Feedback redirects or focuses the educational process on the joint actions of teachers and students in achieving learning goals and focuses on a specific result. Feedback can last throughout the learning process. The process of transmitting information about the quality of training to the employees who carry out this training is called feedback. Feedback is aimed at improving the quality of teaching by determining the attitude of the listener to the effectiveness and methods of training. Thus, the purpose of feedback is to improve the learning process, improve its quality and determine whether it meets the needs of the client. In the process of feedback, the quality of teaching is evaluated by individual teachers, the effectiveness of various teaching methods, training programs in general. That is, it controls the learning (or self-learning) of the student. Feedback can be oral, written or provided via digital technology. Less effective is short-term feedback, expressed in the intermediate or final control of students ' knowledge. Feedback can come from a teacher or from a student's peers. In the second case, it can happen spontaneously or in an organized way, as the form of education offered by the teacher. Then one of the students (the leader of the group) assumes the role of a teacher.
The feedback phenomenon has gained fame thanks to Cybernetics - namely, the works of scientist Norbert Wiener. According to his concept, the information coming from the first link passes through all the elements of the chain and returns to the first, affecting him. More broadly, feedback refers to the return of performance data to its original source. Let us consider how the feedback theory can be applied in pedagogy.In education, feedback is understood to mean that the teacher receives information about the state of the educational process and its participants. It is used to streamline direct communication, that is, the material presented in the classroom.Feedback-the process of reporting and receiving comments on specific actions, situations, controversial issues that lead to the achievement of the goal.The creation of effective feedback is the basis of teaching students. Feedback is a tool that gives an idea of how the learning process is going, informs teachers about the achievements and problems of students, allowing you to determine the level of achievement of the goal and the solution of educational problems. Feedback should take place in an atmosphere of mutual respect and goodwill, provide time for students to correct mistakes or change the direction of thinking and activity.Through feedback, the student receives information that helps to understand their own gaps in learning and specific recommendations for moving forward, and the teacher – information that helps to understand the gaps in learning and making changes in their activities (selection of new methods, teaching techniques, changes in the distribution of lesson time, etc.). Students ' learning becomes more effective if they are given frequent and meaningful feedback. Feedback as the principle technique of analysis of pedagogical results is one of the fundamental processes of pedagogical interaction within the company of overseas language coaching. To discuss feedback on the first day of class – both in terms of how you want to help them to become better students and also that you want to continuously become a better teacher. Set the climate for a feedback friendly classroom.Feedback enhances student achievement by highlighting progress rather than deficiency. With progress feedback a student is given opportunities for checking-in with the teacher and multiple opportunities to ask questions. With progress feedback a student will be able to successfully self-monitor, have higher aspirations for further achievement, greater self-satisfaction, and higher performance overall. By taking the time to sit down with a student and offer constructive criticism, give necessary help, offer suggestions, and provide positive feedback, teachers can positively impact student learning. Students ' learning becomes more effective if they are given frequent and meaningful feedback. Thus, effective feedback should stipulate teacher-student interaction; allow to evaluate the course of educational activities in order to enable the teacher to adjust their actions, determining the shortcomings and rationality of certain techniques and works. Not only allow students to evaluate their work, but also to create a sense of satisfaction with their achievements, motivating further interaction and interest in learning. Feedback should be provided in addressing complex goals and objectives or goals. The teacher should not be a permanent "supervisor". It should be aimed at improving the effectiveness of student learning. The main task of feedback is to increase the effectiveness of training. It is implemented by two types of communication — positive and negative. When positive feedback is improving, and despite the negative feedback there suspension changes, to stabilize the condition. In pedagogy under the positive feedback, means a praise, encouragement student, which stimulate the development of, and under negative criticism and punishment, a warning against repeating the mistakes. The school provides feedback in oral and written forms, increasingly using computer technology. The most common feedback tool is control. It can be home, independent, control work, survey in the classroom, questionnaires and essays. There may be situations in which one of the students assumes the role of educator and supervisor (work in pairs or groups). It is important to self-control of the student, to which you want to stimulate. Otherwise, there is a risk that the child will transfer the entire evaluation function to the teacher and become dependent on his opinion. Feedback is the object of study of many related to pedagogy Sciences. Each specific science enriches the feedback theory with its specific material. From the point of view of pedagogical psychology, feedback is essentially a model that helps to learn. Feedback allows the teacher to get information about the quality of learning for each student. Feedback directed at the teacher, is administrative in nature and performs 1) diagnostic, 2) evaluation and 3) a correction function. Feedback aimed at students is educational in nature and performs 1) corrective, 2) evaluation and 3) motivational and stimulating functions. The information obtained is simultaneously the basis for the teacher's assessment of the student's learning activity and his self-assessment of his speech activity, which carry a powerful emotional motivational charge and have a stimulating effect. Under some circumstances, it can have a negative impact on students, leading to the attenuation of motives and loss of incentives to activity in the work, which also confirms the importance of motivational and stimulating feedback function in the learning process. The main program in relation to learning to communicate in a foreign language is a program that should be based on the idea of preventing erroneous activities. The student's mistake is mainly a signal not that he has not mastered any communication skills and abilities in teaching a foreign language, but that the program is not properly composed, one of the factors of learning is not taken into account. Since it is impossible to foresee all the factors, the adjustment program takes effect. But for this purpose, a teacher should be specially trained, who owns certain tools, a certain set of teaching management tools: open control, hidden control, correction, observation, accounting, evaluation and marking. The tools that a student should possess are: self-control, mutual control, self-assessment, mutual evaluation.
The feedback function is the main control function that provides control over the process of learning a foreign language. Feedback works in two directions: on the teacher and on the student. Feedback, which acts in the direction of the teacher, carries him information about the level of success of students. The teacher analyzes this information for the presence of shortcomings, diagnoses deviations in the speech activity of students, determines the degree of compliance with the reverse strategy and tactics of teaching real needs. This makes it possible to timely assess the methodological situation and make the necessary corrective changes regarding the selection of techniques, methods and methods of training, selection of exercises, determining the mode and duration of their implementation, the sequence of the organization of all educational work with students.