the children will receive a lot of knowledge. And therefore, the school needs, first of all, an educated teacher who has an idea about pedagogy and methodology, a teacher who gives a good teaching material.”
In conclusion, the main goal of our sovereign country is to rise to the number of civilized countries, it has a special place in achieving civilization, fully developed, spiritually rich personality. The purpose of modern education is the formation of a fully developed, spiritually rich personality. For the formation and development of personality is important to link their changing actions with the study of specific phenomena and familiar objects around.
Teaching a child search skills and abilities is an important task of the modern educational field. During my practice, I came to the conclusion that it was important to conduct a dialogue training of pupils to self-search, creative, independent pursuit of independence.
Solved the objectives of the research:
- Determine the main purpose of teaching English as a second foreign language.
- Describe modern methods of teaching FL.
- The methods of development of speech of the English language in school
- Describe the communicative method of teaching English as a second.
-To get acquainted with the point of view of foreign methodologists on communicative method teaching of grammar;
Thus, the theoretical data on the research problem have been reflected in practice, where we used the communicative approach. Method in teaching English speaking on the principle of speech orientation in schools.
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