Ict as a motivational tool in the learning foreign language - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

Ict as a motivational tool in the learning foreign language

Оралбекова М.С. 1, Кыдырбаева Д.А. 2
1Евразийский Национальный университет имени Гумилева
2Евразийский национальный университет
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Development in technology has advanced very fast. The technological revolution is meaningly emendating the world. ICT is permeating, penetrant all sectors of the economy, creating new jobs, changing others and enhancing many activities. These activities include changes in existing laws and ethical values and, most importantly, the articulation of technical skills to gain employment. ICT is playing an increasing role in all areas of life. In daily routine jobs one cannot do anything without technology. According to Johannessen "ICT (information and communication technologies) in education lives a life at the crossroads between evidence based policymaking, learning and the fast-changing world of technology"

Modern developments in information and communication technologies implement exciting possibilities to exasperate the quality of education. Interactive education software, open access digital libraries, and cheaper and more visceral technology may facilitate new forms of interaction between students, teachers, education employees and the community and increase the quality of education by making it more accessible. Education may be enriched by integrating such technologies into traditional educational activities. Information and communication technology has become, within a very short time, one of the basic building blocks of modern society. The availability of technology for foreign language teaching and learningmake it possible to emphasize the various uses of information and communication technologies.

In a world divided by collisions of cultures and beliefs, the potential of the new media for fostering intercultural understanding and exchange is tremendous. Judicious deployment of ICTs can embolden and support cultural and linguistic diversity in individuals and in society in general. Facilitating access to other cultures and languages is the chief goal of the language teaching profession, and using ICT resources effectively in the teaching helps teachers to increase students’ motivation.

The technology has become a fixture in many homes around the world, and its influence has permeated into all aspects of our lives, including educational settings. In this age of Information and Technology, the use of Internet has brought many changes in teaching English. It is a highly useful tool which benefits both the learner and the teacher using it for many activities connecting with teaching and learning. Modern technology is developing at a faster pace, the learners and teachers have to upgrade themselves from time to time of these latest developments. ICT has the potential to oblige the needs of students by providing opportunities to learn originatively. Integration of Technology projects a paradigm shift in language teaching.

The introduction of this new process has serious implications for the nature and purpose of educational institutions. The knowledge and skills acquired make learning possible continuously throughout the lifetime. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as well as newer digital technologies such as computers and internet are more powerful tools for educational change and reform. They can best be harnessed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education at all levels and in both formal and non-formal settings as it enables access to information exponentially.

The popular image of young people – the ‘screenagers’ referred to by Rushkoff, – growing up in an increasingly technology-dependent society, connected by sophisticated telecommunication networks in a culture mediated by television and computer, is that of natural computer users from a ‘digital generation’. Recent studies have begun to examine the nature and extent of young people’s use of ICT outside school and the influence that it may have upon their learning with ICT in school. Whilst results indicate that some children (often those who use computers extensively at home) are capable of integrating their use of ICT in balanced and sophisticated ways, the indications are that this further accentuates inequities between such young people and their peers who lack similar access to these technologies.

The topicality of this work is determined by the need of using ICT in order to capture a communicative competence in English language, being not in the country of the studied language. The important task of teacher is creation of the real and imaginary situations of communication on the lesson of foreign language, using different methods and receptions of work (role plays, discussions, creative projects of and other) for this purpose. In this connection a communicative competence and methods of her achievement are one of the most actual.

The aim of this work is to cover the possibilities of information technologies in education in order to use them at the English lessons for the formation of students’ motivation

The objectives:

To study the theoretical aspects of using ICT

To analyze the practical use of ICT

To investigate students’ attitude to ICT

To investigate to what extent teachers integrate information and communication technologies into English lessons

The object of this research is the ways of using ICT to increase students’ motivation

The subject of this work is Information and Communication Technologies.

There are following research methods used in the study: content analysis, qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of information and communication technologies.

The theoretical significance of the given term paper lies in the fact that the results of the research can be useful in preparing different types of exercises, reports, and course and diploma papers in the related fields.

The practical significance of the work is that it can be used by teachers of foreign languages.

The structure of research work consists of introduction, theoretical and practical parts, conclusion as well as bibliography including 17 entitlements of research materials. There are 1 figure and 3 tables in the paper.

1 The theoretical aspects of using information and communication technologies as a means of increasing learners’ motivation

1.1The notion of Information and Communication Technology

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are as an electronic means of capturing, processing, storing and disseminating information [1,74]. According to another definition, ICTs are embedded in networks and services that affect the local and global accumulation and flows of public and private knowledge [2,4]. ICTs are defined diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information. These technologies include computers, internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. ICT is the broad subject concerned with all aspects of managing and processing information[5,2].

At the end of the 1980s, Information Technology replaced the term computers signifying a shift of focus from computing technology to the capacity to store and retrieve information. This was followed by the introduction of the term 'ICT' (Information and Communication Technology) around 1992.[6,8]

United Nations report defines ICTs covering provision of internet service, telecommunication equipments and services, information technology equipments and services, media and broadcasting, libraries and documentation centers, commercial information providers, network-based information services, and other related information and communication activities.[7]

While discussing difference between information technology and information and communication technology, Galloway and Norton stated:

The term IT (Information technology) and ICT (Information and Communication technology) are often used interchangeably, although the later term is little known outside of education. Generally school think of IT as being the technology, the equipment and the infrastructure, and ICT as what we do with it, the subject and the way it is used to support learning. Sometimes the term is pluralized, information and communication technologies' as there are now number of different tools, devices, functions and possibilities that ICT covers- a range that continues to grow and diversify”. [8, 188]

Use of Information and Communication technology is increasing day by day to achieve the educational objectives and various tools are used for enhancement of quality education. There is huge impact of ICTs on educational objectives. Integration of Information and communication technology provides innovative, modern, systematic and well organized procedures for instructional design and education which offers countless promising opportunities for teacher educators to achieve the objectives of education [9,4]. ICTs in education have changed the teaching and learning process. Integration of ICTs in education has reformed in teaching and learning process and changed teaching paradigm.

Use of ICTs in educational process to achieve the goals of education has revolutionary impact in instruction and education using various instructional tools. Narasaiah point out that "Technology related skills among the staff concerned, n particularly teachers and trainers, need to be improved" [10,6]. It is fact that integration of information and communication technology has transformed way of instruction which has great potential for learning.

According to Heyneman and Haynes:

The adoption of new technologies requires the adaption of ICT to educational settings as well as cultural changes in the role of teachers and other stakeholders in the educational process. Educational technology may be altering schooling in developing areas, including both the teaching and learning processes”.[11,60].

Easy access to information has provided opportunity to share the information of common interest and understand others' ideas. Using technology in education is an innovative idea and instructors have to be receptive to adopt new methods in teaching. Day by day improvements in the field of ICT is changing the application and usage which directly affect the education teaching and learning process that support sustainable development and conducive environment enhancing learning capabilities.

Integration of ICT in education not only provides opportunity to students to access the information but it helps them to learn according to their own needs. Speedy advancement in ICT supports student to find out resources and fulfils specific learning desires in accordance with their requirement [12,3]. It is fact that the capabilities required for job and professional expertise have been reshaped with the integration of ICT in education "ICT have changed the nature of work and types of skills needed in most of the filed and professions" [13,21]. Access to resources highly influenced teaching methodologies and nature of instruction.

Skillful teachers require the skills they use through knowledge and practice[14]. It is fact that ICTs are for instruction but technologies skills are acquired as a means to an end, and students receive practice in selecting and using various technologies applications to accomplish a wide variety of tasks. Technologies applications that can be used as a tool or a communications vehicle (e.g., overhead projectors, presentation on multimedia, video conferences, word processing and spreadsheet software, drawing programs, networks) can support any curriculum and can be fully assimilated into a teacher's ongoing core practice [16,88].

Chandra summarized that use of information and communication technologies in classroom have many effective impacts on learner and learning process. He identified following impacts when ICT is integrated in classroom:

Allow materials to be presented in multiple media for multichannel learning.

Motivate and engage students in learning process,

Bring abstract concept of life.

Enhance critical thinking and other higher intellectual skills and process.

Provide opportunities for students to practice basic skills on their own time and at their own pace.

Allow students to use information acquire to solve problems, formulate new problems, and explain the world around them: provide for access to worldwide information resources.

Be the most cost effective means for bringing the world in the class room.

Offers teachers and students a platform through which they can communicate with colleagues from distant places, exchange work, develop research and function if there were no geographical boundaries[3,22].

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can contribute to universal access to education, equity in education, the delivery of quality learning and teaching, teachers’ professional development and more efficient education management, governance and administration.

Some of the benefits of ICT that have been identified by teachers:

ICT is motivating both for students and for teachers. It makes the learning process more enjoyable.

ICT offers a wide range of multimedia resources enabling text, still images, audio and video to be combined in interesting and stimulating ways for presentation purposes in the classroom, using a data projector and an interactive whiteboard. 

ICT offers opportunities for intensive one-to-one learning in a multimedia computer lab.

ICT offers access to a rich resource of authentic materials on the Internet. See:

ICT offers access to a wide range of authentic materials on CD-ROM and DVD.

ICT makes worldwide communication possible via email and via audio- and videoconferencing with native speakers.

For many years some teachers were wary of ICT and believed that it would never become a mainstream activity. One of the reasons for this was the fact that, because of lack of adequate access to hardware, it was used as a bolt-on, either to motivate the reluctant learner or to reward the fast learner.

Resources that are available on more traditional media, such as audio- and videocassettes (and which are still in use in many educational institutions) are usually fully integrated into courses. For any teaching point, the appropriate section of the teacher's guide will indicate when and in which sequence they should be used. Their content will have been designed to further specific objectives within the course. Their use at particular points in the course to deliver the specific objectives will have been decided upon on the basis of fitness for purpose. Their characteristics, in turn, will have determined the purposes for which they are fitted. For example, teachers might be encouraged to begin by allowing the students to establish meaning by hearing the recorded words and looking at the flashcards. The next stage might be to focus on pronunciation by repetition, with consolidation of the meaning of the words and recall of the spoken words by the continued use of the flashcards. The third stage might take the class to the course book where miniature versions of the flashcards are displayed along with the new words. At this stage they will learn to both associate the spelling with the spoken form of the word, and to recognize the written word itself and to link it to the object.

It is also fact that currently more investment has been seen in ICT facilities and using ICTs as an important tool for teaching which makes fundamental changes in teaching practices. It is now big question that does ICT change the foundation of teaching methodology or it is a transition process for teachers .

1.2 The variety of Information and Communication technologies deployed in language learning

Some examples of ICTs are IWBs, computers, computer assisted language learning (CALL) software, office applications (word, PowerPoint, drawing tools etc.), the Internet – websites and downloadable software, commercial course book CD-ROMs, DVD players, mobile phones, electronic dictionaries, digital cameras and videos, DAT recorders, document cameras, data projectors. Livingstone states that ICT includes technologies specific to the school environment (e.g. interactive whiteboards) or applications used across formal or informal boundaries (e.g. education games) and networked technologies. In a similar vein, according to Hennessy, Ruthven and Brindley , the term ICT encompasses the range of hardware (desktop and portable computers, projection technology, calculators, data logging and digital recording equipment), software applications (generic software, multimedia resources), means of telecommunication and information systems (Intranet, Internet). ICTs refer to technological tools and resources which are employed to communicate, create, disseminate and manage information (Yunus, Nordin, Salehi, Sun and Embi, 2013). Furthermore, ICTs may be defined as information-handling tools- a varied set of goods, applications and services that are used to produce, store, process, distribute and exchange information. They include the ‘old' ICTs of radio, television and telephone, and the ‘new’ ICTs of computers, satellite and wireless technology and the Internet.

There are some kinds of technologies classified into information and communication technology commonly used in language context, such as:

Interactive multimedia

Interactive media is the integration of digital media including combinations of electronic text, graphics, moving images, and sound, into a structured digital computerized environment that allows people to interact with the data for appropriate purposes. The digital environment can include the Internet, telecoms and interactive digital television.

Computer

Computer can be utilized with other multimedia learning devices or it can stand alone (a standard PC) and still serves its basic purpose as an electronic medium of language learning. Computer is an electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data) and performing a sequence of logical operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instruction (program) to produce results in the form of information or signals based on Oxford dictionary. It is consist of CPU, monitor, keyboard and some other apparatus.

Audio devices

Audio devices can be used with other media to form an interactive multimedia. However, it can also be utilized separately as independent tool. Audio devices include speaker, earphone, CD, and etc. The most popular and most widely used devices appropriated by modern language teachers remain the CD player and the audiocassette recorder. More recently, the Web has served as an additional source of authentic listening materials thanks to the possibility of fast downloads using MP3 software.

Video

The use of moving images linked to sound provides learners with exposure to all important elements of spoken communication: gestures, pronunciation, intonation, all embedded in natural, cultural contexts. And devices like DVD players, videocassettes, web sources, the laserdisc and video cameras readily supply these. Thanks to modern technology, scenes can be located, isolated and replayed at random and there is an abundance of literature suggesting how to exploit film/video sequences meaningfully. Different forms of visual support can now be offered (e.g. optional sub-titles in the mother tongue or target language to assist understanding and facilitate access to the language).

Television and radio broadcasts

According to Oxford dictionary, television is a system for converting visual images (with sound) into electrical signals, transmitting them by radio or other means, and displaying them electronically on a screen. Both satellite and terrestrial radio and television programs offer cheap access to contemporary, authentic, and potentially culturally rich programs for the language learner. Broadcasts are particularly useful for reaching sectors of the population who might not normally think of taking up language learning, but who might be wooed by attractive “taster” courses highlighting interesting or exciting elements in the target culture.

Internet

Internet can be used as a medium of language learning through email, www (world wide web), text, audio and video conferencing. By using the authentic material provided by the Internet, we will have a better insight into the culture of the country and people whose language we study. The Internet also offers a wide variety of reference materials like online dictionaries, encyclopedias and search mechanisms very helpful for developing students` individual work. They can find, alone, the missing information, the meaning of new words, synonyms, antonyms or can communicate with the rest of the group online, via e-mail or in any other ICT environment.

Telephone

ISDN has gone a long way to overcoming the problem of the relatively poor quality of analogue transmissions, which has so far prevented this medium from being widely used for language teaching. Audio exchanges via the Internet now also provide possibilities for real time synchronous oral communication. The principal uses of the telephone to date have been limited to supplementary tutoring for those engaged in distance education. However, with the advent of digital quality and lower connection costs, there is now considerable potential for its extended use – including the possibility of conference calls.

Mobile gadget

Mobile gadgets such as cell phone and smart phone which are equipped with programs like computer, which enable it to perform as mini personal computer. By using this gadget and its internet connection, everybody could enjoy chatting, browsing, and discuss each other with the wider range. The advancement of science and technology makes the size and price of those gadgets are getting cheaper and reachable.

Interactive whiteboard

An interactive whiteboard or IWB, is a large interactive display (such as a touch screen monitor) which is connected to a computer and projector. A projector projects the computers’ desktop onto the board’s surface, where users control the computer using a pen, finger or other devices.

Email

The emergence of the internet has revolutionalized the humans communicate and do things. Many teachers have started to utilize the internet to facilitate teaching and learning. Teachers of English language are not exceptions. Email can be used by a teacher to reach many students at a distance once the students provide their email addresses. The teacher can use email to send learning materials to students; give assignment; assess and post the feedback to the students’ email boxes. Through the use of e-mail for instance, the students interact with their lecturers and friends at a distance. By sharing files, students collaborate and work together with their lecturers and colleagues. In this way, there is transformation from traditional teacher-centered approach which makes learners passive receivers to students-centered or democratic approach which makes learners active discoverers and explorers.

The methodology of language learning has developed a new way of using ICT in teaching, the Hypermedia. Hypermedia provides the language teacher and the language learner with multimedia resources, such as texts, graphics, sound, animation, video linked together. It also has a number of advantages omitted by CALL. It offers an authentic learning environment, it combines listening with seeing. Skills can easily be integrated in the teaching/learning process; reading, writing, speaking, listening can be combined in task- based learning. It is also better for learners to use Hypermedia in classes. They have greater control over their learning because they can go at their own pace, they can do some activities on their own, can skip some parts of the text or revise the ones they find difficult. Another major advantage of hypermedia usage is that the learner can focus on the content and access different links with grammar explanations, exercises, vocabulary, pronunciation, etc. But, above all, hypermedia brings variety to your class. Students get used to learning the foreign language in a new and pleasant way, not just by interacting with the teacher and reading from the book.

In a language classroom the computer may have the following roles:

teacher – it teaches students new language

tester - it tests students on the already learned structures

tool – it assists students to do certain tasks

data source – it provides students with the information they need to solvedifferent tasks

communication facilitator – it allows students to communicate with others.

We have pointed out the advantages of using ICT in the classroom. But we also want to state that they can not replace traditional teaching methods. Textbooks and any other printed materials are very necessary in the teaching/learning process. But ICT lessons can alternate traditional classes, or traditional activities can be improved by using the computer or the Internet.

Using computers and the Internet from time to time makes the class more vivid and pleasant. It is a way of escaping routine and it awakens the interest of our students. Computers can be used with young learners too, because there are a lot of songs and fairy tales on the Internet.

1.3 ICT as a motivational tool in the learning offoreign languages

No doubt, motivation is the cornerstone in the process of acquiring or learning a foreign language; therefore, learners usually have a positive attitude toward computers. Even though, the modern technologies are double-edged sword, their advantages are acknowledgeable over its pitfalls.

Motivation is an important factor in the learning of foreign languages. And every teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) looks all the time for different ways how to raise student’s motivation. Several conditions for teachers so that they might make motivation in classes possible:

Create a pleasant and supportive atmosphere.

Promote the development of group cohesiveness.

Increase the students’ expectation of success in particular tasks and in learning in general.

Make learning stimulating and enjoyable by breaking the monotony of classroom events.

Make learning stimulating and enjoyable by increasing the attractiveness of tasks.

Make learning stimulating and enjoyable for learners by enlisting them as active task participants.

Present and administer tasks in a motivating way.

Provide students with regular experiences of success.

Build your learners’ confidence by providing regular encouragement.

Increase student motivation by promoting cooperation among the learners.

Increase student motivation by actively promoting learner autonomy.

Increase learner satisfaction.

Offer rewards in a motivational manner.

And some of the conditions mentioned above can be fulfilled by using ICT since ICT have a positive impact on learning

learning concentrates rather on the learner than a teacher

learning becomes more personalized

learning becomes on the one hand more independent

on the other more collaborative and interactive

learning can happen at any place and any time

learning is enriched with more up-to-date materials which can be tailored according to students’ immediate needs

thanks to multimedia activities, learning becomes more varied and dynamic

learning requires critical thinking

learning becomes more culture conscious

The advantages of ICT usage in foreign language teaching can be listed as:

1. Capacity to control presentation. This capacity marks the difference between computers and books. Books have a fixed presentation, unlike computers, which can combine visual with listening materials, text with graphics and pictures.

2. Novelty and creativity. A teacher can use different materials for each lesson, not like in teaching with textbooks, where all classes presenting a certain topic are the same.

3. Feedback. Computers provide a fast feedback to students` answers through error correction. It not only spots the mistake but also corrects it, sometimes even giving the appropriate advice.

4. Adaptability. Computer programs can be adapted by teachers to suit their students` needs and level of language knowledge. Unlike books, which are produced in a single uniform format and need to be taught irrespectively of students` problems, computer programs are more learner- friendly.

There is significant evidence of the benefits and advantages that the use of ICT can have on learners. The effective use of ICT impacts on learners and various aspects of the learning process can be summarized as follows:

- ICT increases learners’ motivation and thus enhances personal commitment and engagement

- ICT improves independent learning

- Learners’ collaboration and communication are more important

- Learners’ attainment and outcomes are improved

As for the learners perceptions of ICT, students work independently with technologies with the goal of arriving at a specified level of mastery of a given knowledge set. At the same time, it provides flexibility to learners which are a must for mastery of learning and quality of learning. The use of ICT in language learning not only involves pedagogical changes for teachers but also involves environmental and pedagogical changes for learners who are traditionally used to face-to-face teaching in classrooms. Although an increasing number of learners have access to online technologies and use ICT for personal interactions, they find it challenging to use ICT in an educational context.

The use of ICT in the English classroom extends beyond its motivational value to address key outcomes of the syllabus, and allow students to become competent users as well as consumers in English.

Incorporating ICT into the English curriculum can:

improve writing and reading skills

develop speaking and listening skills

support collaboration, creativity, independent learning and reflection

As an interactive and collaborative medium, ICT allows responding, composing, and publication to be easily shared and offers students the opportunity to explore the language of texts more creatively and develop as speakers, writers and readers for an ever widening range of purposes and audiences. ICT can enable students to:

access information and respond to a widening range of texts

organize and present information in a variety of forms

broaden the range of audiences for their work

compose a widening range of texts for a broad range of purposes

compose for real audiences

develop understanding of language and critical literacy

Using information and communication technologies in the English language lessons enough is actual for the development of the individual of each student and to offer students the following skills: the ability to compare the advantages and disadvantages of different sources of information, choosing appropriate technologies of its search, to create and use appropriate models and procedures of examination and information processing, etc.

Use of ICT in a Class room will lead to:

Provides highly motivational activities for students

Computer based activities can provide stimulus to creative learning

More opportunities for student teacher interaction

Provides an easy access to information

The best way to make sure that students can keep up with the fast-paced advancements in technology is to give them continual experiences with the tools and programs available today.

One of the other greatest benefits of technology integration in education is the ability it offers for independent learning. Although technology can and does not replace an effective teacher, it does give students access to some of the supports that a teacher would provide.

Text-to-speech features or interactive textbooks enable students to read and enjoy books above their actual reading level by reading and defining unknown words. Online tutorials and  allow students to access teacher tutorials in the comfort of their own home.

 It also provides students access to target culture. When learning a language, experience with the target culture helps to develop context and makes learning the language more meaningful. Thanks to technology, students can benefit from experiences to which they otherwise may not have access. Whether they are visiting social media sites, reading or listening to the news or participating in online discussions, these experiences are rich and meaningful.

Benefits Consulting ICT Teacher Model for teachers :

ICT allows teachers to engage and motivate pupils to a greater degree

The Internet increases access to authentic data

Simulations enable teachers to show experiments that would not otherwise be possible

Data logging and digital video recording allow access to new sources of data in a wider range of experimental settings

ICT provides quicker and more accurate data collection, saving lesson time and giving better quality results

Benefits for pupils :

The mechanical aspects of practical work are reduced, allowing pupils to concentrate on interpreting and analyzing data

ICT can provide a greater capacity for project-based learning dealing with topics relevant to pupils' interests.

There are more opportunities for independent, self-directed learning

School networks and the internet can provide access to learning resources outside of school hours.

Electronic communication enables pupils to become part of a community of learners.

In closing, ICT, the internet and modern technology is on the forefront of language teaching offering teachers and students a like the opportunity to explore and even exploit English in ways that were not possible before. Students are able to use English with ICT in a very natural, realistic environment, enabling to communicate more effectively in the new language.

The advantages of ICT usage in Foreign Language Teaching can be grouped as:

Capacity to control presentation. This capacity marks the difference between computers and books. Books have a fixed presentation, unlike computers, which can combine visual with listening materials, text with graphics and pictures.

Novelty and creativity. Teaching with ICT is not like teaching with textbooks. Teaching with textbooks, where all classes presenting a certain topic are the same. However, teaching with ICT, a teacher can use different materials for each lesson.

Feedback. Computers provide a fast feedback to students` answers through error correction. It not only spots the mistake but also corrects it, sometimes even giving the appropriate advice[15,455].

Adaptability. Computer programs can be adapted by teachers to suit their students` needs and level of language knowledge. Unlike books, which are produced in a single uniform format and need to be taught irrespectively of students` problems, computer programs are more learner- friendly.

There are studies confirm what Becker has observed about the positive impact that ICT can have on pupils‟ learning, including:

increased motivation and engagement to stay on-task, behave better and produce higher quality output;

produce higher quality work;

learn more independently and at their own pace;

do things they cannot do using traditional methods and resources;

do more work and work more quickly.

There are many studies that describe the motivating impact of using ICT in schools especially the positive effect it can have on students‟ attention and effort in class. Trimmel and Bachman in their book “Cognitive, social, motivational and health aspects of students in laptop classrooms” studied the impact of introducing laptops into classrooms and one of their conclusions was that: “information technology has a positive impact on school attendance and learning interest”[4,90] Moreover, there is a number of research projects support the statement of: “ICT can play an important role in motivating pupils and encouraging them to engage in learning, within and beyond the classroom”.

It is proved that when learners made use of ICT, their motivation and engagement improved because all learners engage enthusiastically with ICT in their learning and play. Improving Scottish education study concludes that when we use ICT in teaching in primary schools, there are clear benefits can be included:

enhanced interaction by learners with learning materials

learners spending more time on task

peer support when using ICT

improved willingness to write, especially among boys

less disruption to learning activities through enthusiastic engagement

improvements in the readability and attractiveness of written work

development of skills in working with others through collaborative activities

improved determination when solving problems

We can declare that learners' engagement with the teaching process increases when the teacher use the facilities offered by interactive whiteboards to deliver whole class lessons. Its benefits are related to the learner motivation, behaviour and attention; independent study by learners; increased rate of learning and teaching activities; the motivating effect of computer games and quizzes; and drafting and redrafting of written work.

2 The application of ICT as a way of motivating English learners

2.1 ICTs integration into classroom

ICT is a part of our everyday life and using ICT devises such as computers and tablets in the classroom motivate learners in the English language classroom. The use of ICT in the classroom is becoming more and more convenient and there are many different ways a teacher can use it as a pedagogical tool. According to Skolverket (2011), teaching should encourage students into developing an interest in language learning and they should be given the opportunity to develop their skills in relating content to their own experiences and interests [17, 91]. This could be done by incorporating information and communication technologies in the classroom to increase students’ motivation in the ESL classroom.

The development of ICT – electronic mail, internet, multi media, possibilities to use collaborative platforms, undoubtedly, influences the process of using them in everyday classroom teaching and learning. ICT no longer serves to be a simple additional means but ICT is an indispensable part of the modern and contemporary learning environment. By using the authentic material provided by the internet, we will have a better insight into the culture of the country and people whose language we study.

The integration was conducted at 8 E form, consisting 21 students ( 9 boys and 12 girls).

Integration program

1 To conduct a questionnaire in order to identify students’ attitude to English lessons in whole and to new technologies particularly

2 To poll teachers of English language in order to figure out their attitude to information and communication technologies

3 To conduct lessons using ICT

4 To poll teachers and students the same questionnaire to compare with previous results.

Initially there was carried out a survey to determine the motivation of students. The first stage was conducting questionnaire, where learners should answer 6 questions.

 

Strongly agree

Somewhat agree

Somewhat disagree

Strongly disagree

English lessons are very interesting

       

Interactive whiteboard, images, computer are used in English lessons

       

Students speak more than teacher

       

I spend much time on Internet

       

I use Internet for doing my hometask

       

I use Internet for entertaining

       

Table 1 The questionnaire

Figure 1.

The results of the questionnaire showed that only 8 students out of 21 are interested in English lessons.

The second stage was polling teachers in order to identify whether they use ICT in classes or not.

Research Question #1 How often do you do the following activities?

 

Never

Rarely

Sometimes

Often

All the time

Browse/search the

internet to collect

information to prepare

lessons

         

Browse/search the

internet to collect

resources to be used

during lessons

         

Use applications to

prepare presentations for

lessons

         

Create your own digital

learning materials for

students

         

Prepare exercises and

Tasks for students

         

Use ICT to provide feedback and/or assess students’ learning

         

Communicate onlinewith parents

         

Download/upload/browse material from a learning platform

         

Look for online professional development opportunities

         

Table 2 The Questionnaire

The results of the above questionnaire showed that teachers mainly use for preparing exercises and tasks.

Research Question #2 Which of the following types of materials have you used when teaching your classes with the aid of a computer and/or the Internet?

 

Yes

No

Material that you’ve searched the Internet for

   

Existing online material from established educational sources

   

Electronic offline material (e.g., CDROM)

   

Material of your own creation

   

Table 3

Research Question #3 Which ICTs do teachers have access to in their school and what is the frequency of their access per week?

Figure 1 above shows that 77.5% teachers who took part in the study indicate computer is the type of ICT they have access to and 25% teachers have no access to computers.

Again 35.0% teachers indicate they have access to scanner and 65% teachers do not have access to it. It also shows that 75% teachers indicate they have access to interactive board and 25% teachers have no access to it. The figure also shows that 70% teachers indicate they have access to data projectors and 30% teachers have no access to it.

No teacher indicate having access to the Internet and e-mail. The result indicates that respondents have access to ICTs except that they do not have access to e-mail and the Internet this may be because the school is not connected to internet and email.

Four English teachers have participated in test. The results showed their awareness of information and communication technologies but no opportunities to use it in their classes.

2.2 A set of activities to use ICT in English teaching classroom

Before starting integration of ICT into classes teacher should be aware the way how to implement new technologies. Therefore, the first step to introduce the new technologies in the classroom was to show students examples of blogs so that they became familiar with their use and characteristics. In this way, the students could see posts similar to the ones they would have to produce, analyze content, form and discuss what themes and topics could be imitated for their own presentations. In this activity, the students were capable to see in advance that when a person posts something, the message gains a highly meaningful communicative effect. Other students respond to the posts and links to other posts may also be created.

I will now provide a brief theoretical background that supports the implementation of these WEB 3.0 tools and describe how they were used them.

Google Docs

This service works as a document editor that allows learners to work personally or in groups. One of its valuable characteristics is that both the teacher and the students keep track of the changes introduced in a text, a feature that was well in keeping with our interest in assessment for learning. As most of the students in our class already had no a gmail account they should registered.

The learners worked with this tool both individually, sharing the document only with the teacher, and in pairs to write texts containing personal information (written assignments, hobbies, the family, job, etc.), letters and short narratives.

E-portfolio

A formative portfolio was used with all the written texts produced by the students, even those that were not going to be included in the blog.

The material comprising the e-portfolios included the texts that the students had been writing in google docs.

Before the end of the practice, the learners were requested to revise their portfolios, select the items they liked best from all the activities that they had uploaded and chose one to post in the blog.

In google docs, the students had only used plain text. Hence, in order to make their postings more attractive, the following tools were shown so that they could ornament their texts: Glogster , which allows to create posters; Fodey, which is used to generate newspaper clips; Letterpop, which provides templates to publish newsletters.

Finally, the students generated a final version of their written texts using these tools and chose a catchy title for their productions. These final pieces of work were not marked, as we were not evaluating how proficient students were in the use of these new instruments: instead, they received feedback through comments made face-to face, which contributed to increase the learners’ motivation.

Windows Movie Maker

As the practice progressed, students felt more confident with the use of ICTs. They became even more excited and came up with new ideas: produce two videos as a means of showing their oral production.

The learners worked collaboratively planning how to introduce themselves in a mock class and writing a sort of script for a mock advertisement. Videos were edited by two of them using Windows Movie Maker and uploaded in YouTube before posting them in the blog. Even though in this final stage of the video production the work was limited to only two students, we believe the experience was highly rewarding for the whole group.

Blog

As mentioned, one of the practice goals was to create a blog. This tool allows to promote interaction and communication between the author and the audience. Blogs can be an undeniable source of expression in which teachers and students can share and exchange data and content in a whole environment of participation and collaboration.

Thus, we expected the implementation of an educational blog would provide an authentic audience for the students’ works as well as fulfill the following aims:

· to promote the students´ acquisition of digital literacy skills.

· to enhance participation among learners in an online environment.

· to encourage reciprocity and active learning.

Learners know that their postings are likely to be read -and commented- not only by their teacher and partners but also by their families, friends and the whole community, depending on the blog access restrictions. Hence, even though they may be shy, they feel more motivated and tend to make their best effort to achieve a better communication We were satisfied to observe how well some shy students did on being able to communicate with an audience asynchronously.

The integration of the ICTs to teach languages presents both advantages and disadvantages for teachers as well as learners, just as the use of any other material.

Among the advantages noticed the following:

· the possibility of extending the learning experience beyond the classroom walls.

· increased motivation.

· more interaction both teacher-students and students-students.

· flexibility (in terms of topics, timing, learning styles).

· development of collaborative work.

· increased students’ participation

2.3 Ways of the using ICT at foreign languages lessons

If the teacher is not aware of information and communication technologies it will not be an easy process. Integration of ICTs in education has provided many forms of communication with flexibility and easiness. As the same time, initially teacher should learn how to use information and communication technologies at lesson. Use of ICTs in education have very important role in teaching methodologies with positive impact on the way of dissemination of content knowledge and effective learning strategies. In a study by Beauchamp took position that "teachers must incorporate the use of ICT into their classes" and "ICT must be used to meet educational objectives" .

Integration of ICT in teaching methodology make students active participants, provide opportunity to learn in classroom and from external sources. Enhance teamwork, encourage them to ask questions and find solution of problems.

Ways in which ICT is can be used:

1.Presentation

The first challenge of the teacher is to make interest students. Presentations can be used for presenting new theme and engage them into classes. Text-based materials and audio video or materials may be used to present or recycle new language to learners.

Google Presentations is a great way to introduce new ideas to the students. At your disposal are many themes, fonts, embedded videos, animation methods and other means. It can be used online and for free. Teacher can create, edit, and view presentations on any device-phone, tablet, or computer. All this can be done without an Internet connection.

Canva is free presentation software gives you access to hundreds of beautifully designed layouts to create presentations on any topic. Teacher can simply choose the different images, fonts and colors to make presentation. There is a collection of stunning presentation ideas if you are stuck for inspiration.

Visme is a simple tool to translate your ideas into engaging content in the form of infographics, reports, presentations and wireframes. Visme includes all kinds of tools for creating more interesting and amazing content.

Prezi is a presentation software which has become widely popular recent years. Prezi has substituted traditional Power Point presentations and offers different functions to teachers allowing them to use it online. It is a visual learning tool which enables teachers to create maps of texts, images, videos, graphics etc. It is easy for exploiting and has effortless navigational approach. Here are five reasons to convince you that Prezi should be used in education:

1. Prezi produces sensational visual impact. Import pictures, maps and PDFs and use them as a canvas. With the cinematic experience of the zooming function, your students will feel like they are transported into a “world” that you have designed yourself.

2. Prezi can be applied with an interactive whiteboard. It allows to create exciting and interactive presentations with touch navigation.

3. Prezi offers more freedom of navigation. Prezi can be kept in the public domain and therefore accessed by students on the Internet. At home, they can navigate the Prezi themselves, observe connections of ideas and visualize concepts.

4. Prezi is a great tool for interactive classroom sessions or group projects. Students can cooperate in real time with up to ten others, in the classroom or at home, to brainstorm and build a presentation on one shared virtual whiteboard.

5. If you already have all your notes in PowerPoint, you don’t need to start all over again. Use the PowerPoint Import feature to transfer your existing content directly into Prezi.

Emaze is the next generation of online content creation technology,enabling beautiful content design within minutes. While initially just presentations,emaze has now expanded its realm to offer a creation tool for beautifully designedsocial hub websites, blogs, ecards and photo albums in minutes. It enables the addition of media, gifs and live social feeds.

2.Audio recordings

BBC Podcasts is a great site win dozens of podcasts for learning English language. There are plenty of themes that would be interesting for learners.

Podcastsinenglish.com . All podcasts are free for language learners and teachers, and also you can receive the learning English worksheets, vocabulary tasks, webquests and transcripts for using at classes.

Letsmasterenglish.com is another useful site for teachers. It was created by Coach Shane, a teacher with 30 years experience teaching English. He believes that conventional classroom teaching methods don't guarantee students' development in listening and speaking and developed his own unique teaching method, and it is a guaranteed teaching technique to improve students' listening and speaking skills.

Linkengpark.com is a buried treasure for teacher. There are dozens of audio and video materials for all levels starting from elementary ending advanced learners.

3.Video-recordings

Youtube has become an amazing device for teachers because of several reasons. Firstly the content - there are plenty of channels with qualitative videos. Teacher might already have books or classroom lessons, but having a variety of materials is good. Teacher can pause and rewind whenever need to. Lastly many of the videos let students see the speaker’s mouths. This way they can better understand how their mouths move and learn pronunciation.

Speechyard.com is a site with collection of films. You can watch them with subtitles and without. Films, cartoons, documentaries, music videos and many other materials are available for free. When you watch the video you can just click on any word or select a phrase to see its translation, listen to it or add it for further learning. There are different trainings that will help students to learn new words, practice spelling, pronunciation and memorize words easily.

Fluentu.com. There teacher can find movie trailers, music videos, new and inspiring talks and real world video content that's entertaining, timely, and ideal for language learners. FluentU offers a huge collection of authentic English videos and tons of great choices there for language lab assignments. On FluentU, all the videos are sorted by skill level.

4. Practice

A wide range of different exercise types are possible with ICT, incorporating the presentation of stimuli in varying combinations of text, audio and video materials, format. ICT also offers the possibility of analyzing of learners’ responses, with appropriate feedback and branching

5. Listening and pronunciation

If your class is not equipped with computers and special devices, you can always use your mobile phone or laptop in order to improve their pronunciation skills.

6.Authoring

As well as purchasing ready-made materials, teachers may wish to create their own exercise materials using a variety of authoring tools.

7. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA)

Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) is playing an increasingly important role in FL teaching and learning. Computer Aided Assessment is used to manage or support the assessment process. Well-written computer assisted testing is more likely to be objective testing: testing that can be marked objectively and thus offer high reliability. The benefit is that the tests can be marked quickly and easily, and adapted to meet a wide range of learning outcomes. Tests have the following potential:

To incorporate a wide range of media

To link online assessments to feedback

To incorporate hints into test questions

To assign other learning activities based on the test result

To be administrated easily, allowing better test management

8. Publishing

A number of tools exist to help learners work on their writing / publishing collaboratively, often linked in a local area network. Language learners use ICT to help them publish their work in the following ways:

Word-processors and Desk Top Publishing (DTP) software

Audio recording and editing tools to record interviews, discussions, etc.

Digital cameras and camcorders to record presentations, interviews, role-plays

PowerPoint as an aid to public presentations.

Web pages using Web authoring tools, e.g. Front Page, Dreamweaver.

9. Communication

Language learners and teachers can use technology to help them communicate with one another:

Email allows language learners to communicate with people from all over the world. There are different social networks for exactly that purpose. Some of them are Web pals, LiveMocha.com, Italki.com, Palabea, Lang 8, VoxSwap, My Happy Planet etc.

Audioconferencing using the Wimba

Videoconferencing

 

CONCLUSION

This study has examined the role of information and communication technologies in raising motivation. ICT presents a powerful learning environment for learners in the classroom. Many countries make investments in ICT integration as ICT is viewed as an effective tool for renewing educational practice in any field. The use of information technology maintaining contact, that bond between us that let our students know that support was only a click away, and at the same time giving them a sense of freedom to work on the areas of their learning that they considered important. These tools also promote authentic communication in an environment where this input is scarce and at the same time helps prepare them for the technological work place of the future. The teacher needs to see the real effect ICT materials have on the learning process. Furthermore, there should be an appropriate balance between hands-on and other work and the motivational aspects of using ICT will be effective only with appropriate planning and guidance from the teacher. ICT cannot itself resolve educational problems in the developing world. If used prudently, ICTs will enable developing countries to expand access to and raise the quality of education. Today‘s technologically competitive world needs integration of ICT in education. If ICT is aptly adapted, then it will be lifelong learning process for the learners. The quality of learning with accountability can be improved to enhance the learners to learn things quickly and successfully. Without a doubt, technology has revolutionized society in many places around the globe, including how language instruction is taught and delivered. In particular, the Internet has become a conduit where people can learn, share, and collaborate in ways not possible years before. However, a great deal of the success comes from preparing students to interact and learn in this online environment.

One can see that ICT really have a very positive and motivating effect on students’ learning. Teachers should take advantage of this fact and implement ICT into their teaching of English because ICT are stimulating and appealing for students. Moreover, they affect more senses at a time and thus, they could expand students’ memory to remember things in an easier way. ICT can also develop more language skills and raise intercultural awareness in students. Although ICT have a positive effect on the development of L2 language acquisition, they must be carefully chosen to suit a particular teaching situation and to meet specific needs of students because not all kinds of multimedia are relevant for teaching or learning situations. In addition, if teachers want to use some specific websites, they should evaluate them thoroughly in advance. Finally, potential research in this area should further continue in the exploitation of ICT in education with respect to learners’ motivation.

students can develop four basic language skills, grammar, realia and intercultural communication

students develop their remembering and thinking skills

students are exposed to real English

multimedia affect more students’ senses

both students and teachers have an easier access to authentic materials

multimedia can support different learning styles

lessons are more interesting for students

students get more involved into learning; they are more motivated and active

lessons offer a bigger variety of teaching

students develop real-life communication

In today’s highly informational and technological world, it is extremely important to have good communication skills or presentation skills which are the need of the hour and the basic requirement of any organization. Communication may be defined as, ‘The process by which we exchange information between individuals or groups of people’. Good language skills are key to success in life, work and relationships. English language teaching has a very prominent role to play in the development and competency of a learner; it can broaden their horizons and make them familiar with the various aspects of learning language skills. A student, efficient and fluent in English can excel anywhere in this competitive world.

In conclusion, we can see that integrating ICT into the curriculum means more than teaching basic computer skills and using software programs. It must support the main key components of learning, that is: active engagement, participation in groups, frequent interaction and feedback, and connection to real-world

We also find that social interaction helps students:

Improvements in the students’ motivation

Students’ presentation of work also improves, as a result of using ICT

Their ability to work independently also increases, as well as their ability to organize their own work

Their Social skills, self-esteem, self-discipline and confidence in communicating with others outside their school and family circles enhance too

ICT improve group working and cooperative skills at school

They also increase responsibility for their own learning, changing interactions within the classroom and involving others outside the physical classroom in learning/social activities. In conclusion, we can see that integrating ICT into the curriculum means more than teaching basic computer skills and using software programs. It must support the main key components of learning, that is: active engagement, participation in groups, frequent interaction and feedback, and connection to real-world.

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