We all know that increasing interest of students in learning is an important aspect in the educational system. Among the various methods of organizing classes, students are most interested in games and game situations. Therefore, in order to improve the quality and effectiveness of learning a foreign language, as well as in order to increase interest in learning, you can use a variety of games. Many famous teachers (V.A. Sukhomlinsky, D. B. Elkonin, L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontyev, and others) rightly paid attention to the effectiveness of using games in the learning process.The game is a valid teaching tool that activates the mental activity of students, allows you to make the learning process attractive and interesting.
The concept and essence of the game
The game is a complex socio-cultural phenomenon, which is devoted to a lot of philosophical-cultural, psychological and methodological research . Among them, a special place belongs to the question of the use of the game for educational purposes. About the learning function of the game has long been known. Many outstanding teachers rightly paid attention to the effectiveness of the use of games in the learning process. Game forms of work contribute to the creation of a favorable psychological climate in the classroom and activate students.The specifics of the game, as precisely noted, kazakh scientist, writer A. Baitursynov "... that a child should learn something through the game even without noticing it." A game is a special kind of teaching. It does not require any effort, everything is done at the request of the student . Also about this, M.N.Skatkin said, is that “learning tasks appear before the child not in an explicit form, but disguised. While playing, the child does not set a learning task, but as a result of the game he learns something [3,102]. In the game, the abilities of a person, a child in particular, appear especially fully and sometimes unexpectedly. D.B. Elkonin consider that the game performs four major functions for a person: a means of developing the motivational-need sphere; a means of knowing; a means of developing mental actions; and a means of developing voluntary behavior [4,38].
Well-known Russian psychologist A.A. Leontyev claims that, the game is a specially organized occupation that requires emotional and mental strength. The game always involves making a decision - what to do, what to say, how to win?Apropos to this , the Russian writer Y. Nagibin says that,the game reveals the nature of the child, his views on life, his ideals. Without realizing it, children in the process of the game approach the solution of complex life problems. Using the game in a foreign language class is also not new. And, nevertheless, despite the obvious attractiveness of educational games, they are not sufficiently used in the lessons of a foreign language, did not become a true means of learning, part of the overall system. Practice shows that game most often serve as an entertaining moment in the classroom, the teachers resort to them rather in order to relieve the fatigue of the students, using them only as a discharge. And at the same time, the game has a great learning potential. This, that is, The importance of the game in improving learning skills is confirmed by Kazakh scientist N. Kulzhanova, who argued that "the game is an imitation for the child, instinct, the most important daily actions and personal life”[6,37].
The classification of educational games in learning a foreign language
Despite the fact that a child's play has been written so many, the questions of the theory of it so complicated that a single classification of games still do not exist., for the number of participants in the game are divided into individual, pair and group. And the first target to communicate with the text, and the other to communicate with partners. The nature and form of the game produce substantive, moving with a verbal component, scene, or situational, games, competition, intellectual (tests, puzzles, crosswords, etc.), interaction (communication), complex, etc. In terms of complexity of the actions distinguish simple and complex games, the duration of the - not long and lengthy. Games helping to learn the various aspects of language (phonetics, vocabulary, etc.) are divided into phonetic, lexical, grammatical and stylistic., the educational game - is focused on the zone of proximal development of the game, combining teaching with the aim of appealing to the motive of the child., introducing the game into a lesson, it is important for the result of didactic teaching, but may not be the motivation for the work of children. The game has to change the style of the relationship between children and adults the teacher, who cannot impose anything: a child can play only when he wants and when he is interested, and those who cause him sympathy. Teacher can not only be the organizer of the game - he has to play with your child, because children have great pleasure in playing with adults, and because game atmosphere collapses under the gaze of the observer.
Phonetic games - staged (correction) pronunciation, practice in pronunciation of sounds in words, phrases, practicing intonation. They are used regularly, mostly at the initial stage of learning a foreign language (water-remedial course) as an illustration and exercises to practice the most difficult to pronounce sounds and intonations. As we move forward phonetic games are implemented at the level of words, sentences, Rhymes, tongue twisters, poems and songs. The experience gained in games of this type can be used by students in the classroom in the future in a foreign language.
Lexical games have focused students' attention solely on the lexical material and are designed to assist them in acquiring and expanding vocabulary, and to work to illustrate the use of words in communication situations.
Grammar games are designed to provide students practical skills to apply knowledge of grammar, increase their mental activities to the use of grammatical structures in natural communication situations.
Stylistic games aim to teach students to distinguish between formal and informal styles of communication, as well as the right to use each of them in different situations.
Role-playing game. The different types of games holds a special place role-playing game. As you know, of great importance in the educational process is learning motivation. It helps to enhance the thinking is of interest to a particular kind of occupation, to perform a particular exercise. Strongest motivating factor is the training methods that satisfy the need for students to study material novelty and variety of the exercises. Using a variety of teaching techniques helps to perpetuate the memory of linguistic phenomena, creating a more stable visual and auditory images, maintaining interest and activity of students.
Games to improve speaking skills
Antoine de Saint Exupéry said: “The only luxury I know is the luxury of human communication.”[7,1]. But what to do if you have to communicate in a foreign language and communication from luxury immediately goes into the category of torment? In order not to do communication a torment, we all know that it is necessary to develop the speaking skills. And one of the interesting and effective method to improve speaking is to use the game. There are so many such games, but as an example I would like to bring this game which is interesting and useful.
The Game: “Stopwatch”.
Instruction: Split the class into two teams, and use a list of impromptu speaking topics. Have each student choose a number, and respond to the statement without preparation. The student must continue speaking for 45 seconds when the teacher calls out "stop." As the student is speaking, the other team listens for any hesitation, grammatical mistakes or vocabulary mistakes. If the other team can correctly identify an error, they get a point.
Games to improve writing skills
Writing is an extremely complex task that is not only difficult to learn but also hard to teach. Developing the skills necessary to become a good writer requires the use of many of the thinking skills, repeated practice, and the willingness to learn from one’s mistakes. In order to acquire these skills and in order to improve writing skills,one of the best ways is to use games, therefore, I can name, as an example, one very interesting game that can be used in English lessons.
This game ”Silent dictation”.
Instruction: the teacher shows the pictures, the words denoting their name are already known to students. Each picture is presented within 1-3 minutes. Students then write these words in a notebook and make short story with them.
Games to improve reading skills
Learning to read can be one of the biggest challenges that children face during the course of their education. The human brain is wired for speech but not for the written word; reading must be actively taught rather than, as people learn to speak a language, passively acquired. In order to improve writing skills ,one of the best ways is to use games, therefore, as an example, I can call one very interesting game that can be used in English lessons.
Game: This “Old maid”
To make: Select three words per player from a book (or books) being read. Print them clearly and boldly on separate 3x5 inch index cards, making pairs of words. Choose one more word without a match that will be the winning card.
To play: Shuffle and deal three to six cards to each player. Players take turns drawing a card from a player to their left. If a player draws a card that matches one in his or her hand, he/she reads the two matching words in order to keep the pair. Play continues until all the cards are matched, except for the one odd card. The player who holds that card at the end wins the game.
Games to improve listening skills
Using games to teach effective listening to children is a fun way to develop auditory skills and social development. Listening is key to following directions and developing the ability to remember concepts taught in the classroom. Games serve as repetitive activities that enhance these skills and cultivate auditory and literacy development.Therefore, it is very effective to use games in teaching listening. And one of the interesting games for students is games “Insert the missing words”. In this game, the teacher turns on any song and distributes the lyric of the song with omitted words to each student. The task of student-to complete all the missing words.
The variety of games that a teacher can use in a foreign language lesson is huge. The games in the classroom give us the opportunity to justify the requirement to communicate with a partner in English that is unreasonable for a child; find ways and show the importance of English phrases built on the simplest models, make emotionally attractive the repetition of the same speech patterns and standard dialogues. Any teacher of a foreign language does not need to be convinced that the game is a powerful incentive to master the language, that it leads development. The developing value of the game is inherent in nature itself, because the game is always emotions and where there are emotions, there is activity, there is attention and imagination, and thinking works better there.
List of used literature:
Ravinskaya S.V.” Games as a learning tool”. // Foreign languages at school. - 1980 / №1 - p.159.
Elkonin D.B.” Psychology of the game”. -Pedagogy, 1991 - 304 p.
Kulzhanova N. Analysis of the game process // . - 2001. - №1 74р.
Valeria Fadeeva. “How to speak, so that the child listens, and how to listen, so that the child speaks”-online book, 2014-14p.