IX Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2017


Колесова В.Ю. 1
1РЭУ им. Г. В. Плеханова
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Significant changes have transpired in building industry during the last decade, for example in the technology of materials production and construction technology, appeared manufacturing technology of window profiles based on polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

PVC used for window blocks is a plasticized material with additives which allows you present quality operating characteristics. To plasticize polyvinylchloride are usually used high-molecular plasticizers which can be combined with PVC and create blended compositions that have high operating abilities: durability, toughness, elastic modulus and etc.

Window profiles important ability is the resistance to external influences: solar radiation of the UV part of the spectrum, high and low temperature, temperature changes, humidity and rain, sharp climate changes, wind resistance. They have to provide the same stability as the building itself because the window is the most vulnerable part.

Window frames which had been earlier traditionally made from wood changed their dimensions together with all possible changes in humidity and temperature, because wood superfluously increases its volume, swells, it may cause warping, it shrinks while drying, and as a result the window constantly changes its dimensions and deforms. Their durability and resistance to microbiological damage demand on the wood species - deciduous, coniferous, etc. Old technologies couldn't provide full sealing of the window unit that's why moisture, dust and other pollutions penetrate through microcracks.

The transition to window profiles made of polymers afford to eliminate these defects, since they, due to their structure, have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, low hygroscopicity, do not change the size under the influence of moisture, moreover both types of profiles have specialized water drainage holes. PVC profile is absolutely hygienic, the window block is biodegradable, has a much longer operating term and requires less maintenance costs in comparison with the wooden block. Manufacturers guarantee from 30 to 60 years average operating life. That's why most companies no longer install windows with wooden frames, preferring blocks of plastics, PVC-based materials and polyvinylidenechloride and aluminum.

At the beginning window profiles were imported from Germany, and still remain the best. But already now the production of modern domestic window constructions has been established in the regions of Russia, technologies are patented. The interest lies in what polymers, polymer mixtures, polymer compositions are used in these profiles, which must comply with GOST 30673-2013 "PVC profiles for window blocks and door blocks. TU"[1]. According to the requirements [1], raw materials used for the profiles production must meet the standards, technical conditions and technical certificates.

According to the program approved by the Moscow Government on "the reconstruction of quarters built up with 5-storey panel buildings of the first period of industrial housing construction" [2], mass buildings demolition is to be conducted. Some tenants of these buildings have already used PVC profiles, that's why during the construction, reconstruction and maintenance work, a large amount of used polymer window constructions that have been operating for several years are already being delivered to the landfills of solid household waste.

There is a problem where to use these polymer blocks which have not developed their service life yet? According to GOST R 54533-2011 "Guidelines and methods for the disposal of polymer waste" [3]: the elimination of polymer waste is considered complete when secondary materials, fuels, products are produced, or when heat and / or electric energy has been generated as a result of waste incineration in accordance with Standardized criteria [3].

It is inexpedient to burn polyvinylchloride in this case, as during its use in construction the composition with connections is produced which reduce combustibility of a material. This is determined by the safety of building materials, as indicated in the GOST [1]. PVC burns only in the flame, while burning it release not chlorine, how mistakenly believe, but hydrogen chloride, which is a suffocating gas which forms hydrochloric acid by interacting with water vapor. For incineration more energy is required and the output produces too much by-products of combustion, which are mostly toxic. For this reason the PVC incineration is impractical from an environmental point of view. Consequently from different points of view in the recycling system it is more correct to disintegrate the window blocks for their reuse with other products of chemical processing.

The window profile, unlike other polymer products, is simply identified by its appearance, and is an excellent raw material for recycling.

Profile system - a set of main and additional profiles forming a complete structural system of window blocks, covered by the technical documentation for its manufacture, installation and operation [1].

Both components are made from the same materials, so they can be recycled together.

The recycling system connected with the use of recycled materials has its own specific terminology. To understand the process of recycling window profiles let’s give some definitions [3].

reuse: Use of the product more than once for the original functional purpose.

NOTE - Since reusable products do not apply to waste, re-use is not a recycling option.

polymeric waste recycling (with reception of secondary material resources): Polymeric wastes processing, including their mechanical recycling, recycling in an original product (chemical recycling) and organic recycling, excluding energy liquidation, i.e. Incineration of polymer wastes with obtaining of secondary energy resources.

waste product (waste received after using the product for its intended purpose): Materials produced by the last user of the product that has performed its function or can no longer be used for its intended purpose for objective reasons.

production wastes suitable for utilization in the original production process: Remains of raw materials, materials, substances, semi-finished products, products and other products appeared during the production process, energy production and / or performance of work, rendering services and having lost completely or partially the initial consumer properties , suitable for utilization in the initial production process.

purified material: A material formed as a result of the passage of polymers through special equipment for processing of polymeric materials, or after conversion of one polymer to another, or after changing one color or the mass fraction of one polymer to another.

Reverse polymeric material: A polymer material appeared after recycling the polymer waste and used to create new products.

Grinding / crushing product: Sliced ​​and / or granular polymer material, which is intended for disposal in the form of free-flowing material.

In recycling technologies secondary materials can be used for internal structures in a system of window profiles (chambers). That is done because the secondary materials will no longer have such a white color, since polyvinyl chloride has a low thermal stability, it can darken during heat recycling. PVC is specially charged with a certain amount of heat stabilizers. PVC recycling can be accompanied by dehydrochlorination, which is the reason for the darker color appearance. Therefore the outer part of the window profile is made from a primary polymer composition filled with white pigments. The most important thing is that the general system possesses high operational abilities and meets the same technical terms as any PVC profile, as specified in the GOST [1], in the section "Requirements for raw materials and materials".

Thus, window profiles can be made using secondary PVC in the consumer market which is not mentioned by manufacturers. However, manufacturers solve the important ecological and economic problem as the secondary material makes the finished product cheaper [4].

List of used sources.

Список приведен с использованием оригинальных названий.

  1. ГОСТ 30673-2013 - Профили поливинилхлоридные для оконных блоков и дверных блоков. ТУ. - ВЗАМЕН ГОСТ 30673-99 - Приказом Федерального агентства по техническому регулированию и метрологии от 22 октября 2014 г. N 1372-ст межгосударственный стандарт ГОСТ 30673-2013 введен в действие в качестве национального стандарта Российской Федерации с 1 мая 2015 г.

  1. Постановление Правительства Москвы № 608 "О задачах комплексной реконструкции районов пятиэтажной застройки первого периода индустриального домостроения до 2010 года", - дополнения вводятся.

  2. ГОСТ Р 54533-2011 - Руководящие принципы и методы утилизации полимерных отходов - Цели и принципы стандартизации в Российской Федерации установлены Федеральным законом "О техническом регулировании" от 27 декабря 2002 г. N 184-ФЗ, а правила применения национальных стандартов Российской Федерации - ГОСТ Р 1.0-2004* "Стандартизация в Российской Федерации. Основные положения"

  3. ILMARI [Electronic resource]:– PVC profile and window systems of European quality - the site of the manufacturer, which uses double-stream extruding in the main profile. - Access mode: http://ilmari.ru

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