Using moving images in learning vocabulary - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

Using moving images in learning vocabulary

Оразбаева Т.С. 1, Тулегенова А.М. 1
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INTRODUCTION

It is well known that our new life is highly affected by the era of information technology, and technology plays an important role in today’s human society development. Based on this fact, it is indispensable to take advantage of the modern technological facilities in aiding the task of English language education. Students trying to learn English as a second language need further language support. They need to practice in hearing language, reading language, speaking language, and writing language in order to develop their experience and skills [1]. For doing such tasks, they are in need of using various tools which can help them learn the language easily and effectively. The term New Technology includes communication techniques for language teaching in which the personal computer plays a central role [2]. There are, however, other technological tools that can be utilized in language learning besides computers. Each technological tool has its specific benefits and application with one of the four language parts (speaking, listening, reading, and writing). However, in order to use these techniques successfully, the ELL student should be familiar with using computers and internet, and capable of interacting with these techniques. The effect of technology has become huge in teaching and learning the language in addition to the instructor's role. In other words, the role of the instructor together with the role of the technology can lead to advanced learning results. From babies to long-lived, newly arrived immigrants to leading politicians, it is likely that each of these people interact with technology, perhaps daily. However, no group has technology is more abundant and abundant than the youngest, sometimes called Generation Z or iGen [3] In 2015, 73% of American adolescents aged 13 to 17 years had access to a Smartphone, 87% had access to a computer, and 92% reported that they daily went online. It is therefore not surprising that teachers also began to introduce technology into their classes, either mandates, or by choice, in order to strengthen students participating in Gen Z and at the same time learn new heights. technology has definitely changed our lives and each other, not every new technology can be automatically labeled as “good.” The concept also refers to education, where we want to choose the best technology, putting it work for us to make our lives and the learning of our students better and easier. As the scope and prevalence of technology use in the classroom expands, so must we continue to pursue research that clarifies the best ways to utilize technology to improve learning outcomes. Innovative and creative approaches are required to meet the changing needs of our learners, but they must be research-based to ensure the best outcomes for those learners. The goal of this research was to determine the effectiveness of interactive videos as a vocabulary pre-teaching tool in comparison to teacher-led instruction.

Topicality

Vocabulary represents one of most important skills necessary for teaching and learning a foreign language. It is the basis for the development of all the other skills: reading comprehension, listening comprehension, speaking, writing, spelling and pronunciation. Vocabulary is the main tool for the students in their attempt to use English effectively. Talking about the importance of vocabulary, the linguist David Wilkins argued that: “without grammar little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.” Indeed, people need to use words in order to express themselves in any language. Nowadays, there is more freedom in choosing the methods to be used during English classes. in today's day and age, education has transcended the traditional and orthodox methods of teaching. Gone are the times when using technology for imparting knowledge seemed like a distant dream. A product of this technological development, the modern concept of utilizing movies as a tool for providing education continues to find new suitors with each passing day. With textbooks often failing to entice the younger students, combining learning with a source of entertainment seems like the ideal way of getting the most out of them. While this method has its own set of critics, the pros outweigh the cons. Using movies to teach can definitely be a challenge, but when carried out in a proper manner, it boasts of numerous benefits. Unlike texts, movies enable students to learn visually. The movie Gandhi, for example, allows a student to view a recreation of the life of Mahatma Gandhi, a paramount figure in the history books. The visual clips provide a greater understanding of the time and era as well as the lifestyle of the historical figure than simple words. Additionally, movies are not limited in the way books are. They occasionally go beyond the curriculum and touch upon topics which might not be part of the course but important nonetheless, like the class and gender conflicts forming an inherent part of 'Gandhi'.

Aim of investigation

This study aims at raising teachers and student’s awareness of the importance of vocabulary in English teaching and learning and the need of using videos to teach English vocabulary.

Object of investigation

The process of formation of communicative competence in studying English.

Subject of investigation

The movie as a means of learning English.

Objectives of investigation

Identify the effectiveness of the use of movie in teaching English to show the basic techniques and methods of teaching English on the basis of films.

To achieve this goal, the following tasks were set:

1. Expand the role of movie in teaching English.

2. To reveal the criteria for the selection of movie for the educational process.

3. Describe the main methods of working with movie in the classroom in the English language.

4. To reveal the features and complexity of the work.

Methods of investigation

Case study methods and structure, qualitative and quantitative data and data collection

analysis. A group of 26 students were selected for the test. In general, the data analysis in this study was implemented in accordance with the conceptual analysis, in which the objectives of classification and final analysis were taken into account. The obtained data were carried out by quantitative estimates, calculations and converted to numerical form. Data collection, mainly from open-ended questions and interviews, allowed the researcher to understand participants' perceptions, attitudes, motives, and suggestions. Make it more comparable and understandable; The study used quantitative and qualitative methods. The qualitative method was used to collect data and analyze student speech levels. A quantitative method was used to compare activity.

Theoretical significance

The work consists in the structured study of movie of their role in teaching and methods of teaching English based on them.

Structure of term paper

Сourse work consists of the introduction of two chapters of the conclusion of the list of used literature.

1.Theoretical background of using modern technologies in teaching vocabulary

1.1 The role of moving images in education

Technology and English language education are related to each other[4] During the sixties and seventies of the last century English language learning laboratories were being used in various educational institutions. The traditional language laboratory was consisted of a number of small cabinets, provided with a cassette deck, a microphone and a headphone for each one. Teachers use a central control panel to monitor their students' interactions. The main advantage of that type of technology was that verbal behavior of students would help them to quickly learn the second language. The students’ skills can be enhanced by encountering more practical drill problems. Although the language laboratory was a positive step in linking technology and language education, this technique was actually tedious and boring for learners[4]. Also, there were minimal interactions between the teacher and his students. Computer assisted language learning (CALL) software has provided another teaching tool for second language education. The use of computers in English language classroom is useful for both teachers and learners. Currently, there are numerous software application programs available such as vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation programs, spelling check utilities, electronic workbooks, reading and writing programs, and different learning packages to assist instructors in creating tutorial exercises to enhance their English

language courses

While audio recordings and observation might have dominated past decades of classroom research, video data is now the dominant form of data in the field. Ubiquitous videography is standard practice today in archiving the body of both the teacher and the student, and vast amounts of classroom and experiment clips are stored in online archives. Yet little to no research interrogates how this data partakes in the history of scientific cinema, assembling particular images of teacher and student bodies, nor how the digital nature of video devices might indeed challenge theoretical assumptions about social science more generally.

Moving Image Education (MIE) involves watching and listening to a range of short film texts, discussing and analyzing them; generating discursive and creative written work, storyboards and scripts; making a range of moving image artifacts, re-purposing 'found' material, digital storytelling (not necessarily large scale filmmaking projects); exploring genres and types of texts that might be less familiar, eg short films, archive film, foreign language film; and re-examining familiar texts.

MIE is more than just a literacy program. [5] It is a rich context for learning that allows children to develop across the curriculum. The concept of dialogue and discussion is central to the philosophy of the Moving Image Education program. These practices also provide uniquely valuable means to realize the aspirations of Scotland's new curriculum, a Curriculum for Excellence. There are many advantages to Moving Image Education (MIE), both as an aid to discussion and as a focus for creative or documentary activities. Pupils have the opportunity to reason aloud, to support and develop the opinions of their peers, to verbalize solutions to problems, and to collaborate with their peers to reach consensus. Open-ended questioning techniques deepen pupils’ thought processes and allow teaching and learning to develop within a pupil directed context. The close study of films is fun to do and can have dramatic effects on how young people think and feel, and on their understanding of themselves and their place in the world.Some of these benefits include:

-Improved literacy (visual and textual)

-Enhanced understanding of how to construct a narrative which is useful across the curriculum

-Greater sense of relevance to education

-Better understanding of our media

-Enhanced discussion skills

-Improved self-esteem and self-confidence

-Greater appreciation of culture and democratic society

-Increased sense of enfranchisement and citizenship.

Likewise the making of moving image essays and other films in groups has been shown in numerous academic studies to help young people with all the following skills:

-Research

-Analysis

-Team-working

-Planning

-Organization

-Flexible thinking and multi-tasking

-Problem-solving

-Personal motivation

-Computing, communication and technology skills

-Criticism and self-criticism (including peer-reviewing skills)

-Social awareness

-Moral responsibility

-Presentation (both personal and project-related).

Every year the technical means of training (TSO) are increasingly used in the educational process and, improving themselves, contribute to the improvement of the methods of their application.[6] The use of technical means of education has led to the emergence of new progressive teaching methods, promising trends in the phenomenon of the qualitative new perception of information among students who grew up in the era of modern technical means of information. The organically-shaped figurative language expands the traditional forms of verbal communication.

The problem of the impact of cinema on the student deserves special consideration, since the data accumulated in the process of teaching foreign languages ​​with the use of films indicate that cinema captures the attention of the viewer-student. For a foreign language learner, the film is practically the only source of colloquial speech of native speakers represented in the real situation of verbal and nonverbal behavior of the participants in communication.

Everyday pedagogical experience of using films suggests that cinema, being a rather interesting external stimulus, causes productive conditioned reflex activity and, therefore, is a powerful and effective means of promoting more rapid and qualitative acquisition of knowledge and skills, and in educational work - focused the formation of a scientific worldview, norms of morality, beliefs and morals.Having a strong emotional and aesthetic impact on students, the film stimulates

It helps involuntary memorization of this material, contributes to the achievement of the so-called “presence effect”, that is, the illusion of participation of students in acts of communication in a foreign language occurring on the screen. The film helps to mobilize and organize students' mental and speech activity, being also an effective means of teaching a student to listen, that is, to understand foreign speech by ear.

Using the film helps to solve a large methodical problem to identify such stimuli for natural speech in learning conditions that would excite a genuine, effective desire of students to speak. [7]Therefore, at present, films are used to organize the conditions most conducive to the perception of foreign language speech, to arouse interest in learning the language. To create speech and non-speech communication situations that facilitate the process of listening, speaking and writing in a foreign language, to study the culture, customs and customs, geography of the country and, finally, to concretize the linguistic phenomena being studied (for example, grammar, phonetics, conversational speech style, etc. .).The film has many didactic possibilities, which show that cinema is incomparable in terms of the impact system with other means of visualization, but the film only gives a pedagogical effect when it is used methodically competently and justifiably.The learning process begins with the perception of new educational material. The success of this process depends on the students' preparedness to perceive

The perception of video materials in general, and in a foreign language in particular, is in many respects similar to the perception of any artistic work. It is carried out in space and in time, characterized by integrity (the whole work is perceived as a whole), flexibility; what is happening on the screen is understood by the audience on the basis of their life and speech experience.[8] The film simulates the life, character of the characters, their inner world, the dialectic of events and feelings. The creators of the picture penetrate into the consciousness and feelings of their heroes, they reveal the real life reality, that is, the relationship between man and the world in various aspects.

Understanding of the film is caused by the emergence of very special emotions and has its own specific emotional and rational structure. Although when a student perceives a film, he is in a conditional, not a real situation, but he also becomes an active participant in the subject, makes decisions, makes conclusions, thinks about how he would act in this particular case. The spectator-student often identifies himself as a hero, identifies with him, takes on his actions. Practice shows that even before watching the film, students are noted for increased excitability, anticipation, and a premonition of the aesthetic experience that they will have to experience.

The process of perception and understanding of a film in a foreign language goes from emotions to thought, that is, from sensual thinking to analytical thinking.

Using screen material in classrooms, we must know that the film is perceived by students as an artistic model of life that produces the same impression on students' mental activity as real life. Foreign language statements have as their basis the attitude of students to the various life situations shown in the film, which makes speech natural. The perception and understanding of such a film by students should be viewed as a subjective interpretation of the form of the creative activity of its authors. This interpretation will meet the modern requirements that we make for lessons using the film, if students can give a reasonable assessment of the theme and idea, the plot, the behavior of the characters, their characters, the play of actors, the quality of dialogue (speech), etc. Therefore, knowing what is perceived by students during the film screening, it is interesting to follow how it is perceived, what are the psycho-physiological features of perception and how they can be controlled. The features encountered by students while watching a film are, firstly, related to the hygienic specifics of the movie

Acceptance: there is a constant accommodation of the eye on the screen plane. The eye does not choose anything, it does not determine, it gives an overall picture of all the objects in front of it. Psychological analysis and synthesis of available data showed that the perception of the diversity of objects in the visual field of a person looking at the screen is selective. And reflected, mainly, objects that are in motion. The deterioration of the hygienic conditions of watching a movie entails a decrease in the accuracy of perception and reproduction of events, the design of thoughts. [9] At the same time, normal hygienic viewing conditions lead to correct perception. In turn, adequate understanding stimulates mental activity in a certain direction and contributes to the precise linguistic design of thought. That is why the quality of perception of information from the screen is determined primarily by physiological reasons, and then psychological.

Secondly, any information is supplied to a person through the senses, which not only carry him a certain feeling, but also trigger mental operations.

Thirdly, associative perceptions or, otherwise, associative vision, which is of great importance for understanding the film, are added to the natural perception of the senses. Students already have established standards. Their life experience makes perception economical: it is enough for them to recognize familiar features, a standard image, in the subject, and they see it as a cognized entity.

Fourthly, it should also be attributed to the peculiarities of video perception that the dynamic image change can cause overload of information processing channels. A logical link falls out of the general content of the film, and even one link causes a gap in the perception of the logical structure of the film while watching, which entails a vague presentation of the storyline in the statements of students, inaccuracy in the retelling of the content and some events of the film.

Fifth, the peculiarities of the perception of the film also include the fact that every spectator-student watches the movie internally in isolation. Each individual perceives the film depending on his individual representation and imagination, on inclinations and interests, on the level of proficiency in a foreign language, but each of the spectators and all together perceive the film as a complete whole, knowable gradually, frame by frame. Individual differences in the perception of the film depend, in addition, on mental development and typological features of memory, speed of reaction to moving frames, from previous experience of artistic perception.

Sixth, the perception and understanding of the film is determined by the stereotypes of the mental habits of the audience, that is, how we are used to perceive and process what we have seen, and it will depend on what assessment we give to the seen.

Seventh, an important methodical factor controlling the perception of a film is installation. Practice shows that the pre-installation on the perception and understanding of the film depends on the students' speech reaction to individual frames and to the general content of the film, since, according to the public installation theory, the installation on the message causes excitation of the corresponding speech stereotypes and determines the selection of words and phrases for subsequent messages . In the educational process, it is possible to use two types of installations: the perception of a film in general (global perception) and the perception only of what is given. The global perception of the film is a program-route proposed by its author. Following the author’s master plan, perception encompasses the general and follows a certain route. In the curriculum, decoding, deciphering of the author's general intention takes place and a stimulus for speaking is created. The perception of what is given is carried out according to the individual program-route, according to the instructions received. An individual program makes the process of perception more orderly and purposeful.

Acquaintance with the psychophysiological peculiarities of film perception and methodical possibilities of cinema for teaching helps the teacher to determine the adequacy and depth of understanding of film material by each student individually, apply different targets, use emotional potential and organize a conversation about what most liked, “touched” students.Among the types of educational technical means of cinema holds a special place. This is primarily due to the extreme efficiency of itsideological, cognitive and emotional influence on the student, resulting from a wide variety of ways of expressiveness of cinema. For the student of a foreign language, in addition, the film serves as a means of compensating for situations of natural communication that are absent in the learning environment.Intensive use of movies shows that working with them has its own specific features associated with the psychophysical and linguistic aspects of the perception of moving visual and verbal information.[10] Knowledge of these features is important methodological value. The nature of the perception of the film determines the accuracy and completeness of the understanding of the screen action, which affects the adequacy of the foreign language speech.The perception and understanding of the film by the audience-learners is an active and complex process, enabling the teacher to “rework” (analyze) film interaction with students on two levels - “everyday perception” and “creative thinking”. When interpreting a film on the first level, the main factor is knowledge of the speech component. When analyzing at the second level, students are required to be able to approach the film as a source of mental tasks for discussion, which, in turn, is connected with the ability to “read” the film. The material basis of these levels is the associative-interpretative nature of the perception of the movie.

The use of movies helps students mobilize and activate extensive lexical and grammatical material, as the film provides ready-made samples of correct, natural speech. The use of cinema makes it possible to form a new type of thinking, to show the connection of thinking with action, knowledge with morality, consciousness with behavior.

1.2 Teaching vocabulary activities through video

YouTube technology can be considered as a valuable learning tool.A growing body of research has shown significant findings that encourage the integration of YouTube video clips in education. Mayer stresses that the use of videos is greatly effective especially for introductory courses as it can facilitate difficult concepts, and attract the attention of weak students as well as visual/ special students . YouTube is a multidimensional resource that offers videos in all fields of knowledge that can be accessed effortlessly. In addition, videos on YouTube are limited in lengths; this makes them suitable for the constricted classroom`s time. Studies have also examined how YouTube can be part of a learning system to support independent learning, and language learning. Studies demonstrate how YouTube can increase students’ involvement and participation in the classroom and learning strategies. According to Balcikanli, YouTube may be valuable to address students` interests and needs for real life language by providing authentic discourse. Moreover, YouTube offers a myriad of opportunities for learning a second language as a learner can watch as well as listen to different kinds of spoken material (formal, informal), genres (songs, debates, talk shows, film clips);thereby, learning new vocabulary or any other language skills. McKinnon remarks that the scenes, movements, feelings, and gestures presented in YouTube video segments offer significant visual impetus for language learning. Some scholars state that the incorporation of YouTube in the language classrooms could reduce the level of stress students may feel when learning a new language as they could view it as entertaining rather than educational activity. Although the literature is varied in terms of the use and effectiveness of using dynamic videos and YouTube videos in education in general and in the language classroom in particular, there has not been much work done to investigate the effects of integrating YouTube in the EFL classrooms to enhance EFL students` vocabulary recognition and retention. The current study attempts to address this issue.

1.3 Structure of lesson with video

Video has become an important part of higher education. It is integrated as part of traditional courses, serves as a cornerstone of many blended courses, and is often the main information delivery mechanism. [11] Several meta-analyses have shown that technology can enhance learning ,and multiple studies have shown that video, specifically, can be a highly effective educational tool. In order for video to serve as a productive part of a learning experience, however, it is important for the instructor to consider three elements for video design and implementation:

-cognitive load

-non-cognitive elements that impact engagement

-features that promote active learning

Together, these considerations provide a solid base for the development and use of video as an effective educational tool.

To help students get the most out of an educational video, it’s important to provide tools to help them process the information and to monitor their own understanding. [12] There are multiple ways to do this effectively.

-Use guiding questions. Lawson and colleagues examined the impact of guiding questions on students’ learning from a video about social psychology in an introductory psychology class . Building on work from[11], they had students in some sections of the course watch the video with no special instructions, while students in other sections of the course were provided with eight guiding questions to consider while watching. The students who answered the guiding questions while watching the vide scored significantly higher on a later test.

-Use interactive features that give students control. Zhang and colleagues compared the impact of interactive and non-interactive video on students learning in a computer science course . Students who were able to control movement through the video, selecting important sections to review and moving backwards when desired, demonstrated better achievement of learning outcomes and greater satisfaction. One simple way to achieve this level of interactivity is by using YouTube Annotate, HapYak, or another tool to introduce labeled “chapters” into a video. This not only has the benefit of giving students control, but also can demonstrate the organization, increasing the germane load of the lesson.

-Integrate questions into the video.Tools like HapYak can allow instructors to incorporate questions directly into video and to give feedback based on student response. Vural compared the effect of video with embedded questions to interactive video without embedded questions in pre-service teachers, finding that the embedded questions improved the students’ performance on subsequent quizzes .

-Make video part of a larger homework assignment. Faizan Zubair and Mary Keithly are each part of the BOLD Fellows program at Vanderbilt University, in which graduate students develop online learning materials for incorporation into a faculty mentor’s course. Faizan developed videos on that were embedded in a larger homework assignment in Paul Laibinis’ Chemical Engineering class, and found that students valued the videos and that the videos improved students’ understanding of difficult concepts when compared to a semester when the videos were not used in conjunction with the homework. Mary worked with Kathy Friedman to develop videos and follow-up questions to serve as pre-class preparation in a genetics class. [13] Although there was no apparent change to learning outcomes in the class, students valued the videos and post-video questions as learning tools and thought that they were effective for promoting student understanding.The important thing to keep in mind is that watching a video can be a passive experience, much as reading can be. To make the most of our educational videos, we need to help students do the processing and self-evaluation that will lead to the learning we want to see. The particular way you do this should be guided by goals of the course and the norms of your discipline.

Videos can be an effective tool in your teaching tool kit. When incorporating videos into a lesson, it’s important to keep in mind the three key components of cognitive load, elements that impact engagement, and elements that promote active learning. Luckily, consideration of these elements converges on a few recommendations:

-Keep videos brief and targeted on learning goals.

-Use audio and visual elements to convey appropriate parts of an explanation; make them complementary rather than redundant.

-Use signaling to highlight important ideas or concepts.

-Use a conversational, enthusiastic style to enhance engagement.

-Embed videos in a context of active learning by using guiding questions, interactive elements, or associated homework assignments.

Videos in education are not uncommon or revolutionary. A quick search of the

internet will turn up thousands of videos, and there are several well-known websites, such as Khan Academy, TED-Ed, and YouTube EDU, dedicated to educational videos. However, most videos are not designed with ELLs, let alone newcomers, in mind and use vocabulary and syntax that may not be understood by viewers with limited English proficiency. While these videos may have outstanding content, it is unlikely that they have been designed to align with research-based principles of multimedia instruction, as documented by Kennedy, Deshler, and Lloyd’s analysis of a Khan Academy video Much of the emphasis on videos for learning has been through the flipped learning Movement[14]. Flipped learning is a teaching model in which students receive direct instruction outside of class so that class time can focus on application of the content [15] Research by Long, Logan, and Waugh and McLean et al. has shown positive learning outcomes for flipped video lessons in higher education. Videos have also been used successfully to teach vocabulary to younger children in the form of educational television[16] with adolescents in the form of podcasts and vodcasts [17] and with adolescents with learning disabilities in the form of audio/video content acquisition podcasts[18] However, little research has been undertaken to determine the effectiveness of videos as a vocabulary acquisition tool in the English as a Second Language classroom, either as part of a traditional or flipped learning environment. The research reported in this study measured the effectiveness of teacher-created interactive videos by comparing them to traditional teacher-led direct instruction of vocabulary as a pre-teaching tool in an ESL classroom. The effectiveness of each technique was determined by comparing pre- and post-test scores of science vocabulary from the experimental groups.

In addition to the eleven design principles that are included in Mayer’s [19] cognitive theory of multimedia learning, other factors such as learner preferences, access to glosses, and screen size can affect students’ learning from multimedia.

In a study of English language learners, [20] found that students who were able to set their own preferences for an e-learning system acquired and retained more vocabulary than their choice-less peers. However, the researchers also found that higher-proficiency students employed their preferred vocabulary learning strategy consistently while low-proficiency students did not choose their preferred strategy but “tended to use what they perceived to be the easiest strategy” Thus, the degree to which multimedia materials adhere to individual learner preferences may affect subsequent learning.

In secondary school settings, storybooks – either digital or physical – are not the tool of choice for researchers and teachers. Instead, researchers have focused on podcasts, vodcasts, and interactive videos. Building on work by [21] which found statistically significant growth in science vocabulary for students with access to vocabulary podcasts, compared the effectiveness of podcasts with vodcasts, audio files enhanced with visuals. In addition to students’ general preference for visuals to assist with vocabulary learning, the students watching vodcasts showed statistically significant gains in expressive and receptive vocabulary. Similar to vodcasts, pioneered the use of content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), a multimedia-based vignette that utilizes audio and images paired with explicit instruction methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy to teach vocabulary and concepts for the content areas. For example, an instructor teaching the term fungi might use the keyword mnemonic strategy to associate fungi with the words fun guy and show a picture of a happy mushroom. [22]CAPs differed from previous research on vodcasts or other multimedia in that they adhered to Mayer’s 27 Instructional Design Principles. The strong theoretical foundation of the CAPs proved to make a difference: students utilizing CAPs made statistically significant gains in vocabulary knowledge as compared to those using multimedia without a specific theoretical design; this pattern held true for both students with learning disabilities and general education students[13] Another type of video vignette, this time interactive, also holds promise for teaching content-area vocabulary. Interactive video vignettes differ from traditional video vignettes because they incorporate questions that require students to make predictions and analyze real-world examples [23]interactive video vignette about projectile motion includes multiple choice questions, question feedback, and clickable graphing superimposed on a video of a ball in motion. By comparing pre- and post-tests, Laws and colleagues found that students made statistically significant gains learning physics concepts after viewing the vignettes .However, the gains only applied to two out of four vignettes that the researchers tested. Taken as a whole, the concept of video to improve learning holds promise. One interesting and perhaps influential difference between the elementary-level studies reviewed in this section and secondary-level studies is the degree of personalization. Whereas the elementary-level studies utilized pre-made, professionally-produced videos, the secondary-level studies were all tailor-made by the researcher. It is possible that such personalization may have had an effect on the results.

Finally, Thornbury advises to visualize a picture for a new word or to link an abstract word with some mental image. Images drawn by students themselves have the best outcomes. Besides imaging, there are other mnemonics, such as making clues from associations with similarly sounding word and its meaning in the mother tongue. When examining this matter, [23] stressed the importance of meaningful activities in the classroom. They pointed out that meaningful tasks need to be analyzed in greater detail and therefore information is more likely to be retained in long-term memory. Furthermore, they as well as Thornbury reason the positive impact of personalization, imaging and retrieval mentioned above. They also suggest a good organization of written storage of vocabulary to support retention. Among other possibilities, they mention using ‘word diagrams’, which they claim might be very useful for “storage of lexis”. [24] To sum it up, the teacher should help students build up and use a mental lexicon in such a way that they will be capable of storing, keeping and retrieving words when needed. He or she can call on various methods to aid him or her in accomplishing this task, mainly arousing motivation and attention, engaging in meaningful activities and providing many channels for learning and practicing. Pictures represent a convenient tool to be employed in nearly all of these methods.

2.Teaching vocabulary through video in secondary school

2.1 Practical using moving images in learning vocabulary

The practical part is focused on techniques of using pictures in vocabulary teaching for secondary school pupils (12 – 15 years old). A lesson plan is included to show how a vocabulary lesson with pictures can be organized. The following activities are presented to demonstrate the use of individual forms of pictures examined in the theoretical part of this thesis. These activities have been chosen, because they proved themselves to be highly useful in the process of learning, being used regularly in my lessons. My observations on how the activities work and why they are beneficial for learners are summed up in the Evaluation and Analysis sections following each activity with the aim to display the significance of pictures when learning languages.

During а year, I had practice in secondary school. I taught these students for almost half a year. It’s very pleasant to work with these students, they very motivated to learn and grateful for any work that the teacher prepares. Although they are a rather energetic group, they are good-natured and they are easy to manage. Most of them are very bright and fast students. Although there is one boy who has problems with speech and needs special care when learning pronunciation. Three children in this group are noticeably weaker than the others and need more time to process and study new information.

1. Warm up – review of vocabulary from the previous lesson

Pupils walk in a circle and the teacher stands in the middle and gives commands rhythmically and pupils do what the teacher says while chanting: “walk around, walk around”, “jump, walk around walk around, sleep, wake up, walk around, walk around, run…” Then the teacher picks one volunteer and he or she stands in the middle and commands the others. This is done in fast speed and rhythm. At the end of this activity, the teacher can say and mime: “I am hot. Are you hot too?” In this way he or she uses one of the key words for the lesson and can introduce the topic.

2. Presenting new words

The teacher shows pupils half of the pictures (those with emotions that are not included in the basic text of the song – see appendix 1 and appendix 3) representing emotions one by one and involves them in naming the people in the pictures. (The teacher can also ask some additional questions e.g. about the age of the people and so on). Every time showing a picture, the teacher says how the person feels and why. E.g.“Joe is happy, because the sun is shining.” He or she places each picture on the board, writes its name and draws a picture for the reason of the emotion next to the picture. He or she involves pupils in inventing the reasons for the emotions.

3. Choral drill

Teacher pronounces words for each picture pointing at it one by one, while pupils express the particular feelings. (TPR) Then pupils repeat the words after the teacher in chorus (and later say them together with the teacher) several times, working on pronunciation and miming all the time. While doing this, teacher can label thepictures with words written on cards. This activity should be done rather quickly, so that pupils do not get bored. It can be possibly left out as well, since there will be enough drilling in the next activity.

4. Song

Pupils are invited to form a circle. The teacher introduces one of the emotions (those not introduced in point 1) for each verse. He or she puts a picture for ‘happy’ in the middle and says that for happy they all will clap their hands. Everybody tries it. The teacher sings the first line of the song, pupils repeat several times. The teacher writes the second line on the board and works with pupils on it. Then it is time to sing the whole first verse. Then the teacher puts a picture for ‘sad’ in the middle of the circle and says that for sad they will shake their heads and shows them how to do it. The teacher and pupils sing the song again but this time with ‘sad’ and ‘shake your head’. Then they can work on another verses e.g. ‘angry’ – ‘stamp your feet’, hungry – ‘make hum miam’, thirsty – have a drink gloglo, and so on. Pupils with help of the teacher can perform a different action for every picture.

5. TPR

It is time for a simple game. The teacher says a word and pupils express the corresponding feeling, having the pictures in front of them all the time. Then it can be done vice versa, the teacher acts out the feelings or points at the pictures and pupils say the corresponding word.

6. Controlled practice - structure

The teacher asks a volunteer to stand in front of the class and to choose ‘secretly’ one of the emotions (from the pictures on the board) and act it out. The teacher asks him or her: “Are you happy?” and helps him or her with the possible answers prepared on the prompt cards. The teacher writes the question and the answers on the board. Another volunteer comes forth and acts out and pupils ask him or her in the same way. This is repeated several times.

7. Mingling activity – mechanical practice

Everybody gets a card with a sentence e.g. “You are happy”. Pupils mingle around the class and express the feeling from their card. They practice the conversation from the previous activity with everybody they meet. Then they swap the cards and go to someone else, expressing another feeling. This activity can be done only with ‘well behaved’ groups. For more problematic groups I would recommend just to practice the previous activity in pairs or groups of three or four instead.

8. Picture bingo

Every pupil gets a slightly different grid with small pictures of emotions. The teacher calls out words or simple sentences and pupils cross the corresponding picture if they have it on their grid. Whoever crosses all his or her pictures first, shouts ‘bingo’ and becomes the winner.

9. Homework

Pupils get a list of the freshly acquired vocabulary and pictures and their task is to match each picture with the corresponding word and to translate it into Czech. They are advised to use dictionaries to check if they have done it right. (Appendix 4)

Evaluation:

I included this lesson to demonstrate how flashcards can be used to establish the meaning of new words and how they can help to draw children’s attention and interest. I used physical actions (miming) as well to stimulate more senses when perceiving new information.This lesson was successful. All pupils remembered at least 60% of the new words.The first activity is supposed to establish English environment in the class. Pupils love this activity, since they can move. However, it is not appropriate for some groups for the beginning of the lesson, since children often get silly when having fun and it can be hard to calm them down afterwards. I could afford this activity, since I knew my group was extremely well behaved. During the second activity, pupils paid attention, because they liked the pictures very much. This fact alone demonstrates the advantage of employing pictures in lessons. They were keen to help with giving names to the people on the pictures and with inventing the reasons for the emotions on the pictures. The third activity took longer then I had intended and some of the pupils got bored and lost their attention. However, there was the element of acting the feelings, which helped me to keep them busy while doing the drill, so it was not as bad as I would expect. Nonetheless, I would recommend performing it as quickly as possible. We moved to the back of the class for the fourth activity and worked in a circle. The children were happy about it, since they love all opportunities for changing their places. Some of the pupils had difficulties with learning the second line of the song. But in the end most of them managed. They liked inventing and acting the actions for the particular emotions on the pictures. We did not do a verse for every picture, since they started to be bored after a while and we had to change the activity. Still, this activity shows that pictures can be well combined with other activities and that doing so has a positive impact on memorizing the target vocabulary. I left the fifth activity out, because I saw there was not enough time to do all I had planed. I saved it for the next lesson, where I used it as a warmer. Children usually like this activity, since they like acting and miming and they can show off how much they remember. In the sixth activity, my pupils were pretty good in forming questions and answers, partly due to the prompts displayed on the board. Everyone wanted to take a part in front of the class, but only 3 people got a chance to do so, since it was only an introduction to the next activity. The seventh activity was a great success. Everybody participated and enjoyed themselves. It is always a little noisy when children are mingling around the class, so firm rules and a ‘stop’ sign should be established beforehand.

We did not have a time for the bingo at the end of the lesson; so again, I saved it for a vocabulary review in one of the future lessons. All children love bingo. Everybody always pays attention and listens, everybody wants to win. They are happy if the grid isprinted in colours and they can stick it into their notebooks. This lessons stands and falls on pictures and on the whole proved as a success.Pictures were used in nearly all parts of the plan, helping to establish environment and atmosphere and functioning as an indispensable tool for activities aimed at vocabulary learning. They were sometimes combined with other activities (the song, the game), which further reinforced the chance to memorize words – a greater number of stimuli seemed to positively affect the learning process. I do not believe that using simple word flashcards would have the same positive effect, as they do not draw so much attention by far and therefore children are likely to lose interest in the matter at hand (vocabulary learning).

2.2 Analysis of the Survey

In the previous chapter, the methodology used in this study was presented with descriptions and rationale for the selection of objects, tools and data collection process, as well as data analysis. In this chapter, all collected data will be analyzed and discussed in high school to identify the answers to each question regarding a question.

Table №1

As can be seen from the table, students are all aware of the importanceof learning vocabulary. 76,92% of students think that learning vocabulary playan important part in learning language, 19,23% of them find it very importantand none of them consider it unimportant at all. To have an insight to thismatter, students were interviewed about the reason why they consideredvocabulary or learning vocabulary important. Most of them said that themore they know, the more chance they get high marks in their tests. Besides,some students supposed rich command of vocabulary could help thempractice all four skills.

For instance, with a good knowledge of vocabulary,they felt more confident to communicate with others as well as they hadmore choices of words for their writing. Furthermore, all of them claimedthat it would be impossible to communicate without vocabulary.From the table, it is clear that students all know the importance of vocabulary as well as learning vocabulary.

Table №2

From the table, it is clear that students all know the importance of vocabulary as well as learning vocabulary. However, as can be seen from the pie chart below, majority of the students (52%) only spent less than 1 hour to learn vocabulary, less than one sixth of students (40%) spent between 1hour and 2 hours to learn vocabulary and only two students spent more than two hours to learn.

Table №3

To get an insight to this matter, interviewed students said that they were still not hard- working enough. Besides, some of them still had some difficulties in learning. With the data collection from question 2 in the questionnaire, the research drew the table below with some figures showing they had difficulties in learning vocabulary or not.

Table №4

The diagram shows that the main methods used by their teachers of English to teach vocabulary are English translation from 32% and the Kazakh explanation of simple methods from 20%. In addition, 8% of the surveyed students showed that their teachers gave more examples to illustrate the words “meaning”. More students (12%) acknowledged that their teachers presented the meaning of English words in contexts. Films and videos that are considered less accessible seem unfamiliar to students, only 16%. When they became acquainted with any other teaching methods that their teacher used, the three students agreed that their teachers could use some games to introduce a new vocabulary, and sometimes they could introduce a new vocabulary if their synonyms and antonyms were introduced.

Table №5

As for the need to use films and videos in training. A new vocabulary, students' opinions can be summarized in the following сhart.

Table №6

It is obvious that majority of the students agreed that using movies and videos is necessary for their learning vocabulary.

Table №7

Reason why some students are still confused about this technique may be partially revealed about how the frequency of this method is used by their teachers. As can be seen from the chart below, eight students confirm that this technique was commonly used, and 30.77% of students confirmed that they sometimes used movies and videos to learn their vocabulary. Another 3.85% of students suggested that they never used this technique. The largest number of them (7.69%) agreed that they rarely used this method in teaching vocabulary.

Table №8

The advantage of using film is that it provides a source of authentic and diverse language. The film provides students with examples of English used in real situations outside the classroom, especially the interactive language, the language of real communication. In this chart show that twenty agreed.

Table №9

Next, as indicated from the below pie chart about the effect of the techniques on the classroom atmosphere, 69,23% of the students informed that their classroom atmosphere would be much more interesting and motivating. The smaller number of students (30,77) suggested that this technique could make their learning atmosphere interesting and motivating.

Table №10

The use of films and videos has had a positive effect on their motivation in learning vocabulary. About 11.54% of students thought that films and videos would help increase their interest in learning vocabulary, while about 46.15% said that motives and videos helped them pronounce the new vocabulary in more detail. 38.46% confirmed that they could memorize words more easily and longer, because they leave a great impression on them. In addition, one of them: they can help long-term memory, if their teachers use films and videos to teach new words, which is detected by 3.85% of students appropriately. Quite a large part of the students confirmed.

In conclusion, this chapter has successively provided answers to each of the research questions via a thorough analysis and discussion basing on the collected data. Major findings as detailed above would be summarized in the conclusion as the final chapter of this research paper.

CONCLUSION

Any speech activity should be conditioned by the situation; therefore, when learning to speak a foreign language, the teacher needs to create speech situations in order to motivate students to engage in active communication.

Learning to speak occurs through communication in dialogue and monologue. The use of video materials in the teaching of speaking foreign language speech is appropriate for enhancing students' speech activity, creating situations for their communication and improving their skills in using foreign language vocabulary in speech. Video materials can be used to study a wide variety of topics - about the personality, human environment, nature and history, traditions and interesting features of foreign-speaking countries, as well as to develop the skills of monologue and dialogical speech.

Based on the foregoing, it can be argued that as a means of developing speaking skills, video is quite effective. Also, the use of video in the classroom helps to improve the quality of pronunciation, a better understanding of foreign speech directly from the source, and motivation to learn.

In this paper, the impact of the use of video on the development of speaking skills was considered. During the experiment, conducted during the survey, the students responded more actively, with great interest and higher motivation. Thus, we can conclude that the use of video materials in English lessons is more effective in younger adolescents

as an adult, and at a more advanced stage it is necessary to conduct such lessons more often in order to achieve positive results.

As mentioned earlier, speaking skills can be developed by introducing new vocabulary, thanks to creative tasks, role-playing games, when pupils express their opinions, points of view, attitude to what they see or formulate in oral form. All this was taken into account when developing assignments for the video fragment we choose. These tasks were used aall stages of working with video materials. The results of this work, in our opinion, were positive.It should be noted that students have also increased their motivation to study the English language through video. Thus, the goal formulated at the beginning of this work was to identify the successful use of video materials to develop speaking skills.The use of films as modern technologies in the field of language teaching. This study carefully analyzed that films play an important role in the development and improvement of students' language skills.

 APPENDICES

Student Survey Questionnaire

1.What do you think about learning English vocabulary?

a.Very important 

b. Important 

c. not very important.

d. not important at 

2. Have you had any difficulties in learning vocabulary?

a. never 

b. sometimes 

c. Yes, of course

3.How much time do you spend on leaning vocabulary everyday?

a. less than 1 hour

b. from 1 hour to 2 hours

c. more than 2 hours

4.Which techniques do your teachers use to teach vocabulary?

a. translating new words into Vietnamese

b. explaining the words in English

c. giving examples to illustrate meaning

d. using Movies and videose. putting the words in contexts.

f. using visual aids (pictures, flashcards, real objects, etc)

g. others (please specify):

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

5. Have you ever learn vocabulary through movies and videos?

a. Yes

b. No 

6.How necessary do you think movies and videos are in learning English vocabulary?

a.very necessary 

b. necessary 

c. not very necessary

d. not necessary at 

7.How often are you taught vocabulary through movies and videos?

a. always 

b. usually 

c. sometimes

d. rarely 

e. never.

8.In your opinion, can watching movies and videos give you any learning benefits.

a. yes 

b. no 

c. It depends

9.From your point of view, how interesting and motivating is your class when your teacher uses movies and videos?

a. very interesting and motivating

b. interesting and motivating

c. not more interesting and motivating

10.What effects do movies and videos have on your vocabulary learning? 

a.You can remember the words easily

b.You can remember the words for a long time

c.You are interested in learning Vocabulary

d.You can learn how to pronounce the words more precisely

e.You are not in favor of movies and videos as they are rather distracting

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