Hjelmslev Louis (1899-1965), a Danish linguist, the founder of Glossematics. Born in Copenhagen on October 3, 1899. In 1923 he graduated from Copenhagen University (his teacher was a famous Indo-Europeanist and historian of linguistics Holger Pedersen, 1867-1953), studied also in Prague and Paris. I experienced a significant influence of Franco-Swiss linguistics. From 1937 he was a professor at the University of Copenhagen; replaced Pedersen as head of the department of comparative linguistics. Yelmslev died in Copenhagen on May 30, 1965.
He began Yelmslev as an Indo-Europeanist and a follower of Younggrammatism (the Baltic etudes, 1932), but in the 1930s he changed his position, moving to a consistently structural point of view. In 1931, together with Vigo Brøndal (1887-1942) founded the Copenhagen Linguistic Circle; from 1939 the works of this circle were published. The articles of Yelmslev in 1959 were collected in the 12th edition under the title Linguistic essays; The second volume of Yelmslev's linguistic essay was published in 1973 as the 14th issue of Proceedings.Копенгагенская школа в языкознании. Луи Ельмслев
The most vivid reflection of the idea of linguistic structuralism was found in Danish structuralism and its attitudes. This trend originated in 1931 as a result of the merger of Danish linguists (mainly Copenhagen University) into the Copenhagen Linguistic Society, or Copenhagen Circle. The founder of the society is Professor Louis Elmaslev (1899-1965) (Director of the Institute of Linguistics and Phonetics at the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Copenhagen), and the main representatives were V. Brøndal (1887-1942), H. Uldall (1907-1957), and Sørenson.
The term "glossematics" was introduced by the creators of the theory, in their words, in order to draw a line between traditional linguistics and the new structural method of investigation. Beginning in 1936, during the 1940s and 1950s, a number of monographs and articles by L. Yelmslev, H. Uldahl and other linguists were published in which the main provisions of glossematics were presented. The founder of glossematics is considered to be L. Yelmslev. In 1943, Copenhagen published his book in Danish, which is a general introduction to Glossematics. In 1953 the book was translated into English, and in 1960 - in Russian under the title "Prolegomena to the theory of language". (Prolegomena - Greek prolegomena - preface, introduction., Reasoning giving the most necessary information about something, introduction to the study of something).
GLOSSEMATICS linguistic theory, which became the most consistent manifestation of structuralism in Western European linguistics. Developed in the 30-50's. L. Yelmslev and H.J. Uldallem, as well as (in part) other members of the Copenhagen linguistic circle.
Ideas glossematiki, set out primarily in the book by L. Yelmslev Prolegomena to the theory of language (the translation reproduces the headline of the American edition of 1953, originally the book was published in 1943 in the Danish language under the title of the Fundamentals of the linguistic theory - Omkring sprogteoriens grundlöggese), based on the ideas of F. de Saussure and neopositivism.
"Algebraic" approach to language led glossematics representatives to the notion of linguistics (glossematics) as a pure game by certain rules, not related to the study of linguistic reality. In the work of Language and Speech, Hjelmslev tried to go beyond this approach by proposing, along with the "language-scheme" representing a pure form, two more concepts: "language-norm", including socially significant characteristics of a substance, but distracted from details of a particular utterance, and "Language-word" - a set of accepted in the society skills, including pronunciation details; in contrast to the "language-scheme", "language-norm" and "language-language" suggest a sound character. However, such a concept in glossematics was only outlined.
Hjelmslev was aware that his approach to language leads to a "temporary limitation of horizons", but he considered this restriction "the price paid for the rejection of the language of his secrets." The concept of glossematics, generally not adopted by other directions of structuralism, turned out to be too abstract and not directly applicable to concrete linguistic practice. From the point of view of model theory, glossematics proved to be too strong a model that neglects many properties of natural language and describes the semiotic system in general. The only attempt to apply glossematics in describing the real (French) language, undertaken by K.Togebue, was unsuccessful. The predominant opinion on glossematics was expressed by A.Martine: Hjelmslev's main book "is surprisingly rich in content, clearly constructed, well written, clear and strict in thought", but "it is an ivory tower, the answer to which can only be the construction of new ivory towers ". Some principles glossematiki nevertheless entered into scientific use; very successful were many of the terminological innovations proposed by Yelmslev. Glossematics had a noticeable influence on a number of Soviet and foreign linguists: Yu.K. Lekomtsev (1929-1984), IIRevzin (1923-1974), IFVardulya (1923-1998), S.K. Shaumyan (r 1914), S. Lama (born 1929), and others.
On the Semiotic Ideas of L. Yelmslev
In the basis of his theory, Hjelmslev put Saussure's idea that language is a system of signs. If by a system we understand a certain unity completely representable through a set of elements connected with each other by relations chosen from some predetermined finite set of them, then the description of the language by Saussure should be reduced to a description of its units and possible relations between them. Since linguistic units represent variable variables in a building of a systemic integer, the Yelmslev theory of semiotics should focus only on the system of relations. Recognition of the fact that the whole consists not of things but of relationships and that it is not a substance, but only its internal and external relations have scientific existence, of course, is not new in science, but may prove new in linguistics. The postulation of objects as something different from the terms of relations is an excessive axiom and, consequently, a metaphysical hypothesis, from which linguistics is to be liberated "(Hjelmslev, 1960, p. 283). Thus, the main result of constructing the theory is a kind of "periodic table" in which instead of chemical elements there should be a universal set of consistent relations possible between units of language.
There are two types of structures: the process is the construction of syntagmatic relations (ie, the relations between units in the text) - and the system is the construction of paradigmatic relations (i.e., the relations that take place between units that, roughly speaking, can occupy one and the same position in the (correctly constructed) text). Any hierarchy that can be divided into smaller units (classes), connected by certain relations in such a way that these units can be divided into even smaller units, also related by their type, is called semiotic. Semiotics are described by metasemiotics (as a language of metalanguage), which are called semiology. Semiologies are described by metasemiology.
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