Use of Internet resources at English lesssons - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

Use of Internet resources at English lesssons

Кахарман Д.Н. 1, Абдимауленова Г.А. 2
1Евразийский Национальный Университет имена Л.Н.Гумилева
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The Internet plays a major role in the lives of young people today. Children and youngsters engage in online activities both inside and outside the classroom. Formally, that is in the school, young people use the Internet for instance, when searching for information and when completing tests. Informally, that is in their spare time, they chat with friends, play online computer games and are involved in fan fiction, i.e. using published material to create pictures and films etc.

No doubt the Internet has had a profound effect on our lives, our work and play, our politics, and our business. But in the middle of a revolution that seems so profound, no one is yet quite certain what the landscape will look like when the electronic dust settles. Some believe that schools have come late to the revolution; some would say late is good. The Internet is beginning to liberate education from the confines of traditional time and space.

In the last few years the number of teachers using Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has increased markedly and numerous articles have been written about the role of technology in education in the 21st century. Although the potential of the Internet for educational use has not been fully explored yet and the average school still makes limited use of computers, it is obvious that we have entered a new information age in which the links between technology and TEFL have already been established. The development of the Internet brought about a revolution in the teachers' perspective, as the teaching tools offered through the net were gradually becoming more reliable. Nowadays, the Internet is gaining immense popularity in foreign language teaching and more and more educators and learners are embracing it.

The revolution of the Internet has had profound effects on education-related matters, including learning, teaching, assessment, communication, and participation. It is therefore imperative that teaching professionals be technology-literate. As language professionals, basically they may use computers to design and create materials for language instruction as well as delivering instruction.

Nowadays, Internet technology has become more powerful and more sophisticated. This raises questions for educators and researchers on how online resources and applications can be used to enhance students’ learning and meet their needs. An increasing number of language teachers are showing an interest in making use of resources on the Internet for language pedagogy. Online resources and applications can be utilizedc to supplement or augment language teaching in traditional classroom settings and to engage students in realworld learning experiences that extend beyond the walls of the classroom.

The topicality of the study lies in the fact that in the world of globalization, Internet resources in teaching English increase the level of interest of students, and also enable the development of all types of speech activity.

The aim of the course work is to investigate the influence of the use of the Internet on English planning and instruction and identify their effectiveness inthe practice ofteachingEnglish.

The implementation of the research objective is possible when performing the following tasks:

Analysis of the methodological literature on the research topic;

Theoretical substantiation of the use of Internet resources, their didactic possibilities;

Features and features of telecommunication and educational Internet resources;

The use of a web quest in a foreign language lesson as a modern lesson format.

The object of this research is Internet resources in the modern lesson of a foreign language.

The subject of this research is the use of Internet resources in teaching in an English class.

Theoretical and empirical research methods: analysis of the methodological literature, the theoretical foundations of the works of researchers, synthesis, synthesis.

The scientific novelty of the research is as follows:

the possibilities of the website that will help raise the level of English in secondary schools;

theoretically justified and practically tested the model of integration of Internet technologies based on the website as a teacher of a foreign language;

a classification of the types of independent work of students using Internet technologies has been developed.

The theoretical significance of this work lies in the fact that the author justified the use of the Internet in the educational process.

The practical significance of this workis that materials and research results can used directly in the practice of teaching lessons English in secondary school as well as during Electives and elective courses, the organization of extracurricular work on English language.

The results of senior thesis were approbated at "School- Lyceum  №38" during the pedagogical practice from 5th February  -  19th May 2018

Theoretical and methodological basis of the thesis werematerials from scientific conferences, a curriculum in foreign languages, scientific researches and studies of Carey Jewitt, Jarred Kennedy, B. Laufer, etc.

The structure of research workconsists of introduction, theoretical and practical parts , conclusion and list of references including 26 entitlements of research materials.There are 5 graphs in the paper

I. Theoretical bases of use online resources in Englishlessons

1.1. Previous studies on teachers' opinions on the use of the Internet in English Lessons

There are a number of studies on the use of the Internet in the classroom. The current study focuses on the perspective of the teachers.

An American perspective In a study based on elementary and secondary school teachers' email reports, lesson plans and reflective journals, Karchmer (2001) investigated the influence of the Internet on literacy instruction. The teachers in the study were regarded as “exemplary at using technology” by colleagues (Karchmer 2001:442). All the teachers in the study report that regularly using the Internet in teaching increases their work load. It takes a great deal of time to learn how to use the technology and to implement it in teaching, thus more time has to be devoted to planning. Compared to when they were using textbooks, the elementary teachers have to devote more time to finding appropriate online material which is neither too easy nor too difficult for the students. Therefore they preview the information they plan to use in class beforehand. However, at times the teachers are unable to find suitable web sites to use (454-56).

Moreover, out of concern that students can get access to inappropriate information on the Internet (such as pornographic material), the teachers in the study have taken certain precautions to protect the students: they demand parental permission, they use monitoring systems that block inappropriate web sites, they prohibit browsing altogether, and they discuss with their students what kinds of information can be found on the Internet (i.e. use it as a learning experience) (457).

Nevertheless, the teachers find it important that their students learn to question information on the Internet. Consequently, they not only discuss in class how important it is to evaluate online information, but they have also developed evaluation criteria for their students. Using these web page criteria, the students can evaluate online material on their own. If they come across biased information while surfing, the teachers take the opportunity to discuss the discrepancies in class (457-58).

In addition, one of the teachers sees it as an experience to learn from: why is the information not correct? Another teacher instructs her students to use several sources in order to find reliable and correct information (458). In conclusion, Karchmer (2001:454,458,461) found that the use of 16 the Internet in the classroom influences literacy instruction to some extent, in particular writing and reading. For instance, when (elementary) students are aware that their written work will be published online their motivation to do well increases, which is in agreement with Cunningham & Andersson's (1997:73) and Dudeney's (2007:132) claims.

A British perspective

Gray et al (2007) studied Modern Foreign Language teachers in their effort to implement new ICT into their teaching practice. Interactive White Boards (IWB) were installed in the teachers' classrooms and they were forced to use them (ordinary whiteboards, OHPs etc. were removed). The teachers' professional development was not based mainly on formal training, but rather on successful trial-and-error, collegial sharing of material, personal experience/experimentation, and gradually collecting a stock of teaching material (412-13, 422-23).

The major advantage experienced by the teachers was that the use of ICT allowed them to control and manage the class, both their learning materials and their students' behaviour. Being aware that there is a great deal to learn about the use of new technology, the teachers held on to their firm beliefs about learning and teaching, implementing new ICT at their own convenience (421, 423). The authors conclude that it is important to acknowledge “the huge investment of time and effort” that a change in established teaching practice demands of teachers (Gray et al 2007:424).

In another study conducted in the UK, Madden et al (2005) administered a questionnaire to teachers in a secondary school with the aim of getting information about their perceptions of the usefulness of the Internet as an educational resource. Not surprisingly, they found that teachers who have more experience of the Internet are more likely to use it in teaching than teachers who have less knowledge. A majority of the teachers in the study had acquired their Internet skills by personal experience or by learning from colleagues (i.e. informally) rather than by training (i.e. formally). Moreover, experienced teachers are less likely to feel that students are more knowledgeable about 17 ICT than they are. About two thirds of the respondents believe that some pupils seemingly learn more from the Internet than from course books (255, 266, 270).

Teachers who use the Internet frequently think it is easy to use search engines and to find useful teaching material, and they believe that the World Wide Web is a valuable source of information. However, a majority of the teachers express concern about the reliability of online information; web sites might change or disappear, and the information might be too biased to use or not appropriate for the National Curriculum (267-69). In their summary, Madden et al (2005:272) state that although teachers acknowledge that the Internet is a valuable teaching aid, they express doubts that the students might not be able to distinguish reliable information from unreliable information on the Internet. Yet, the authors note further that teachers who frequently use the Internet in teaching have the possibility to supervise how his/her students make use of it (269).

A Canadian perspective In a three-year research study, Susan Gibson and Dianne Oberg (2004) investigated the realities and visions of the use of the Internet in schools in Canada. They interviewed ministry of education and teacher association officials, and administered a questionnaire to teachers and school administrators. An analysis of the collected data yields three themes: purposes for the use of the Internet and factors enhancing/limiting Internet use. As regards the first theme, the respondents report two main purposes for the use of the Internet: a tool for promoting students' learning (e.g. to prepare students for a future in the technological era), and a tool for supporting teaching (e.g. through the Internet teachers can access lesson plans and other valuable information) (571, 573-74).

Regarding the second theme, factors limiting Internet use, the informants report challenges such as financing, access and infrastructure support. Thus inadequate funding, Internet access and direction for Internet use in teaching restrict the use of ICT in the school. Other concerns for teachers are time constraints, unreliable technology, and also the nature, relevance and reliability of online information. As far as the third theme is concerned, one factor enhancing Internet use is 18 teachers' opportunities to learn. According to Gibson and Oberg, about two thirds of the teachers perceive themselves as proficient Internet users. They increase their knowledge by for instance collegial work, studying manuals/books/online tutorials, taking a course, trial-and-error and by working with their students (575-78).

Another factor enhancing the use of the Internet is motivation for teachers to learn. Teachers feel motivated to use the Internet because they are curious and wish to learn new teaching aids, because the curriculum so requires, and because students are interested in the Internet (578-79). Gibson and Oberg (2004:580, 582) conclude that the informants in their study are positive to using the Internet as a tool for promoting learning and teaching, yet they used the Internet only infrequently. The authors suggest that teachers need both adequate support from specialists, and sufficient time to become familiar with the use of the Internet in order to benefit from its full potential in teaching.

A Swedish perspective

Alexandra Tuvér and Elin Blomqvist (2009) explored students' and teachers' views on the use of the Internet in learning and teaching in two upper secondary schools in Sweden (one private, the other municipal). They interviewed four teachers and administered a questionnaire to one hundred students (23, 25). As the focus of the current study is teachers' opinions on Internet use in education, only the results pertaining to the latter group will be discussed here.

All the teachers in the study use the Internet in their teaching. Positive aspects of the Internet are for instance that it is a valuable source of information, that it increases teacher-student communication and is a means of communication to the rest of the world, that students think it is more fun to read online information than to read books, and that there is a great deal of teaching materials on the Internet which makes instruction more fun for the students. Negative aspects are that the Internet might distract students during lessons (for instance, they want to check their Facebook status), that there is a lot of incorrect/biased information on the Internet, and that it is 19 difficult for the students to separate reliable sources from unreliable ones. According to one teacher, students often choose the first hit that comes along (28-29).

Thus it is important that teachers teach their students how to evaluate and question information on the Internet, which is also emphasized in Karchmer's study (2001). Moreover, students have to learn how to cite their sources properly (e.g. to use quotation marks). Some students do not know that it is not allowed to copy and paste online material, and they might copy large amounts of texts without indicating that they have done so. However, the teachers are in agreement that it is easy to detect plagiarism, and that it is actually easier now with the Internet as students and teachers have access to the same information. Paradoxically then, it is easier to cheat (for students) but at the same time it is easier to detect cheating (for teachers) (28-32).

Yet there are other problems with the use of the Internet in education. Two of the teachers mention technical difficulties in the classroom. Therefore one teacher always has a plan B of one kind or another in case there are technical disturbances during a lesson (cf. also Dudeney 2007). Another problem is that the Internet is not completely safe for young people. One teacher thus finds it important to inform the students about possible risks on the Internet. Another teacher points to the fact that as the younger generation uses the Internet so much in their leisure time, they become familiar with it, and so they do not see the dangers 'out there' in the same way as the older generation does (30-32).

Tuvér and Blomqvist (2009:41-42, 46) conclude that the Internet is a useful tool in instruction when used with sense and precaution; yet it is not always easy for teachers to know how to use the Internet as a teaching resource (cf. also Kuo 2008). It might be difficult to determine what is reliable information and what is not. Moreover, besides what has been mentioned above concerning negative aspects, the authors mention that the computers might come to replace the role of the teacher in the classroom. Consequently, the student-teacher relationship will be negatively affected, and the instruction too in the long run. The authors argue that students need adults who are 20 present in their lives to guide and motivate them in their daily work and personal development.

The teachers in the study are convinced that students perceive of the Internet as their primary (or only) source of information. According to Tuvér and Blomqvist, it is quite in order provided that the students know how to evaluate and question online information. However, as their study reveals that this is not the case, the authors ask the pertinent question: whose main responsibility is it to teach students how to distinguish between reliable and unreliable sources? Tuvér and Blomqvist claim that the best method is to combine information from different sources and thus to use the Internet as a complement to other teaching aids (42-44).

1.2. Practical guidelines for teachers on the use of the Internet at school

In 1997 the University of the State of New York issued an introduction guide for adult educators in the use of the Internet as an instructional tool. The manual includes, among other things, fifteen hands-on lessons (including hand-outs) on different topics. In "Integrating ICTs into the Curriculum: Analytical Catalogue of Key Publications", published by UNESCO in 2005, detailed strategies on how to integrate ICT successfully into education are described. The catalogue includes abstracts and excerpts from a number of different publications on the implementation of technology in teaching practice.

Läraren – eleven - Internet (1997) by Una Cunningham and Staffan Andersson contains a great many practical tips on how to use the Internet in the classroom. The authors list a number of advantages of the use of the Internet in teaching. It is possible to locate information online that is not to be found in course books or printed dictionaries, and to get recent updates on for instance the political development in other countries or natural disasters (i.e. information that continuously changes). Moreover, the Internet gives students the opportunity to learn about other cultures, and to communicate directly with people abroad (16-17).

By publishing their work on the Internet students can reach an even wider audience, which can be a motivating factor. More specifically, the Internet can be a motivator for students with learning disabilities. Being allowed to use the computer and to read about subjects that interest them, these students could be stimulated to read more, or even to read in the first place, and to write 12 as well (using, for instance, the online spell check). Regarding advantages for teachers, there are a great many teaching resources on the Internet, such as mailing lists and lesson plans (17, 73, 90-91, 103, 131).

Cunningham and Andersson stress the fact that there are no publishing restrictions on the Internet, anyone can publish what they want, which is also emphasized by Karchmer (2001:446). They thus point out that it is important to know who is responsible for the online information one finds, to be able to evaluate it properly for reliability. Discussing the new role of the teacher with the advent of ICT in the school, the authors state that because there is also incorrect and misleading information on the Internet, teachers have to pick and choose among the material they present to their students. Students, on the other hand, need to learn how to deal with vast amounts of information (Cunningham & Andersson 17, 21, 107, 137).

In a chapter discussing the negative aspects of the Internet, the authors state that there are for instance sites containing information about extreme groupings and criminal activities that children and young people can get access to (284). In agreement with Cunningham and Andersson (1997), Gavin Dudeney discusses negative aspects of the use of ICT in the classroom in his practical guide The Internet and the Language Classroom (2007). One drawback is problems with technology, which is why teachers always should have a back-up lesson plan (36-37).

Another drawback is “'questionable' content” on the Internet (Dudeney 2010:37). Dudeney observes that there is indeed information on the Internet that is not suitable for young people; however, it is not as common as the media pretends. Yet teachers are responsible for making sure that their students do not access inappropriate web sites during class (37).

Dudeney mentions two approaches to deal with students' possible access to unsuitable material. One possibility is to install a piece of software which blocks certain sites, for instance Net Nanny (see also Cunningham & Andersson 1997:18). However, it has the negative consequence that it might restrict a teacher's access to (useful) information more than is desirable. The other approach 13 is to do regular checks (such as checking temporary Internet files and downloads of images to computers) as well as to instruct students in the correct use of the Internet (38-39).

Dudeney gives examples of a number of Internet-based activities (elementary to advanced level), ranging from activities about teenage problems, famous people and borrowed words in English to online tools, such as webquests, discussion lists and different writing projects (2007:43- 140). When students can publish their writing online, they put more effort into the presentation of their work (such as accuracy). Dudeney states that, for instance, email exchanges with key pals from other parts of the world are very motivating for students, giving them the opportunity to communicate with an authentic audience (115, 132).

Echoing Harmer (2007), Dudeney writes that there is a great deal of information on the Internet, if one only knows how and where to find it. He regrets the fact that training in ICT is not very common in teacher education, and so individual teachers have to gain knowledge and experience in this area on their own (2, 19). Nevertheless, teachers can benefit from using the Internet as a teaching resource, as it “opens up a world of possibilities” for teachers and students (Dudeney 2007:32). Students' and student teachers'

1.3. Benefits and drawbacks of using online sources in English lessons

Equally vital is to acknowledge learning that takes place inside the classroom through the use of ICT. A number of researchers point to the benefits of using the Internet in formal education. Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed Abdallah (2007) argues that the Internet is used in education because 9 it facilitates learning, teaching and communication. It is possible to find a great deal of (course/subject) information online and to do so any time. Specifically commenting on advantages of the Internet for English Language Teaching, he mentions that students can study any topic in English independently online, and they can also find many activities on the Internet to use in order to improve their proficiency.

In an early observation by Meena Singhal (1997), advantages of the Internet for the individual student are highlighted, especially the vast amount of information that can be found online at all times: “The World Wide Web is … a virtual library at one's fingertips; it is a readily available world of information for the language learner” (Singhal 1997:4). She particularly highlights the benefits of emailing, which is beneficial to use with shy students who can thus communicate without having to speak up in class. Moreover, via email, language students can communicate with native English speakers, rendering the communication an authentic context.

In a speech given at a conference in Japan, Victoria Muehleisen (1997) lists a number of reasons why the use of the Internet is beneficial to English teaching. She claims that students' motivation to learn English is promoted by their learning how to use computers, and in so doing they come to realize that English is an international language (most of the online information is in English). Moreover, online projects have an interactive aspect (students work actively, for instance when they search for information), and are generally easier to realize in practice than other projects (Internet access is often available in e.g. computer rooms in schools and public computers in Internet cafés). Muehleisen concludes by encouraging English teachers to use the Internet in the class room, as it increases students' motivation to use English in out-of-school settings.

Kilimci (2010) goes one step further when he argues that the Internet can be used as “... the main aid in teaching a language and as a basic source of communication in distance education”, not only as a complement to other teaching resources (Kilimci 2010:109). The World Wide Web provides teachers and students with the possibility to listen to radio programs, television programs, 10 the news etc., thus to listen to native speakers online. Moreover, the Internet gives students access to libraries and a great deal of reading material, and also the opportunity to familiarize themselves with many different cultures and peoples (109, 112).

Jeremy Harmer (2007) writes that students and teachers can find practically any kind of information they want on the Internet. They can access newspapers, encyclopedias, history sites, film guides, lyrics, and broadcasting associations (e.g. the BBC). However, due to the size of the Internet and the vast amount of online information there is, it may be awkward to use for teachers and students. It might be difficult to find the spot-on information that one is searching for, because it is a skill that must be acquired. Thus if teachers want their students to do successful searches on the Internet, they have to teach them this skill (190-91).

In an article addressing the issue of e-safety amongst other things, M Sharples et al (2008) discuss the dilemma of allowing children and young people to make use of the learning opportunities the Internet has to offer, and simultaneously protecting them from possible harmful 'side effects'. The use of the Internet poses certain risks to the younger generation, such as bullying (e.g. to post hurtful messages/pictures), harmful adults (e.g. paedophiles), unsuitable content (e.g. violent and pornographic material) and cheating (e.g. to copy paste online material). This dilemma is indeed a problem for schools and the authors acknowledge that at present there is no simple solution (70, 72-74). According to Sharples et al (73), if schools forbid students to access inappropriate web sites, they will soon find other ways of doing so (see also Cunningham & Andersson 1997:289).

Other researchers have also explored drawbacks of the use of the Internet in education. Singhal (1997) mentions technical problems/lack of Internet access, teachers' lacking knowledge and experience, unsuitable information for children, and time-consuming browsing on the Internet. Chapman (2000) brings up threats of Internet use for young people. Among other things, there is information about drug use and bomb making on the Internet.

He states further that “[a] great deal of information on the Internet is of questionable value, inaccurate or misleading” (Chapman 2005:335). Teachers are thus faced with a new pedagogical challenge, namely to teach their students how to use the Internet in a responsible manner. This task is a burdensome one for teachers, as it is combined with another educational task, that is, to explore ways of using the Internet to promote learning in general. Chapman mentions yet another challenge for teachers, which is to keep updated on the technological development (308, 314).

Four major disadvantages of the use of the Internet in formal educational settings were found in the interview data, viz. students' cheating, extracurricular activities, technical problems and biased/unreliable information.

According to Kvale and Brinkmann, researchers need to consider possible harmful consequences that the informants of their research projects may suffer (89-90, 292). A primary concern in the current study is the small total sample (eight teachers), and so the possibility of the teachers' personal integrity being jeopardized. However, the fact that all the consulted teachers did not participate, removes the possibility of the individual teachers being identified. In order to adhere to the principle of confidentiality, the teachers will be referred to as Teacher 1-Teacher 5 (abbreviated T1-T5). Moreover, the anonymity of the respondents will be protected by the exclusive use of the pronoun “she” (85, 89, 293). Consequently, gender is not a possible identifier in this study.

Teacher 1 is a frequent Internet user. She uses the Internet in her leisure time for emailing, when she reads newspapers and blogs, and when she pays her bills.

Teacher 2 is not a frequent user of the Internet. In her spare time she uses the Internet for emailing, when reading the news and when looking for other kinds of information, like gossip.

Teacher 3 is a frequent user of the Internet. She uses the Internet in her spare time when reading newspapers and different kinds of magazines.

Teacher 4 uses the Internet frequently. In her leisure time she uses the Internet as a source of general information and for social activities.

Teacher 5 is a frequent Internet user. She uses the Internet to find information, to keep in touch with family members and friends, and when she pays her bills.

Sharples et al (2008) maintain that cheating is a risk that the use of the Internet in the school poses to young people. They state further that children might not regard copy-pasting, which they 36 are empowered to do, as cheating (74). All five teachers in the current study think that the fact that students might cheat is a drawback with the use of the Internet in the school. They all confirm how easy it is for students to just copy from online texts and paste it into their own texts. Teacher 1 says “it's very easy to think 'well I can use this, it's on the Internet'” (L 316-7).

According to teacher 2, students might not see the difference between if they copy a text that someone else has written, or if they write a text themselves. “They feel if they have spent the time looking for it, finding it, printing it and handing it in to me, then they have done the job” (L 278-9). Where does this attitude stem from, that it is allowed to use information on the Internet as if it was public property?

Three of the teachers (T1, T3, T4) believe that it is very tempting for students to copy information from the Internet because it is so easy to do. Teacher 3 says “for many it's difficult to avoid, to keep away from it” (L 252-3). They do not have to do any writing, and hardly any reading. She points out that it might be the case that students are not aware of what they are doing when they copy online information. Teacher 4 highlights the fact that the problem might be that students are ignorant about how to present their material/sources properly, and thus appear to be cheating. In a similar manner, the teachers in Tuvér and Blomqvist's study (2009) note that students might not know that it is not allowed to copy paste information from the Internet.

Therefore they emphasize the need to teach students how to present their sources and how to quote (Tuvér and Blomqvist 2009). A majority of the teachers in the current study (T1, T4, T5) are in agreement that it is important to talk to students about plagiarism. Teacher 1 discusses with her students what is allowed and what is not when using online material, and Teacher 4 informs her students what they risk losing it they cheat. Teacher 5 says that the disadvantage of students cheating would not deter her from using the Internet in teaching, but rather would make her even more eager to inform her students about the risks. The fact that these teachers discuss ethical issues of Internet use with their students, satisfies the aspirations of Ålands Landskapsregering (2007) that 37 students are to develop digital proficiency during their education.

Teacher 4 and Teacher 5 also inform their students about the possibilities they have of checking whether someone has copied material from the Internet. Almost all the teachers (T2, T3, T4, T5) think that it is quite easy to detect cheating. They can sense that a text is probably not written by a particular student because it is too advanced/complicated or changes stylistically. Teacher 3 finds that students might become surprised at her finding out that they have copied material from the Internet, which proves that they lack sufficient knowledge of both the English language and of how the Internet works. The opinion that it is easy to find out if a student has cheated, is confirmed in Tuvér and Blomqvist's study (2009).

Two of the teachers (T3, T4) bring up consequences that cheating has for students in their respective schools. Both teachers state that plagiarism is something their schools take very seriously. The consequences of cheating might be that an assignment/a course is given a failing grade, that a student has to do the task again, or that he/she gets a warning from the headmaster. Teacher 3 speculates that plagiarism might become an even more severe problem if university students start using the Internet to a greater extent.

Although the teachers were not specifically asked any questions about their attitudes to teaching and learning, it was found to be a recurrent theme in the interview data. Two of the teachers (T1 and T5) emphasize the need to create a good classroom atmosphere in order for the students to learn. Therefore they do not force their students to speak English in front of their classmates, as it might be deterring to some. Instead they have pair or group discussions so that students can practice speaking the language in a less intimidating context.

Teacher 1 maintains that a teacher's mission is to promote student learning. Teacher 1 moreover thinks that it is important for teachers to have a purpose with the material that they use, to know what the students are going to learn from doing a certain task. She also tries to create variation in her teaching in order for her students to learn better. She finds that the Internet is a good tool in this respect, however, as a teacher you should not depend too much on it. She says “I think that the students spend so much time on the Internet in their daily life that I want to do classrooms tasks as well, communication between two people in real life” (L 209-11).

Teacher 3 thinks that it is important that students learn the difference between the use of the computer/Internet as a tool and as a toy. She explains that computers that the students receive from the school will crash when they are used in the wrong way, which is a valuable learning experience for them. Teacher 4 points out that it is necessary that students learn to be critical to any source of information that they use, as it is a part of the scientific research method. Teacher 2, on the other hand, highlights the fact that students are so focused on learning for tests and exams, and emphasizes the need to explain to them that they learn for their own good and for their future.

Another disadvantage of the use of the Internet in the school that a majority of the teachers (T1, T2, T3) mention is extra curricular-activities that students devote their time to during lessons, in particular Facebook, although it is not allowed. Teacher 1 says that she sometimes chooses not to let her students use the Internet in class because she knows the temptation to check their Facebook status is too strong, and that they will get more work done if they do not go to the computer room. Teacher 2 thinks that Facebook should be banned from the schools, and Teacher 3 requests the possibility to turn off the Internet in the classroom. In Tuvér and Blomqvist's study (2009) it was also found that the Internet might distract students during lessons.

Technical problems is the third drawback that two of the teachers (T1, T2) mention. Following the recommendations of Dudeney (2007), Teacher 1 always has a Plan B when she uses 38 the Internet in class, in case something goes wrong. Teacher 2 would like to use the Internet for current news that might interest the students, but she has experienced so many technical disturbances over the years that she now avoids using the Internet in the classroom. That technical problems is a concern for teachers is confirmed by other authors (Dudeney 2007; Gibson and Oberg 2004; Singhal 1997; Tuvér & Blomqvist 2009).

A fourth disadvantage of the use of the Internet is biased and untrustworthy information on the Internet, which two of the teachers mention (T1, T4). Teacher 1 expresses concerns that students might not find the correct, or even false, information if a teacher simply instructs them to browse a specific topic. Teacher 4 has a similar opinion: “there is a lot of information [on the Internet] which is biased and which you absolutely cannot use” (L 68-9). The problem of unreliable online information has been pointed out by teachers in previous studies (Acikalin 2009; Gibson & Oberg 2004; Madden et al 2005; Tuvér & Blomqvist 2009) and in the literature (Cunningham & Andersson 1997).

Consequently, Teacher 1 thinks it is important to discuss ethics on the Internet with students, to guide them to reliable texts. In this respect it is vital to give students guidelines and to set a time limit for browsing activities. In previous studies it has been documented that teachers find it important to teach their students to question and evaluate information on the Internet (Karchmer 2001; Tuvér & Blomqvist 2009).

Closely related is another disadvantage that Teacher 1 mentions, namely the existence of inappropriate online information for children and young people. Quite a few authors highlight the problem of the Internet not being completely safe for students to use (Cunningham & Andersson 1997; Dudeney 2007; Karchmer 2001; Sharples et al 2008; Singhal 1997; Tuvér & Blomqvist 2009). In this context it is interesting to note that only one teacher in the current study specifically points to inappropriate content as a disadvantage of Internet use in the school. It is possible that the other teachers do not consider it to be a major problem in their teaching; it is also possible that they 39 did not come to think of it at the time of the interview.

There are other drawbacks of the use of the Internet in the classroom. Teacher 3 expresses concern that the Internet might become the major teaching tool. In the same manner as students use the Internet as their primary source of information (Tuvér & Blomqvist 2009), so might the teachers come to rely too much on the Internet in their planning/teaching. She points out that the studentteacher relationship is crucial, which is in agreement with Tuvér and Blomqvist's argument (2009) that students need adults who are present in their lives for guidance and motivation.

Touching upon the concern of Teacher 3 that the Internet might become the primary teaching resource, Teacher 4 fears that it might come to replace printed literature. “I think it's sad if the Internet becomes a complete substitute for books” (L 145-6). Tuvér and Blomqvist (2009) observe that, if the Internet is used as the main teaching tool, there is a risk that young people acquire a negative attitude to long texts and books. In a similar vein, Chapman (2005) contends that the use of computers might have the effect that books are devalued by students.

A disadvantage mentioned by Teacher 5 is that the Internet might influence students' writing skills negatively. “Spoken language has become so much more important to them so they don't pay much attention to writing properly” (L 105-6). Some students do not see the difference between formal and informal language, and over the years students' spelling and grammar errors have increased. Lastly, Teacher 2 regrets that the computer room is not always readily available. Similarly, one of the teachers in Gray et al's study raises the issue of limited access to the computer room (2007:419).

Another issue of personal concern for teachers is technical disturbances in the classroom. I would like to argue that technical problems can be a hindrance to the use of the Internet in instruction. It could be that teachers who are less confident in the use of ICT are more prone to feel overwhelmed by technical disturbances in the classroom. In contrast, a confident ICT user might feel that technical problems are part and parcel of Internet-based teaching. It is also possible that teachers refrain from integrating the Internet into their teaching because they overrate the occurrence of technical problems. In any case, it is of utmost importance that teachers have the possibility of getting adequate technical support and guidance at work, so that they can gain confidence and a sense of security in the use of ICT (see also Gibson & Oberg 2004:582).

There are also other aspects to take into consideration concerning the use of the Internet as an additional planning/teaching tool. First, most likely, all teachers and their students do not have the same access to computers/the Internet in the school. Hence, the use of the Internet in planning/teaching might be prevented by circumstances outside the teacher's control. Second, the Internet might not be equally applicable in planning/teaching for all teachers.

There are, for instance, syllabus requirements that might not allow teachers to use the Internet even if they would like to. Third, the fact that teachers might have different attitudes to the implementation of new 50 teaching resources must be respected. Some teachers might more willingly than others accept the use of the Internet in planning/teaching, while others might feel a stronger need to hold on to their 'traditional' ways of teaching (see also Gray et al 2007).

Lastly, as with any innovation, integrating the Internet in planning/teaching takes time as there is a great deal to learn (Gray et al 2007). Nevertheless, some teachers are more technically advanced than others so the Internet might be a time-saver for them, but a time-consumer for teachers who are less familiar with the use of ICT.

When discussing the use of ICT in education, the fact that there is a great deal of information on the Internet that is not suitable for young people must be recognized. Is it really appropriate to let students use the Internet in the school when there is a possibility that they will come across, for instance, pornographic and violent material? Granted, it is individual teachers' responsibility to ensure that students do not access web sites containing objectionable information 47 during the school day (Dudeney 2007). However, students spend (a great deal of) time on the Internet in their spare time, and how they use the Internet when they are not in school is beyond the school's control. Therefore, the best alternative is to allow teachers and students to benefit from the learning and teaching opportunities that the Internet has to offer, provided that every precaution to protect students from exposure to inappropriate information has been taken.

Similarly, the fact that there is a great deal of incorrect and biased information on the Internet must also be acknowledged. It seems to be a common view among young people that what is published on the Internet is correct and trustworthy information (cf. also Tuvér & Blomqvist 2009). Hence it is highly important that students learn to separate reliable sources from unreliable ones. They should be taught to check several sources on the same topic, and to compare the information presented to them (Karchmer 2001:458; see also Tuvér & Blomqvist 2009). They should be instructed to always check who is responsible for the information they come across while surfing the Net (cf. also Cunningham & Andersson 1997:140).

As was pointed out by teachers in the current study, a good strategy is to guide students to a few reliable sources, and then let them continue practising their search skills on their own. Undoubtedly, if a teacher always presents his/her students with correct and reliable online sources, they will not learn to be critical to and question information on the Internet. Paradoxically then, what at first glance seems to be a negative aspect of the use of the Internet in the school, could be transformed into a valuable learning experience for students. Once students learn how to evaluate information on the Internet, they are in a position to benefit from the learning opportunities it has to offer.

As was found in the current study, the Internet has the potential of increasing student activity during lessons. Rather than being presented with learning stuff from the teacher, students actively search for and find the required information on the Internet themselves. However, the teachers also highlighted the fact that the Internet can be a distraction for students in the classroom. Students might find it difficult to stay focused on the task 48 at hand, instead their minds drift away to community networks and the like, such as Facebook.

On the one hand, the Internet can be a valuable teaching and learning resource. For instance, it can increase motivation in both students and teachers, making it more fun and interesting to teach and learn. On the other hand, the Internet is a distraction in itself, taking students' attention away from what they are supposed to be learning. Thus, students have to be taught the difference between the use of the Internet as a learning tool and as a spare-time toy. Consequently, web sites that might distract students during lessons should be blocked, so that students and teachers can benefit from using the Internet as it should be employed in education, that is, as a valuable source of information and teaching/learning material.

II.Teaching English for students by using Google and Online Dictionary

2.1. Google as a source of information for teachers and Online dictionary as a tool on English teaching sphere

In the period from 05 February 2017  -  19 May 2018  I passed teaching practice on the basis of  "School- Lyceum  №38". During the internship, I got acquainted with the documentation; with the work of the teacher on the education and training of students, identified the main tasks of the teacher, and also prepared together with the teacher and conducted one extra-curricular event and eight lessons.

I learned to analyze the lessons of the teacher, highlight their goals and objectives, observe the children, plan and conduct lessons, analyze the results of their work, as well as organize and conduct extracurricular activities, accompany them with analysis. I also tried to develop my own skills and abilities to observe the educational process. I managed to figure out the methods of influencing children, the structure of lessons.

In the 3 "G" class there are 28 pupils, 19 of them are boys and 9 girls. All the guys are very different. There are responsible students in good faith who perform the tasks of a teacher, but there are also those who are not very interested in their studies and their success in class work. Yes, all children are energetic enough, which sometimes hinders them in class, they find it difficult to sit still, therefore they are often distracted, but most of them use their energy in the right direction, which helps them succeed in school. Many guys in the class are well-developed imagination and thinking. When performing various tasks, children try to be better than their classmates. Some guys noticed a special desire for success in their educational activities. You can still note that the class is quite efficient and active.

Graph 1, that given below, clearly shows that the most useful internet site for searching information is Google (57%). This finding establishes a strong link that students most often use search sites rather than books.

Graph 1.

By using questionnaire, there has been identified a few points that they often refer to Google.They are :

Learning how to spell a word. Start typing the first letters of the word in the search box. After the first 3-4 letters "search engine" will offer you the correct spelling, even if you started typing the wrong one.

Checking if the article is needed. Articles in English for Kazakh people are one of the most difficult topics. The fact is that we have with you no equivalent of this part of speech in Kazakh. That is why sometimes the question arises: use the article a / an, the, or even write a word without article. The search engine will dispel your doubts. Enter a word in a search engine in two ways: with the article and with the article a / an.

Choosing the right preposition to the word. Enter into the "search engine" the beginning of the phrase I’m proud, a quick search engine will immediately give you a sequel - the preposition of. Similarly, you can do with almost any expression.

Checking which word can be used in a particular case. If you need to write something about yesterday spent outside the city. The first thing that comes to mind: It was such a good day. But the word good has already become boring, and it is not capable of conveying your emotions that have arisen at the sight of a green lawn, singing birds and a crystal clear lake. How else to say? If you need to find the right word from the middle of a sentence, enter the phrase in the Google search string in quotation marks without this word, and in its place put a "asterisk": etc. That is, again, instead of the word we need, we put an "asterisk" and take in quotes the whole phrase.

Almost of the all websites are useful. Among the websites this site stands out noticeably: Basically when we heard the name of the website (teachingenglish) we can guess, what might be the purpose of this particular website. Normally it provides the tips which can be useful for the ESL teachers. Not only for the teachers has it equally focused on the learning of the kids.

    There are different games which are funny and interesting to help student practice their English and others. The main slogans of those games are play- enjoy and learn. These exercises are included in the part of the teaching English because the language used in these games is quite harder and students will not understand the instruction. As we know if we get opportunity to learn something while playing then that will be permanent and we can get ideas properly without any hesitation and difficulties.

This website also offers the grammar games and exercises. In grammar and word part we can learn and practice grammar and vocabulary through explanation, activities, and games.  These grammar games and exercises can be used by the teachers while teaching grammar lessons to their students. As we know learning English as second language is quite difficult task, especially for Kazakh student, learning the grammar of English is quite difficult because the grammar of Kazakh is completely different from the grammar of English. But if they get opportunity to learn grammar through the games they will not think that they are learning something but they will be happy that they are playing something and they will understand much more things.

There is another button and in that button listen and watch is written. In this particular part we can listen and watch the things in our computer and we can also download video and audio files too. These audio and visual materials are related to language practice activities, that we can do on our computer. As a teacher we can download those things and we can ask our students to do the same task in classroom. The things which are downloaded can be played inside the class and students can work on that.

There is another particular place where the things are uploaded specially for the students. There are different games and exercises. In the similar way there are lots of stories, songs and many more. These tasks uploaded in this part are simple and students themselves can understand the instruction and do the task. There are different texts related to the geography of the world and at one corner there are questions related to the same test and students should tick them. If they tick in correct then the next question will come and if not the correct answer will blink. In this way they will play with the computer and learn many more things. All these things are offered by this websites and especially these things are offered for English language learners.

It is noticed in period of practice, that my own students often rely on translators to help them with new vocabulary. Translators definitely serve a purpose and students perceive them as the best resource for learning new words because they can see the new word in both their native language and English. It`s recommend by teachers to students, especially at the higher levels, use online dictionaries to help them. Here we’ll talk about some of the online dictionaries have found, but it is by no means a comprehensive list.

Graph 2.

Let’s start with standard dictionaries. Merriam-Webster, Cambridge, and Oxford all have online dictionaries for English learners that follow the normal dictionary formats and layout. The Cambridge and Oxford dictionaries have both British English and American English pronunciations, but Oxford has an alternate dictionary called the Oxford Advanced American Dictionary, too, if that’s all your students need. While we initially used the online Merriam-Webster dictionary, listening to the pronunciation of a word requires another window to open and load which is not quite as convenient as the other three sites. The Oxford dictionaries have a nice additional feature where a small pane off to the left, called “Search Results,” contains words related to your initial search. Choosing one of these sites would be a good place to start in your quest to increase online dictionary use among your students.

In this study, the researcher’s role was to guide EFL students to develop their learning strategies and move toward learner autonomy or self-reliance during writing the assignments by giving them indirect feedback and having them check verb patterns and sentence examples with Cambridge Dictionaries Online. If they like to use the link as parts of their English writing, they will have positive attitudes towards the usage and learning and gain motivation in learning the language, which can concurrently encourage them to use the link as a tool to help them write better.

2.2. Analysis of research results

Graph 3. Analysis of the responses for the question “Where do you consult dictionaries more? At school or home?”

Graph 3 clearly shows that the participants make use of dictionares more at home (73%). This finding establishes a strong link between dictionary use and learner autonomy. At school the students have the opportunity to ask their teachers for the unknown lexical items; however, at home they depend far more on their dictionaries to handle their problems with vocabulary.

Graph 4. Analysis of the responses for the question “Do you think dictionaries are necessary in language learning?”

Graph 4.

It is crystal clear from Graph 4 that all of the participants (99%) regard the use of dictionaries as a sine-qua-non of the foreign language learning process. This high level of awareness of the importance of dictionary use among the students adds a big plus on their language learning score card.

Graph 5. Analysis of the responses for the question «Which dictionary is more efficient?»

Graph 5.

Graph 5 demonstrates that 76% of the participants think that online dictionaries are more effective than searching the right word in a book. The online dictionary quickly finds the right word and even finds synonyms and antonyms. Examples are shown and sufficiently accessible to all the language is explained by the definition. While the other 24% think that, the book has more information and works without charging device. You can always quickly find the right word.Thus, it becomes clear that students need a well-structured training on how to use different types of dictionaries effectively. This is especially important for the subject group of this study who are prospective English language teachers.

The results of elementary school students were analyzed. It has been found that students can read and translate adapted for their level of texts, but at the same time, they have difficulties in expressing your thoughts in English, since they have a small vocabulary and very poor knowledge of English grammar. Level the formation of speech skills is not very high. The survey method was used. Students was аn anonymous, closed questionnaire has been proposed to identify the relationship learners to use Internet resources while learning in English. To the question "Do you know how to work on a computer?" All 18 people answered that they can work on a computer. To the question “Do you know Google? "18 people answered yes. To the question “Did online dictionaries use the lessons in elementary school? If so, on which? ”14 people answered that online translators were used in primary school lessons; 4 people found it difficult to answer. To the question “Do you think the Internet resources helped you, specifically Google, in mastering the material under study?” 11 people answered yes; 7 people found it difficult to answer. To the question “Did you cope with translations easily using the Internet?” 9 people answered “yes”; 6 people answered no; 3 people found it difficult to answer. That is, 50% of the questioned students easily coped with translations using the Internet; 33.3% experienced difficulties; and 16.6% of students did not give a specific answer to this question. Thus, it can be concluded that all students know how to work on a computer, they are familiar with the Google program. After analyzing the results of the ascertaining stage, we came to the conclusion that in the classes of the English language on a par with the traditional learning technologies need to use Internet resources, namely Google search engine and online dictionaries.


The internet contains a lot of resources that teachers can access and use to prepare teaching materials. These range from sites specifically designed for teachers and learners to sites from national and international newspapers, museums, galleries and so on. Teachers can use these materials much the same way as they would other print-based resources, to create worksheets and exercises for their classes. But if teachers are fortunate enough to have access to a computer room in their school then it is possible to use the internet with students during a class, exploiting the net as a dynamic medium.

Using the internet brings the 'real world' into the classroom and gives the students an opportunity to explore learning in a different way. However, having students facing a computer rather than the teacher, means teachers of internet lessons do need to be vigilant.

The overall aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of the use of the Internet on English planning and instruction. The research questions of this study, that is, what the benefits and drawbacks are of the use of the Internet when planning lessons and teaching English, have thus been answered satisfactorily. It should be pointed out though, that the open nature of the qualitative interview means that the respondents are free to choose what to share with, and withhold from, the interviewer. Moreover, the informants might have interpreted basic concepts differently. Hence there is a possibility that these methodological shortcomings have had an effect on the results.

As previously stated, it is the author’s opinion that it is of utmost importance that teachers are familiar with modern technology, and that they use the Internet when teaching and planning lessons. The obvious reason is that students are interested in and spend a great deal of time on the Internet. Yet it is also my opinion that a requirement to integrate the Internet in planning should not be imposed upon teachers. Individual teachers should have to opportunity to decide when and how to use the Internet in their everyday work. However, should teachers be required to implement internet resources into their classrooms, it must be accompanied by adequate formal training. It should not be expected, or taken for granted, that teachers have the will, time or inclination to acquire necessary skills on their own.

By way of conclusion, the Internet has the potential of making teaching more fun and interesting, and thus to increase students' motivation to learn. Here it is justified to readdress the relevant issue of students' exposure to informal language use. It would be interesting to find out how students' language skills are affected by continual surfing. For instance, is it the case that ESL and EFL students generally focus predominantly on spoken language at the expense of written language? Another possible area of research is ESL teachers' use of the Internet in teaching in practice. One approach would be to collect assignments and lesson plans from teachers who actively use the Internet in planning and instruction. Ideally, this research would result in a manual of classroom practices for EFL teachers who want to benefit from the use of the Internet as an additional teaching resource in their daily work.


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