Blended learning in English teaching - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

Blended learning in English teaching

Альжанова А.У. 1, Ерик Г.Е. 2
1Евразийский Национальный Университет имена Л.Н.Гумилева
2Евразийский Национальный Университет имени Л.Н.Гумилева
 Комментарии
Текст работы размещён без изображений и формул.
Полная версия работы доступна во вкладке "Файлы работы" в формате PDF

Introduction Blended learning is an approach to education that combines online educational materials and opportunities for interaction online with traditional place-based classroom methods. This type of learning represents a current trend in the education field, that is, to complement face-to face (FTF) classes with web-based materials, which is known as “blended learning”. Blended learning is normally defined as the integration of traditional classroom methods with online activities (termed “e-learning”). Blended learning courses are becoming increasingly significant, with ICTs being developed to complement, not replace, traditional forms of learning. Blended learning is not simply integrating ICTs with the FTF approach. Actually, blended learning represents a fundamental reconceptualization and reorganization of the teaching and learning dynamic, incorporating various learning elements such as online and traditional classroom environments, media for learning content delivery, synchronous and asynchronous interactions, different kinds of resources, and group and individual learning activities. In higher education, a growing number of universities and colleges offer blended learning courses for students, in order to join the best features of both class teaching and online learning to promote active, self-directed learning opportunities for pupils with added flexibility. Bleed argued that blended learning should be viewed as an opportunity to redesign the way that courses are developed, scheduled, and delivered in higher education through a combination of physical and virtual instruction. There is evidence that blended learning has a number of potential benefits compared to traditional or fully on-line courses, such as: - providing pupils with more control over learning and helping pupils foster creative and critical thinking; - improving pupils’ learning achievements; enhancing pupils’ learning satisfaction and - reducing stress level; - producing a stronger sense of community among pupils. A better learning achievement is a persistent concern in teaching. Some studieshave reported the effectiveness of blended learning on pupils’ learning achievements as compared with traditional FTF learning. The relevance of the research topic is due to the fact that in the sphere of social production, the ability to work with information today positions itself as a leading, essential and demanded type of activity. Thus, the goal facing education is the formation of a young generation of readiness and desire for life and professional activity in a space that is not only information-driven, but also information-enriched. An important condition for the successful socialization of the individual today is the ability to work with information. However, learning effectiveness cannot be achieved only by incorporating the maximum amount of information and communication technologies into it; a rational combination of tradition and technology is necessary. From our point of view, the “golden mean” is the recently emerged blended learning technology.

The aim of the work: the collection of theoretical data and the development of a textbook on the technology of blended learning, strategies for its implementation in the upper grades of secondary school in the framework of the subject “Foreign Language”. The objects, in turn, require the solution of the following tasks: - Clarify the content of the concept of blended learning; - To study the didactic potential of blended learning technology; - To determine the factors of successful implementation of blended learning in teaching FL; - To derive an algorithm for the implementation of blended learning based on the developed methodological and organizational principles. The theoretical significance of the study is: to identify pedagogical patterns of innovative technology of teaching teachers and its positive impact on the didactic process in secondary school. Structure of work: Final qualifying work consists of introduction, two chapters, conclusion and references. In the introduction substantiates the relevance of the topic, defines the goals and objectives, object and subject of research, practical the significance of the work. In the main part consistently solved objectives to achieve the goal of research. The first Chapter presents the theoretical basis of the study topics. The second Chapter is devoted to its practical development. In the conclusion on the results of the research are presented. List literature includes.

1. The role of Blended learning in teaching Foreign Language Blended learning is a term increasingly used to describe the way e-learning is being combined with traditional classroom methods and independent study to create a new, hybrid teaching methodology. It represents a much greater change in basic technique than simply adding computers to classrooms; it represents, in many cases, a fundamental change in the way teachers and students approach the learning experience. It has already produced an offshoot – the flipped classroom – that has quickly become a distinct approach of its own. There is a general consensus among education innovators that blended learning has three primary components: - In person classroom activities facilitated by a trained educator. - Online learning materials, often including pre-recorded lectures given by that same instructor. - Structured independent study time guided by the material in the lectures and skills developed during the classroom experience. A course created in a blended learning model uses the classroom time for activities that benefit the most from direct interaction. Traditional education (especially at the college level) tends to place an emphasis on delivering material by way of a lecture, while in a blended learning model lectures can be videotaped ahead of time so the student can watch on their own time. The classroom time is more likely to be for structured exercises that emphasize the application of the curriculum to solve problems or work through tasks. An individual semester of blended learning may emphasize classroom time at the beginning, then gradually increase the amount of work that students do online or during independent study. Many argue that class discussion boards, for example, are far more useful if the participants have met face-to-face first. No single, reliable definition of blended learning exists, or even a universal agreement on the term itself. Many use terms like hybrid, mixed, or integrative to describe the same trend. But the trend is significant. Blended learning in the classroom is a concept that began as a higher education idea and now transferred down into elementary grades. In some situations, the move to blended learning has inspired educators to redefine traditional roles. The word “facilitator” has emerged as an alternative to “teacher,” bringing with it a slightly different focus. The facilitator places an emphasis on empowering students with the skills and knowledge required to make the most of the online material and independent study time, guiding students toward the most meaningful experience possible. Facilitators focus on four key areas: - Development of online and offline course content. - Facilitation of communication with and among students, including the pedagogy of communicating content online without the contextual clues students would get in person. - Guiding the learning experience of individual students, and customizing material wherever possible to strengthen the learning experience. - Assessment and grading, not unlike the expectations for teachers within the traditional framework. By putting an emphasis on learning through supervised activities, blended learning has proven to be very adaptable to what some corporations are calling blended training. Trainers can shift their focus from the delivery of knowledge to its application, and companies spend less flying trainers around to oversee all instruction in person. The terms "blended learning", "hybrid learning", "technology-mediated instruction", "web-enhanced instruction", and "mixed-mode instruction" are often used interchangeably in research literature. Although the concepts behind blended learning first developed in the 1960s, the formal terminology to describe it did not take its current form until the late 1990s. One of the earliest uses of the term appears in a 1999 press release, in which the Interactive Learning Centers, an Atlanta-based education business, announced a change of name to EPIC Learning. The release mentions that "The Company currently operates 220 on-line courses, but will begin offering its Internet courseware using the company's Blended Learning methodology."The term "blended learning" was initially vague, encompassing a wide variety of technologies and pedagogical methods in varying combinations (some making no use of technology whatsoever). In 2006, the term became more concrete with the publication of the first Handbook of Blended Learning by Bonk and Graham. Graham challenged the breadth and ambiguity of the term's definition, and defined "blended learning systems" as learning systems that "combine face-to-face instruction with computer mediated instruction". In a report titled "Defining Blended Learning", researcher Norm Friesen suggests that, in its current form, blended learning "designates the range of possibilities presented by combining Internet and digital media with established classroom forms that require the physical copresence of teacher and students". Blended instruction is reportedly more effective than purely face-to-face or purely online classes Blended learning methods can also result in high levels of student achievement more effective than face-to-face learning. By using a combination of digital instruction and one-on-one face time, students can work on their own with new concepts which frees teachers up to circulate and support individual students who may need individualized attention. "Rather than playing to the lowest common denominator – as they would in a traditional classroom – teachers can now streamline their instruction to help all students reach their full potential." Proponents of blended learning argue that incorporating the "asynchronous Internet communication technology" into higher education courses serves to "facilitate a simultaneous independent and collaborative learning experience". This incorporation is a major contributor to student satisfaction and success in such courses. The use of information and communication technologies have been found to improve student attitudes towards learning. By incorporating information technology into class projects, communication between lecturers and part-time students has improved, and students were able to better evaluate their understanding of course material via the use of "computer-based qualitative and quantitative assessment modules".

1.1 Blended learning as an innovative form of learning a foreign language Nowadays it is impossible to imagine modern education without information technologies. It will take a little more time, and such devices as electronic courses, electronic libraries, latest tutorials and technologies of passing on knowledge will be fixed in concept of traditional training. The settled approaches and techniques are changing now, and which is more important the needs of modern students are also changing. Obviously, it is impossible not to react on these changes. In the conditions of modern information society development these changes are quite natural, and introduction of innovations in education is necessary process. Distance education is one of the new innovative technologies at the present time. Distance education is the type of the teaching based on educational interaction of teachers and students, realized by means of telecommunication technologies and Internet resources. Distance education on the Internet is a teaching process when the essential part of a training material and the most part of interaction with the teacher is carried out with use of technical, program and administrative means of the global Internet. True innovation is not frequent phenomenon in pedagogy. We can say that in the modern educational environment the innovation is an introduction into practical activities of discoveries. The prompt development of digital technology in recent decades has led to the fact that learning takes place not only in the classroom and school, it moved to a virtual online world wide web. [1] Implementation of innovative technologies in process of teaching has led to emergence such form of teachers and students work as Blended Learning. Blended learning is a quite new method of teaching. This system of training/teaching which combines the best aspects and advantages of teaching in a classroom and interactive or distance education, and creates available and motivating courses for pupils where educational process represents the certain system, consisting of different parts which function in constant interrelation with each other, forming a certain integer. Blended learning is the very system in which its constituent components of full-time and distance education process interact harmoniously. Under a condition if this interaction is methodically well-organized, in result we get the students’ high level of knowledge. Thus, the model of blended learning is not just use of ICT in independent work of students at home or in a media library after school, blended learning model is a single, holistic learning process, suggesting that some of the cognitive activity of students is carried out in the classroom under the supervision of a teacher, and a part activities of the students, is proposed for distant form, with a predominance of independent work individually or with partners in a small group collaboration. The concept of blended learning appeared not so long ago, and the definitions are sufficiently descriptive. Thus, Darling Painter in the article «Missed Steps» offers to understand the blended learning as association of strict formal learning tutorials in the classroom, studying of theoretical material with informal, for example, the discussion via e-mail and Internet conferences. [2] For the needs of this article blended learning can be defined as a method of teaching that combines the most effective face-to-face teaching techniques and online interactive collaboration, both constituting a system that functions in constant correlation and forms a single environment. The system will work effectively only if its components are balanced and methodically adequate to program educational objectives. In our opinion blended learning can be used to achieve the following pedagogic goals: To prepare students to independent productive activity develop the following skills: - constructive and algorithmic thinking; - creative thinking due to decreasing the amount of reproductive activity; - communicative skills on the basis of performing team projects; - ability to find solutions in computer-simulated situations; - research skills; - skills of information culture and information processing.To implement the social order: - to prepare specialists to working with information technologies; - to prepare specialists to independent lifelong learning by means of information technologies.To intensify all levels of the educational process: 1.To increase effectiveness and teaching quality due to the use of information technologies; 2. To expose and use stimuli of cognitive activity promotion; 3. To deepen interdisciplinary connections. Many tutors agree that combining online elements with face-to-face instruction means that learners show better performance than if they do learning only in a traditional class environment.The article focuses on description of how to use the learning platforms that can be available through the Internet and what is the function of a tutor who uses these platforms as a tool for teaching English as a foreign language. Purnima Valiathan uses the term "blended learning" to describe solutions that combine different methods of delivering educational content, such as courses, built on Web technologies, EPSS, and knowledge management techniques. He also uses it to describe teaching that combines different types of educational activities, including full-time training (face-to -face), online e-learning (live e-learning) and selftraining on a workplace (self-paced learning). [3] Alloson Rossett and Rebecca Vaughan Frazze argue that, at first sight, blended learning combines contradictory approaches such as formal and informal learning, "face to face" communication and "online" communication, operated actions and an independent choice of a way, use of theautomated references and communications with colleagues to achieve their goals and objectives of the organization.[4] Donald Clark in his article “Blended Learning” refers to Roger Schank and defines the blended learning, as use, to some extent, electronic and auditory teaching.[1] Thus, it is possible to allocate three main components of blended learning model which are used in the modern educational environment: - Full-time education (face-to-face) – represents a traditional form of classroom teacher-student activity; - Self-study learning (self-study learning) - involves individual work of students: search for information using the resource cards, web search, and so on; - Online learning (online collaborative learning) - work of students and teachers online, for example, using Internet conferencing, Skype or wiki, etc. If summarize all aforesaid, it is possible to define the blended learning as system of training/teaching which combines the most effective aspects and advantages of teaching in a classroom and interactive or distance learning; represents the certain system consisting of different parts which function in constant interrelation with each other, forming a certain integer. Thus, a system in which its constituent components interact harmoniously, under the condition that all these components properly methodically arranged.[5] Blended learning model is widely used in Western countries, and according statistic employers are eager to hire graduates of online programs or blended, as they have not only the skills to work with the new computer technologies, but also able to work independently and learn. What can blended learning model give to language education? In fact, the use of technology in education is not something that completely new. For decades teacher used tape recorders, language classes, video, and still these devices serve as a reliable support to teacher during classes in audiences. With the emerging of computers, educational opportunities have considerably extended, for example computer testing, the use of videos and other computer options. Information and computer technology (ICT) have even more expanded teachers possibilities with the emerging of Internet, for example, the access to authentic foreign language texts, the ability to communicate online with native speakers, the use of training programs in foreign language, and many other things. Teaching of foreign languages at the university is carried out according the traditional scheme fulfilled by many generations of teachers. Students come to classes where the main sources of information for them are textbooks and lectures; at practical classes they fulfill skills of reading, translation, oral where teacher can use both video, and tape recorders. Monitoring can be carried out by the teacher, with the help of computer-based testing. Actually, the blended learning model does not reject that usefulness of traditional model, but rather improves its possibilities. The full material of lectures and their slides is in DES (distance education system) are available to all students and can easily be used for independent studying. Teaching materials exist not only in printing, but also in electronic form, the teacher makes the resource card where the main and additional materials and useful for students Internet links are specified. Online communication. It is absolutely new element which came to the blended learning from on line education. There are various devices like chat, forum, Skype that give the chance to students and the teachers to communicate and work together. Individual and group project (Collaboration). This form of work develops skills of search, information analyses, and group work, also improves the ability to assign tasks and take responsibility for taken. Virtual Classroom. This device allows students to communicate through variety Internet – communication, without being physically in the classroom that gives students a certain amount of freedom in learning. Audio and video lectures, animations, and simulations.These elements of blended learning make the teachings process easier and more enjoyable. Is there a possibility that the use of ICT will completely replace teacher in the classroom? Premature to talk about it, because the language is a variable value, it requires compulsory element of "live communication", so if we talk about language learning, it can be assumed that the more productive will be characterized by the combined studies. In this case, teaching is based on active student interaction not only with the computer, but with a teacher in the form when the processed independently material is generalized, analyzed and used in real life situations through solving communication problems. What kind of tasks has a teacher who uses a blended learning model? First, when making the course it is necessary to well-organize teaching material. This means that teacher should surely know what kind of material will be used in classroom and which one could be used in distance education. It should be considered what teaching material is necessary to explain and work on during the classroom activities; what particular material and exercises are necessary and how much time does it take for different students to develop their skills and might be transferred to distance education, and what kind of material should be given to independent studying. Second, there must be well-organized teaching process. Here we can include such things as the assignment of lesson’s activities in classroom and remotely, solving didactic tasks considering the specific peculiarity of students, the choice of teaching methods in classroom and at the distance education classes, and also monitoring and self-checking of the students. Another important factor is the formation of a stable motivation for teaching and learning activities, which must be maintained throughout the process of learning. The teacher should stimulate self-control, encourage and develop various ways of productive cooperation with the student. What are the benefits of blended learning? The purpose of this methodology is to form the students’ ability of planning and organizing their activities, focusing on the ultimate result. Students learn to make decisions, to make informed choices and take responsibility for it. They form skills and abilities to work in information space, independently search for, select and analyze information, to represent result with the use of various modern technologies, i.e. there is a formation of necessary speech and sociocultural competences.Thus it is clear that the model of blended learning fits into the whole concept for the modernization of modern education which based on the introduction of new educational standards and entry into the Bologna process and other international agreements. However, due to the fact that the level of provision of information technology and the general level of computer literacy in most of Kazakhstan's educational institutions is poor, it is impossible to say that this model is widely used in the course of teaching. There are some reasons. One of the main problems is the teachers’ fear to use modern computer technology in their work. Here we can mention about technophobia.[6] This characteristic can be attributed to people who are afraid of using new technological developments. Recently, the term “digital natives” not a very good translation that could fairly reflect the essence of the phenomenon, true is that people make extensive use of digital technology in all spheres of their lives, and “digital immigrants” are those who, for various, usually age reasons, does not want to get to the heart of the changes and very precisely reflect the attitude to the use of ICT (information and communication technology) in education. Probably, most of the teachers, as "digital immigrants", they see no need to change the process of teaching subject that fulfilled for years, to pass from use only papers and out-of-date tape recorders to new electronic devices. As the role of the teacher in using of blended learning is increasing, we can say that the motivation and aspiration to self-education is absolutely necessary for the modern teacher in the work with students. Another quite serious problem is the lack of time. Development of new technologies and the creation of e-learning, information retrieval, preparation of resource cards, presentations, and checking students’ task, all this process takes much time and also require teachers develop new technologies. One of the serious problems that teachers can face in creating electronic learning resources is the access and use of other authors’ documents. On the one hand, there is copyright problem when using materials especially from the Internet; on the other hand, it is necessary to protect copyright of your own newly created document. When developing a course it is necessary to consider that many materials can be used with the permission of the owner, but it can be difficult, expensive and time consuming process. Sometimes it is difficult to identify the owner, or he could not be hurry to answer. [7]

1.2 Blended learning : Disadvantages and advantagesAdvances in technology have changed the way that many professional educators regard course delivery. This pedagogical shift is experienced throughout higher education by both administrators and faculty from doctoral-granting institutions to community colleges and technical schools. The inclusion of blended or hybrid classes provides an avenue for post-secondary institutions to both maximize their resources and meet the educational needs of their students. The study found that students who took all or part of their instruction online performed better, on average, than did those taking the same course through face-to-face instruction. Further, those who took “blended” courses—those that combine elements of online learning and face-to-face instruction—appeared to do best of all. During economic downturns institutions that offer programs tailored to serve working adults, such as community colleges and technical schools, typically experience enrollment growth which is related to rising unemployment. While many of these schools already offer online coursework, adding blended or hybrid courses has the potential to meet the diverse learning needs of students and maximize available campus resources. The term blended learning is often used interchangeably with the term hybrid learning. Even though most higher education institutions utilize some form of course or learning management system whereby class notes, presentations, online articles, etc. can be accessed, such web enhancements to a face-to-face course do not exemplify a blended course. Webster’s Online Dictionary defines “blend” as “harmonizing”, “mixing together two elements” and the “act of combining into one”. In order for true blending to occur, the structure of the course must be carefully evaluated to determine which instructional objectives can best be met in an online environment and which are better suited to a traditional classroom environment. While the term blended learning has been defined in many ways, a blended course is most commonly described as one in which both face-to-face learning and distance learning methods are collaboratively used in an effort to provide students with the benefits of both delivery styles. According to Garnham and Kaleta hybrid courses are simply those in which a significant portion of the learning activities have been moved online, and time traditionally spent in the classroom is reduced but not eliminated. Nearly a decade ago, Bleed proposed a model referred to as “bricks and clicks”, in which 50% of learning would take place virtually and the other half in a more traditional classroom environment. He maintained that this model would provide “new designs for the new economy for new kinds of students” as well as being very cost-effective. The blended learning experience combines learning which occurs in the traditional classroom setting with learning which entails using the Internet. Blended learning seeks to reframe the learning process as discrete lessons move to a more connected, continuous learning process. “Blended learning should be viewed as a pedagogical approach that combines the effectiveness and socialization opportunities of the classroom with the technologically enhanced active learning possibilities of the online environment, rather than a ratio of delivery modalities”. Administrators at many institutions of higher education, particularly those which offer coursework utilizing a variety of delivery methods, believe recent economic changes including higher unemployment and rising fuel costs, will have a positive effect on student enrollments. Such widespread beliefs are supported by the 2008 report entitled Staying the Course: Online Education in the United States. Institutions such as community colleges and technical schools that cater to non-traditional students will see the highest increases in enrollment. Associate degree-granting institutions presently serve about 37% of the higher education student body and over 50% of all online students are currently enrolled by such institutions. [8] Advantages for Students and Schools Anecdotal evidence indicates that blended course instruction both offers more choices for content delivery and may be more effective than courses that are either fully online or fully classroom-based. Because not all students learn in the same way, suggests that presenting materials in a variety of formats helps maximize student engagement. “The community college instructor should try to offer learning activities that will appeal to the widest variety of learning styles possible”, reflects Stewart.Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee also suggested that students learn more in blended courses than they do in comparable traditional class sections. Teachers responsible for the blended sections reported that students wrote better papers, performed better on exams, produced higher quality projects, and were capable of more meaningful discussions on course material.Chris Dede of the Harvard University’s Graduate School of Education noted that many people are able to find their voice in distance media in a way that they cannot in a typical classroom. A shy student who might not participate in a classroom environment may speak up in an online forum where students have more time to think before they are required to comment. Faculty teaching in a blended delivery model report an increased level of interaction, both among fellow classmates and with their instructor, which suggests that the blended environment offers a less-intimidating forum for student participation, specifically accommodating students who tend to be less verbal. Moreover, the increased interaction results in a more inclusive environment, leading all students to experience a richer and more diverse learning experience. While some instructors may still argue that a traditional classroom is the “richest” teaching medium, blended instruction allows ample opportunities for building social relationships between the teacher and students. “Blended courses offer the convenience and flexibility of wholly online courses without the loss of faculty or student interaction”. Combining the successful elements of a well-designed online course with the face-to-face discussions and personal interactions a blended course offers maximizes student participation because the preferred learning styles of more students are being met, including those that favor the flexibility of asynchronous learning and those that prefer a “live”, interactive discussion. A number of potential advantages to blended learning are emerging. Some of these revolve around accessibility, pedagogical effectiveness, and course interaction. Many of today’s college students are non-traditional, attempting to balance family, jobs and university life. Coming to campus is often difficult for many of them and reducing the number of required face-to-face hours can help students manage.Community college instructors should be cognizant of the issues, such as dependent families and work schedules, that non-traditional students often bring to the classroom. He notes that upon returning to school students often faced “formidable challenges”. One advantage to a course utilizing blended instruction is the ability for the adult learner with multiple responsibilities to more easily accommodate not only their school responsibilities but also family and work life. Miller and Lu maintain that the ‘anytime, anywhere’ mentality of online course delivery “makes sense to working adults who need flexibility” either completing degrees or upgrading skills for job advancement. They also note that the availability of e-courses provide the needed flexibility to maintain part-time jobs, especially students from lower socio-economic classes. Blended course delivery offers the flexibility of having part of the coursework available in an e-learning format resulting in greater flexibility for those students who are juggling multiple responsibilities outside of school. Students have also responded favorably to the ability to minimize both the commuting time and travel costs associated with fully face-to-face course delivery. Blended learning methodologies accommodate the student’s active life schedule while still providing the social connections that are necessary for clear communication to exist, ultimately supporting retention and success. [9] Benefits for SchoolsBlended instruction may enable schools to maximize classroom space and/or reduce the number of overcrowded classrooms. From a physical standpoint, blended instruction allows multiple classes to utilize one physical space, which is particularly important when computer labs are involved. Improvements in classroom utilization have the potential to reduce direct instructional costs by 25-50 percent. The availability of hybrid courses “allow institutions to offer more classes at peak demand times of the day, thus maximizing the scant resources by increasing flexibility in scheduling”. Schools can also reap institutional savings. “On a pure cost basis, hybrids reduce paper and photocopying costs. In hybrid courses, all course documents, including syllabi, lecture notes, assignment sheets and other hard copy handouts, are easily accessible to the students on the course web site”. Bowen suggests that technology can be a tool to “free” instructors from using class time to “cover” content in the classroom. Instead, he suggests that this valuable class time be used to “demonstrate the continued value of direct student to faculty interaction and discussion”. This philosophy is consistent with teaching blended delivery courses; the physical classroom should be utilized fully, in engaging and meaningful activities that benefit from face-to-face interaction between classmates and the instructor. For example, a detailed ethical case study is made available online for students to read and research. Students are expected to come to the face-to-face class session prepared to present theoretical arguments for both sides of the issue. Classroom time is used for small group discussions or a larger, whole class debate over the most contested ethical aspects of the dilemma. [10]DisadvantagesSome adult learners returning to school may have questionable technical skills and as many of adults experience some computer-related phobia. Unpleasant side effects associated with technology may include strong, negative emotional states that arise not only during the interaction but even before, when the idea of having to interact with the computer begins. Frustration, confusion, anger, anxiety and similar emotional states which may be associated with the interaction can adversely affect productivity, learning, social relationships and overall well-being. It is imperative that adult learners have access to the support necessary to successfully engage in the online portion of blended course delivery.This delivery mode provides a unique opportunity to introduce students to online instruction methods while still maintaining a traditional classroom presence. Participating in a blended or hybrid course requires students to be self-motivated learners with effective time management skills, much like participation in a fully online course. Students are held responsible for not only the online aspect of the class but also for fully interacting in the classroom meetings. This combination of pedagogical methods seeks to encourage an active, engaged learning environment where students potentially learn more than in a traditional on-campus classroom. However, a change from a lecture-oriented class to student-centered active learning can constitute a radical change for some students, especially older students unaccustomed to taking responsibility for their own learning. If students enrolled in a hybrid or blended classes are expecting a traditional class setting, they may be disappointed and/or discouraged by the format. Hybrid courses train students, even those technologically wary, in computer and communication skills that will prove to be valuable in the workplace. Students may enhance their computer skills while engaging in an introduction to online learning and find that they desire to take additional fully online courses or that blended course delivery more adequately satisfies their need for flexibility and interpersonal relationships. Faculty resistant to online course delivery can often see the benefits of blended course delivery; however moving a traditional course to a blended format requires careful consideration of educational objectives and methodologies. Garnham and Kaleta noted that in order to teach a successful hybrid course, the instructor must invest a significant amount of time and effort into the redesign of the class. Course redesign will require a review of instructional strategies and assessment techniques as well as the limitations presented by the existing course management system. Care should be taken to select activities whose objectives can be met via online delivery and those which will be enhanced in a traditional format. The focus is on faculty facilitating instruction and students becoming active and interactive learners. Blended learning provides a unique opportunity to bridge generations, providing the face-to-face contact requested by Baby Boomers, the independence preferred by Gen-Xers, and the interaction and sense of community desired by Net Geners. Instructors who implement such strategies have potential to create engaging and supportive learning settings, drawing upon the maximum benefit from technology while retaining the best features of face-to face teaching. [11]Learners must have basic technology knowledge or a willingness to learn. In virtually all blended learning environments you will encounter at least one learner who is hesitant about change. There are also those who may not be familiar with technology and have a steep learning curve ahead of them. To alleviate this issue, you should have support on hand to teach new learners and motivate those who may be more reluctant. It’s also important to cultivate a blended learning community that stresses the value of technology in training, as well as the real world benefits it can offer. Set up workshops that employees can attend in order to learn as much as possible about the new training program, and be introduced to the features of the devices they’ll be using on a regular basis. [12]High technology set up and maintenance costs. Purchasing the learning technology for your blended learning program, such as devices and infrastructure setup, can be costly. This is especially true if you have a larger workforce or several departments. However, bear in mind that these are just short term expenses, and that you are most likely saving money in the long run. Even if you have to pay a nominal monthly maintenance fee, you are still receiving the many benefits that a blended learning strategy has to offer.[13] Using e-learning platforms can be more time consuming than traditional methods and can also come with new costs as e-learning platforms and service providers may charge user fees to educators. Another critical issue is access to network infrastructure. Although the digital divide is narrowing as the Internet becomes more pervasive, many students do not have pervasive and ubiquitous access to the Internet – even in their classrooms. Any attempt to incorporate blended learning strategies into an organization's pedagogical strategy needs to account for this. This is why learning centers are built with good wi-fi connections to make sure this issue is addressed.

2. The use of Blended learning in Kazakhstan education in teaching FLFuture education is a «Blended learning», i.e. a symbiosis of full-time and network forms of education with different degrees of involvement in the educational process. Currently, the world practiced blended learning (traditional and electronic). In the future, mixed education will dominate secondary education. Taking into account all new trends in the development of ICT in education and their application in the educational process will help to bring the country's education to a new level. With a view to the global introduction of ICT opportunities in secondary education, a project to introduce e-learning information system (e-Learning) in schools and technical and vocational education was launched in 2011. The Strategic development plan of the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2020 noted that the rapid development and adaptation of ICT are important factors in the modernization of society, affecting not only the economic performance, but also the way of life of people, which characterizes the importance of ICT development for the economy and the lives of citizens of modern Kazakhstan. To date, the school needs to innovate. The world around us is changing rapidly-largely due to the fact that the economy and society are increasingly dependent on breakthrough technologies. Education is no exception. In recent years, there have been significant achievements of Kazakhstan in the ICT sector. It is assumed that the final stage of Kazakhstan's transition to the information society will be the State program "Information Kazakhstan-2030". The modern development of human civilization is characterized by the next stage of the scientific and technological revolution-the introduction of ICT in all spheres of life, which change the way of life of people and form the Foundation and material basis for the transition to the information society, a society with high socio-economic, political and cultural development. In the world everywhere there are trends such as: - transformation of all social institutions and spheres of human activity under the influence of ICT; - progress in all areas of development, production and implementation of modern technologies; - striving for the formation of a developed information environment adequate to the tasks of socio-economic development of the country; - ensuring equal guaranteed access of the population to information resources;preparation of citizens, public institutions, business and public authorities at all levels for life in the information society.In most advanced countries of the world, such as, for example, Canada, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, the United States, developed and implemented strategies or integrated programs of information development of society as a whole and individual areas of activity. Joint-stock company "international University of information technologies" is working closely with the us Carnegie Mellon University on the development of education in the field of Infocommunications. In 2011, two research and development laboratories were established in the areas of "free software (opensource)" and "information technology". Favorable conditions have been created for the intensive development of science, technology transfer, cooperation between business and universities, the volume of investment in research and development, introduced into the production of high-tech ICT. An annual assessment of the activities of state bodies in the application of information technology and the provision of electronic public services is carried out. The maximum success in the modernization of the education system of Kazakhstan can be achieved only if all the program guidelines laid down in the educational policy will be able to implement themaximum possible of the positive potential accumulated by world experience. Therefore, the issue of modernization of the educational system remains relevant for many States, especially in Central Asia. Blended learning in the classroom is a concept that began as a higher education idea and now transferred down into elementary grades. Several theorists, experts, educators, and administrators. According to Kuo, Blland, Schroder, and Walker, blended learning is an approach that combines face-to-face interactions with technology-based learning. Within their article, the blended learning model approach structure is described in a classroom. Blended learning can also be referred to as hybrid learning and it’s based upon face-to-face interactions 67% of the time and technology interactions 33% of the time. Many educators have implemented this model into their classrooms to enhance reading and math instruction. With that, project-based learning is also implemented with the new technology resource. The classroom may also be set up in a variance of ways. While the idea is to have the technology portion less than 50% of the time, teachers want to use the technology-based pieces as a way to enhance their instruction. Blended learning gives educators the opportunity to build differentiated instruction based on individual student needs. Blended learning in a classroom incorporates daily instruction in small or whole group lessons, and then a technology portion where students are receiving interventions, practice, or enrichment time based on their specific needs. A survey was completed in 2010 and a third of the nation’s schools offered some kind of online learning. While this started out as an concept for higher education, several high schools, middle schools, and elementary schools have adopted this idea in their schools. While many teachers and districts choose to incorporate technology through computer-based reading and math programs, other choose to implement technology as through web-based programs that focus more on creativity. In the article, Using Blended Creative Teaching, many teachers choose to experiment with blogs and online quizzes to incorporate technology in their classroom. They decided to use online journals, such as blogs, instead of paper and pencil assignments. Using technology in the classroom to add to instruction helps engage students and reinforce ideas of students sharing what they know using different avenues. [15] Blended learning isn’t just implemented in secondary education. Many elementary classrooms have taken on the challenge to introduce young students to technology-based programs that will enhance reading instruction. According to Barshay (2011), school districts all over America are advocates of blended learning in the elementary school. In fact, a specific school in Los Angeles, California has implemented a one-to-one technology program, based on blended learning. The kindergarteners in Kipp Empower (elementary school) use laptops and a reading program to help students achieve in English Language Arts goals specific to their grade level. This article demonstrates the versatility of blended learning in the classroom. Many of the other educators and experts focused on blended learning in the secondary classroom. Barshay illustrated the importance of introducing students to blended learning and technology to prepare students for the technological advances in our society. In Boles’s (2011) article, Using Technology in the Classroom, she encourages teachers to make the best of the technology they are given and use what works in their classroom with students. She states, “It would be a shame in this day and age to hand students those old, smelly mimeo pages”.[14] This is very similar to Barshay’s ideas on implementing technology at a younger age to prepare them for the future. To add to the classroom, many teachers have also begun flipped learning. A flipped classroom blends in-class activities, with an online component that’s based out of the home. This approach would be similar to Levin and Heibsch’s ideas to engage pupils using blended learning. According to the article, A Half-Flipped Classroom or an Alternative Approach, a flipped classroom’s online component typically consists of a video lesson sent home with pupils. Many of these experts have implemented and trailed parts of blended learning in his or her classroom. Each article outlines the different aspects of technology implementation in the classroom, whether it’s a secondary or an elementary classroom.[16,17]

2.1 Implementing «Blended learning» in the class I did an internship at lyceum school №38 in Astana. For the practice, all conditions were created. The whole team of the school tried, whenever possible, to help by transferring skills in this area. I was assigned as a class teacher for Rakhymbayev Mauletkali Kydyrbekuly, the class teacher of 7«G» class, and the teacher of English Kapar Aigul, a teacher of English in 6«A» class. They both turned out to be great specialists. Our teamwork was fruitful, because life, professional experience, extensive practical experience and theoretical knowledge, as well as my desire to learn from this experience, were combined. Lyceum School №38 is specialized in many subjects, provides an opportunity for students to receive high-quality secondary education in specialized classes with in-depth study: - foreign language; - physics and mathematics; - chemistry and biology. In classes with in-depth study of a foreign language, children start learning English from the first grade. The language skills of the 7«G» grade children are very high, which I fully expected, and this fact only expanded the range of pedagogical materials, ways of presenting information and topics covered in the process of practice. The class teacher and subject teacher were always happy to respond to requests for assistance in organizing students for work, in equipping the office for training, class hours and English lessons, gave professional recommendations on the design of documents, advised literature and shared their experiences. During the period of practice I tried myself as an English teacher. I went to practice from 05.02.2018 - 19.05.2018. I had 15 lessons, during which I fully felt the hard teaching, all the difficulties encountered when working with children, but also the joy of interaction and the possibility of influence and training of schoolchildren. I also played the role of a class teacher, having spent a class hour and an educational event with the help of an interactive whiteboard, students watched videos and listened to audio. The main theme of my work was the grammar of the English language. Having tried myself as a teacher, I was once again convinced that theory and practice should be closely related. To analyze the lesson of the teacher, I chose one of the lessons of English from a teacher of 6«A» class Kapar Aigul. The theme of the lesson was “Present Perfect Continuous”. This lesson combined control, the formation of knowledge, consolidation and improvement of knowledge, the formation of skills and abilities, summarizing learning outcomes, the definition of homework. The structure of the lesson included the following stages: organizational stage, checking homework, setting goals, updating knowledge, introducing knowledge, generalizing and systematizing knowledge, performing standard and creative tasks, summarizing training, determining homework and instructing on its implementation. Kazakh school-lyceum №38 was introduced an electronic journal a few years ago. Teachers put grades on the site, and the parent can see the grades of their children. Each student has an individual e-log password. And also, each office has its own computer and interactive whiteboard. I visited school every week and every week I explained a new topic through a computer and an interactive whiteboard. It was very convenient, I managed to explain in 45 minutes a new topic and ask the students what they understood, as well as analyze the previous topic. At the end of the lesson I gave homework at home. During the lesson, I showed a video about my new topic, along with the students listened to new words (how they are written, how they are said out loud, and how to read correctly). The use of audio and video recordings in the classroom contributes to the individualization of learning and the development of the motivation of speech activity among school students. When using videos in a foreign language lesson, two types of motivation develop: self-motivation, when the film is interesting in itself, and motivation, which is achieved by showing the student that he can understand the language that he is learning. This brings satisfaction and gives faith in one’s own strength and desire for further improvement. It is necessary to strive to ensure that students receive satisfaction from the film or audio material through the understanding of the language, and not only through an interesting and entertaining plot. Audio is an indispensable assistant in linguistics. Pupils, wearing headphones, listen and repeat foreign words, learning to perceive an unfamiliar language by ear. Today audiobooks and audio seminars, which save a considerable amount of time, are also very popular. The disadvantages of audio learning I would consider: - the insensitivity of some people to this kind of information. There is a category of people whose attention cannot be kept for long by audio material; - the inability to identify the most important points visually, as it can be done with a paper carrier; - the inconvenience of returning to the past moment. Suppose in a book, after forgetting something, you can easily turn back a couple of pages and reread the passage, but in an audio source it is more difficult to do it. Another advantage of audio and video materials is the strength of the impression and emotional impact on students. Therefore, the main attention should be directed to the formation of students' personal attitude to what they see and hear. Successful achievement of such a goal is possible only, firstly, with the systematic use of audio and video, and secondly, with a methodically organized demonstration. It should be noted that the use of audio and video materials in the classroom is not only the use of another source of information. The use of audio and video materials contributes to the development of various aspects of students' mental activity, and above all, attention and memory. While watching and listening in the classroom, an atmosphere of joint cognitive activity arises. Under these conditions, even an inattentive learner becomes attentive. In order to understand the content of the film or story, students need to make some effort. So involuntary attention goes into arbitrary. The intensity of attention affects the process of memorization. The use of various channels of information receipt (auditory, visual, motor perception) has a positive effect on the strength of capturing regional geographic and linguistic material.

2.2 Analysis of the teaching results There are 7 question, 32 pupils answered this question. The first question is “Do you know about Blended learning?”. 27 pupils know about blended learning.

The second question about “Have you been studying English language by Blended learning?” the pie chart shows 25 pupil of 32 they choose answer "Yes", 6 pupil answered "No".

The third question about “What is the most effective way to teach Blended learning in English for pupils at school?”. There were 3 possible answers: 1) PowerPoint, 2) Video and Audio, 3) Interactive whiteboard. 22 pupils out of 32 voted for PowerPoint, 7 pupils voted for video and audio, and 3 pupils voted for the interactive board.

The fourth question “Why does blended learning use in teaching English?”. There were 3 possible answers: 1) It helps easily to understand new theme, 2) saves time, 3) Develop technology modernization in teaching. 27 pupils out of 32 voted for the first variant, one pupil voted for the second variant, and 4 pupils voted for the third variant.

In the fifth question “What do you think that blended learning can improve skill of pupils at school?”. There were no options for this question, that is, the pupil himself had to answer this question. All the pupils answered “Yes”. The sixth question “Why do you think blended learning is useful in teaching FL?”. There were no answers to this question, so the pupils themselves answered. The answers were: “Helps to improve skills; Yes, consists with not only traditional method; Improve speaking and listening”. In the seventh question “Do you like using blended learning in teaching FL?” the pie chart shows 30 pupil of 32 they choose answer "Yes", 2 pupil answered "No". [18]

In this experiment, we investigated the differences of the effects of blended and traditional courses on pupils’ learning achievements, as well as the correlation between pupils’ learning achievements. The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference on students’ learning achievements between the blended learning and traditional learning approach, with the blended learning learners having a significantly higher learning achievements than the traditional counterparts. The results suggested that the blended learning can improve pupils’ learning achievements effectively. It should be noted that is Blended learning in teaching speaking English language pupil gave us excellent results, high efficiency, increase knowledge of pupils. The use of Blended learning allows you to bring learning a foreign language to a new level: - accelerates the assimilation of knowledge - reduces fear of wrong answers in groups - motivates for further study. Reply of the survey monkey 96% of the pupils confidently answered the most effective method is Blended learning in teaching foreign language. 30 pupils prefer to study English by Blended learning.

Conclusion

So, we considered the varieties of blended education in schools of Kazakhstan. First of all, we must say that all these methods have a common goal of learning: to teach students to communicate in English, as well as to participate in the formation and development of students' personality. The main goal of teaching a foreign language at school is to develop technology upgrades. The situation in the classroom is a situation of verbal communication, which is in addition to the participants of communication (teacher and student). Learning to speak as a productive type of speech activity, which is communication in a foreign language, plays a crucial role in modern studies, today's school curriculum in a foreign language is focused on developing oral communication skills of students, a culture of communicating in a foreign language. in primary school children using blended learning. Therefore, future studies are suggested to explore the effects of blended learning on some other subjects with a relatively long period of time, as well as the factors that may affect students’ learning achievements. In addition, more attention should be paid to the design and implementation of appropriated instructional models for blended learning, in order to provide students with a better learning experience and thus develop their creative thinking and abilities. Specific features give each of these methods its own appearance, and they evoke the positive and negative qualities that are inherent in each of them. Analyzing the positive and negative features, we can conclude that the most effective, successful and harmonious is blended learning in learning a foreign language. Blended learning in learning English is objectively the most effective of all existing, especially when it comes to the organization of secondary school education. At the school level, it is necessary to lay the foundation for fluency in English as a means of communication, which opens up the possibility to move from learning English as an object of study to its use in practice as a useful tool. In particular, if they succeed in this direction, students will have the opportunity to develop their knowledge of English in the future in any direction that they choose, for example, from the point of view of studying any specific areas (for example, professional terminology, “technical” language, etc. ). Thus, further implementation in all areas of blended learning in the education system and, possibly, its gradual modernization in accordance with the changing realities of the modern world is necessary. It should be noted that when choosing a teaching method, one should take into account not only one's preferences, but first of all, one should focus on the age, abilities, interests and psychological characteristics of pupils. Teaching a child search skills and abilities is an important task of the modern educational field. During my practice, I came to the conclusion that it was important to conduct a dialogue training of pupils to self-search, creative, independent pursuit of independence. Solved the objectives of the research: - Determine the main purpose of teaching English as a second foreign language.- Describe modern methods of teaching FL. - The methods of development of speech of the English language in school - Describe the communicative method of teaching English as a second. -To get acquainted with the point of view of foreign methodologists on communicative method teaching of grammar; The theoretical data on the research problem was reflected in practice when we used blended learning. In addition, more attention should be paid to the design and implementation of appropriated instructional models for blended learning, in order to provide pupils with a better learning experience and thus develop their creative thinking and abilities.

References

1. Clarc D. Blended Learning // CEO Epic Group plc, 52 Old Stein, Brighton BN1 1NH, 2003. P. 23.

2. E.V. Jentov "8 steps of Blended Learning" (revision of article «Missed Steps» by Darlin Paynter // Training & Development). URL: http://www.obs.ru/ interest/publ/?thread=57.

3. Purnima V. Blended Learning Models // Published: August 2002. P. 1. URL: http://www.learningcircuits. org/2002/aug2002/valiathan.html.

4. Rossett A., Vaughan F., Blended learning CEO Epic Group plc, 52 Old Steine, Brighton BN1 1NH, 2003, URL: http://www.obs.ru/interest/publ/?thread=57

5. L.V. Desyatova , "The use of Blended Learning Model in construction of ICT courses in educational process"Мoscow.: «Pervoe Sentjabrja», 2010. № 13.p. 7.

6. Dudney G., Hockly N. How to…Teach English with Technology // Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associat-ed Companies throughout the world. 2007. P. 15.

7. Allen, I.E. and Seaman, J. (2008). Staying the course: Online education in the United States. Needham, MA: The Sloan Consortium, November 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2009 from http://www.sloanconsortium.org/sites/default/files/staying_the_course-2.pdf.

8. Allen, I. E., Seaman, J. and Garrett, J. (2007) Blending In: The Extent and Promise of Blended Education in the United States. Needham, MA: The Sloan Consortium, March 2007. Retrieved May 27, 2009 from http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/survey/pdf/Blending_In.pdf.

9. Alvarez, S. (2005). Blended learning solutions. In B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Retrieved from http://edweb.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/blendedlearning/index.htm

10. Arabasz, P. and Baker. M. B. (2003). Evolving campus support models for e-learning courses. Respondent Summary. Educause Center for Applied Research. Retrieved February 8, 2009 from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ecar_so/ers/ERS0303/EKF0303.pdf.

11. Bleed, R. (2001). A hybrid campus for the new millennium. Educause Review. January/February 2001.

12. Bowen, J. (2006). Teaching naked: Why removing technology from your classroom will improve student learning. The National Teaching and Learning Forum, p.16.

13. Chen, C. and Jones, K. (2007). Blended learning vs. traditional classroom settings: Assessing effectiveness and student perceptions in an MBA accounting course. Journal of Educators Online, p.4.

14. Boles, S. R. (2011). Using Technology in the Classroom. Science Scope, 34(9), 39-43.

15. Kuo, Y., Belland, B. R., Schroder, K. E., & Walker, A. E. (2014). K-12 teachers’ perceptions of and their satisfaction with interaction type in blended learning environments. Distance Education, 35(3), p 360-381.

16. Lou, S., Chen, N., Tsai, H., Tseng, K., & Shih, R. (2012). Using Blended Creative Teaching: Improving a Teacher Education Course on Designing Materials for Young Children. Australasian Journal Of Educational Technology, 28(5), p776- 792.

17. Westermann, E. B. (2014). A Half-Flipped Classroom or an Alternative Approach?: Primary Sources and Blended Learning. Educational Research Quarterly, 38(2), p43-57.

18. https://ru.surveymonkey.com/r/M95BY7S

Просмотров работы: 242