COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF KAZAKH AND ENGLISH VERB AND ASPECT FORMS - Студенческий научный форум

XI Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2019

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF KAZAKH AND ENGLISH VERB AND ASPECT FORMS

Байгуанышова А.А. 1, Кожаканова М.Т. 2
1Евразийский национальный университет им.Л.Н.Гумилева
2Евразийский Национальный Университет
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Learning linguistic disciplines in HEI-s requires thorough consideration of foreign and target languages. It is of prime importance for a learner to study a foreign language comparing its each detail with the equivalents in the target languages. The present study, though not covered all the categories of a verb, does have relevance to the category of tense in English, which comes from the Indo-European group of languages, and in Kazakh from the Turkic group of languages. Kazakh is considered an agglutinative language because it indicates grammatical functions primarily by attaching suffixes to word stems. Kazakh verbs take suffixes to indicate their tense, aspect, and mood. English is considered an inflectional language because of polysemantic morphemes. It seems highly likely that the notion of tense is similar in every language; but its grammatical form is different. The present article is aimed at comparing grammatical forms of Kazakh and English tenses and finding their similarities.

In modern Kazakh language the category of tense, according to its morphological features and the meaning, are divided into Past tense (Өткеншақ), Present tense (Осышақ) and Future tense (Келершақ). [1, 103] We can notice the same phenomenon in English language. English tense system includes four paradigmatic forms: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous.

"Өткеншақ" (Past tense) is a grammatical form of a verb denoting the completed real events, actions in the past. According to Kazakh scholar I. Mamanov Past tense is divided into 5 groups: a) "Жеделөткеншақ"; b) "Бұрынғыөткеншақ"; с) "Ежелгіөткеншақ"; d) "Дағдылыөткеншақ"; е) "Қатыстыөткеншақ". It seems reasonable to regard each of these types separately.

a) The first type "жеделөткеншақ" is formed by adding affixes -ды/ді, -ты/ті to the stem of a verb, and denotes the action finished in the past: КешеАйшаекеумізкиногабардык. It can be translated into English as Aisha and me went to the cinema yesterday. Thus, we can see that Kazakh "жеделөткеншақ" corresponds to English Past simple. Also Kazakh "жеделөткеншақ" has the continuous form of a complex verb, which denotes an action in a process, as in Менкележаттым that coincides with Past Continuous: I was coming.

b) To the second group of Kazakh past tense Mamanov I. gives the following definition: "the form of "бұрынғыөткеншақ" is used when the speaker explains the result of the action made in the past". In English language the similar time is shown by Present Perfect tense that refers to indefinite events with the result in the present. [2, 20] For example: Менолжігіттіжаңсытанимын, университеттебіргеоқыганбыз. / know him very well; we have studied together in the university. Continuous form of a complex verb in "бұрынғыөткеншақ" denotes the process of an action that happened simultaneously with another action. For example: Сендиректордыңкабинетіндеотырганда, менкөршібөлмедемақалажазыпотырганмын. In English it sounds like: When you were in director's office, I was writing an article in the neighbor room. It means that English Past Continuous tense is similar to continuous form of "бұрынғыөткеншақ".

c) The third type in "Қазақтілі: Грамматикалықанықтағыш" by К. Tuimebayev is presented as "субъективтіөткеншақ". [3, 66] According to the rule, this type denotes the action occured in the past, but the speaker knows it from other people or events. It corresponds to English Past Perfect that denotes one event in the past happened before another event in the past. For example: МенүІігекелгенде, анамтүскіастыдайындапкойыпты. When I came home, mother had already cooked the dinner.

d) "Дағдылыөткеншак" denotes the actions, which happened repeatedly in the past. It is formed with suffixes -атын, -етін, -йтын, and -йтін. Comparing it with English, we have found out a remarkable difference. A word combination "used to do", which describes the habits in the past, fully corresponds to Kazakh "дағдылыөткеншақ". For example: Меншахматтыжиіойнайтынмын. I used to play chess very often.

Further it would be useful to regard the future tense. It denotes an action or event that will be in the future. In Kazakh language Future tense is subdivided into 3 groups: а) "болжалдыкелершақ"; b) "ниет (мақсатты) келершақ"; с) "ауыспалыкелершақ". "Болжалдыкелершақ" is formed by the suffixes -ap, -ep, -p, and denotes the possibility of carrying out a definite action. It is identical to English Future Perfect tense. For example: Емтиханбасталгануақыттабарлыгынүмытатьіншыгармын. By the time the exam begins, I will have forsotten everything. As for "Ниет (мақсатты) келершақ", it is formed by adding the suffixes -мақ(шы)/мек(ші), - бақ(шы)/бек(ші), -пақ(шы)/пек(ші). This tense form fully coincides with English word combination "to be going to", because both of them indicate personal plans and intentions. For example: Менбүгінкеиікеескікинокөрмекшімін. I am going to watch an old film tonight. I. Mamanov points out that "ауыспалыкелершақ" denotes an action, which takes place in the present. For example: Қаланыңиіетіндекішкентайөзенагыпжатады. A small river flows outside the town. But other scholars, like S. Isayeva and G. Nurkina state that it denotes an action in the future, but due to the suffixes -a, -e, -й, it appears to be the same as the present tense. [4, 155] Comparison showed that "ауыспалыкелершақ" corresponds to English Future Simple tense. For example: Менжазгыдемалыстыауылдаөткіземін. I will spend summer vacations in the village.

Further our attention was focused on "осышақ", a form of a verb denoting the events and actions made in the present. "Осышақ" is divided into two groups: "нақосышақ" and "ауыспалыосышақ". Actually, "нақосышақ" in Kazakh language is made by auxiliary verbs: "отыр, жатыр, жүр" and "тұр", which have different meanings and correspond to different English tenses. According to I. Mamanov, the auxiliary verbs "отыр, тұр" show that an action happens at the moment of speech. For example: Дамиркітапоқыпотыр. Damir is reading a book. So, it corresponds to English Present Continuous that also denotes an action occurring at the moment of speech.

According to scholars S. Isayeva and G. Nurkina, the auxiliary verbs "жатыр, жүр" point out the duration of the action. Compared to English, we found out that it corresponds to the Present Perfect Continuous tense that, as a rule, emphasizes the length of a continuing activity. For example: Таңертецненберіжұмысымды icmen жатырмын. I have been working on my project since morning.

Ауыспалыосышақ, as mentioned above, denotes the actions carried out in the present. It coincides with the English Present Indefinite tense. For example: Бізқаладатұрамыз. We live in a town.

The following table summarizes the coincidence of English/Kazakh tense forms:

Table 1. Comparative table of Kazakh and English tenses

Осышақ

Нақосышақ:Олсөйлепотыр. Мен былтырдан бері осы университетте оқып жүрмін.

Present Continuous: He is speaking.

Present Perfect Continuous: I have been studying at this university since last year.

Ауыспалы осы шақ: Мен қалада тұрамын.

Present Simple: I live in a city.

Өткеншақ

Жедел өткен шақ: Мен дүкенге бардым. Менсөйлепжаттым.

Past Simple: I went to the shop.

Past Continuous: I was speaking.

Бұрынғы өткен шақ: Мен шығарманы жазганмын. Сен директордың кабинетінде отырганда, мен көрші болмеде мақала жазып отырганмын.

Present Perfect: I have written the composition.

Past Continuous: When you were in the director's office, I was writing an article in the neighboring room.

Ежелгі откен шақ: Сен келіпсің.

Past Perfect: You had come.

Дағдылы откен шақ: Мен шахматты коп ойнайтынмын. Used to do: I used to play chess a lot.

Келершақ

Болжалдыкелершақ:Сенкелгеншеменкітаптыоқыпболармын.

Future Perfect: I will have read the book before you come.

Мақсатты келер шақ: Біз атамыз бен әжемізге бармаңпыз.

To be going to: We are going to visit our grandparents.

Ауыспалы келер шақ: Мен жазғы демалысты ауылда откіземін.

Future Simple: I will spend summer vacations in the village.

On the basis of data found during the investigation of tense forms of Kazakh and English languages, we came to the following conclusions: First, there is a tense category of a verb in both Kazakh and English languages. Second, the grammatical forms of the tenses are different in both languages that can be explained by their genetic origin. Third, "дағдылыөткеншақ" and "мақсаттыкелершақ" of Kazakh language don't have equivalents in English. But they correspond to the constructions "used to do", "going to do" that denote the same meaning as in Kazakh tenses. Our observations serve to emphasize the importance of comparative study in teaching and learning English. The correct usage of tense forms in English appears to be the most complicated issue for students. We do believe that this study will be of great help to overcome the confusion in the field of tense forms.

Bibliography

1) Маманов Ы. Қазақ тіл білімінің мәселелері. - Алматы: "Арыс" баспасы, 2007. - 4486.

2) Vince Michael. Macmillan English Grammar in Context. - Macmillan, 2008. - p240.

3) Түймебаев Ж. Қ. Қазақ тілі: Грамматикалық анықтағыш. - Алматы, 1996. - 846.ing

4) Исаева С., Нуркина Г. Сопоставительная типология казахского и русского языков.

5) Уч. пособие. - Алматы: «Санат», 1996. - с272

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