The goal of this article is to present how a successful language lesson can be developed even if one using a textbook. The flexibility is one of the important factors of planning. Because during the monotonous lessons students can be tired of that.
First, let's consider why do teachers need plan? Thomas S.C. Farrell states that there are internal and external reasons for planning lessons (McCutcheon,1980). Teachers plan for internal reasons in order to feel more confident, to learn the subject matter better, to enable lessons to run more smoothly, and to anticipate problems before they happen. Teachers plan for their external reasons in order to satisfy the expectations of the principal or supervisor and to guide a substitute teacher in case the class needs one. Lesson planning is especially important for preservice teachers because they may feel more of a need to be in control before the lesson begins.
He has determined what benefits can have English teacher by lesson planning:
A plan can help the teacher think about content, materials, sequencing, timing, and activities
A plan provides security ( in the form of a map )in the sometimes unpredictable atmosphere of a classroom
A plan is a log of what has been taught
A plan can help a substitute to smoothly take over a class when the teacher cannot teach ( Purgason, 1991 )
He also wrote that daily planning of lessons also benefit students because it takes into account the different backgrounds, interests, learning styles, and abilities of the students in one class.
Time by time, many educators has created many approaches to lesson planning. Ralph Tyler's (1949) model of lesson planning which is also known as a dominant model, includes four basic principles: (1) specify objectives (2) select learning activities (3) organize learning activities (4) specify methods of evaluation. Yinger (1980) responded to these discovery of Tyler developing an alternative model that outlines in stages: (1) the first step consists of "problem conception" in which planning starts with a discovery cycle of integration of the teacher's goals, knowledge, and experience. (2) the second stage sees the problem formulated and a solution achieved. (3) the third stage involves implementing the plan along with its evaluation.
An efficient lesson plan starts up with suitable and clearly objectives An objective is a depiction of a learning result. Objectives determine the destination we want our pupils to succeed. The right chosen objectives help state explicitly what the teacher wants his students to learn, help the guide the selection of appropriate activities, and help provide overall lesson focus and direction.
As Thomas S.C. Farrell claims teachers can have variations on this generic model. Shrum and Glisan states: students "can gradually take on a larger role in choosing the content and even in the structure of the lessons themselves". English language teachers should take into account that they may vary language lessons from other content lessons although equal concepts may need to be intensified time and utilizing alternative methods.
What should convey a lesson plan:
Approach(es) and activities
Materials, aids and equipment
Information about the students
To this, it would be precise to use the six principles of Into-Through-Beyond approach of lesson planning (Brinton & Holten,1997), supported by current second language acquisition theory. The lesson begins with solid doses of comprehensible input, builds up on students' background knowledge, offers multiple opportunities foe interaction, and provides communicative goal and appropriate scaffolding to prepare students for meaningful interaction. The careful design of the activities also creates opportunities for the teacher to conduct ongoing assessment and thus to adjust, add or remove activities as the lesson is being delivered. Thus, the lesson presented here follows these principles:
Principle 1: The lesson is guided by clearly specified objectives
Principle 2: Activities in the lesson follow a logical sequence
Principle 3: Comprehensible input is provided
Principle 4: There are multiple opportunities for communicative practice
Principle 5: Scaffolding and strategies are provided to enable students to perform at a higher level
Principle 6: Ongoing assessment informs lesson design and implementation
These six principles of planning lesson are general, as they aimed to cover the formal planning. Next important thing is utilization of different types of tips in the lessons. The teacher must not only plan lesson well, also, conduct a lesson excellent observing kinds of methods, approaches and techniques.
One of the primary object teacher should pay attention is using Differentiated Instruction with different students to achieve definite goals in planning lesson (Dorit Sasson). Because, the lower performing and average students are motivated to try and increase their knowledge because of the input of the stronger students.
All teachers have focused on the day-to-day lesson planning decisions that face language teachers. Because all teachers have different styles of teaching, planning, etc. Teachers must allow themselves flexibility to plan on their own way, always keeping in mind the yearly, term, and unit plans. As Bailey points out, a lesson plan is like a road map "which describes where the teacher hopes to go in a lesson, presumably taking the students along". It is the latter part of this quote that is important for teachers to remember, because they need to make "in-fight" changes in response to the actuality of the classroom. As Bailey correctly points out, "In realizing lesson plans, part of a skilled teacher's logic in use involves managing such departures [from the original lesson plan] to maximize teaching and learning opportunities". Clearly thought-out lesson plans will more likely maintain the attention of students and increase the likehood that they will bw interested. A clear plan will also maximize time and minimize confusion of what is expected of the students, thus making classroom management easier.
3.Teaching Norwegean to beginners: Siz principles to guide the lesson planning. Anna Crulatz. Sor-Trondelag University-College