РАЗВИТИЕ ОНЛАЙН-ЧТЕНИЯ - Студенческий научный форум

IX Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2017

РАЗВИТИЕ ОНЛАЙН-ЧТЕНИЯ

Каиргалиева Т.С. 1
1ЕНУ им. Л.Н.Гумилева
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Imagine, if you will, that you have twelve-year-old son. He is using a web browser to search for an article on creating stop-motion movies, which is one of his hobbies. You barely have time to say, “That looks interesting,” before he has clicked on a hyperlink and is off on entirely different page. A video catches his eye and he ignores you completely as he hits the “play” button, only to discover the video is a commercial for an upcoming movie. You want to say something, but you do not have time. The mouse works its magic, and he is off again, this time in full reverse, clicking on arrows that direct him back to the original page. You keep silent now, watching him scan the article for the headlines in bold. Then he is following yet another link to yet another page. And so it goes.

If you are a teacher or parent who revels in the deep reading of novels or articles, with discussions and contemplations of character development and plot design, this kind of “reading” is enough to drive you to the brink of despair. In fact, the question of whether this kind of activity is even “reading” is one worth asking. We traditionally think of reading in terms of sounding out words, understanding the meaning of those words, and putting those words into some contextual understanding. And yet, if you read The National Council of Teachers of English’s definition of reading, you will recognize some semblance of what this boy was doing, even as he jumped here and there with the mouse: “Readers read for different purposes. Sometimes they read for pleasure. Sometimes they read for information. Their reason for reading impacts the way they read. They may skim or read carefully depending on why they are reading. Throughout this process, readers monitor the meaning they are constructing. When the text does not meet their purposes, they may switch to another text. Readers expect what they are reading to make sense. They use a repertoire of strategies, such as rethinking, re-reading or reading on to clarify ideas, to make sure they understand what they read in order to accomplish their purposes.”[6]

If the kind of text students are encountering in these online travels is embedded with so many links and media, and if those texts are connected to other associated pages (with even more links and media), hosted by who-knows-whom, the act of reading online quickly becomes an act of hunting for treasure, with red herrings all over the place that can easily divert one’s attention. As educators, we need to take a closer look at what online reading is all about and think about how we can help our students not only navigate with comprehension but also understand the underlying structure of this world. As we begin this discussion, perhaps it would help to first examine the ways in which the two reading environments differ: How is traditional, in class reading different from online reading?

Given that students are reading online and are experiencing these kinds of fluid information environments, it seems that educators need to find ways to teach young people how to process the information they are finding, and how to find it with more precision and understanding. Here are few ideas that might be helpful, from a very simple tool available online to an entire unit of instruction.

Cutting out the clutter

The easiest way for a teacher to begin addressing the hyper-reading of young people might start with the process of elimination, by helping readers remove the clutter on the web pages they encounter.

Readability is one online tool that can help in this regard. The tool is free and simple to use: To install it, just drag the “Readability” button up to your browser’s tool bar. When students are at a website that you want them to read for content, they can simply click on the button to convert the page into a simple black-text-on-white-background format.

You can adjust the settings as well: Adjust the text size, narrow the margins of the converted pages, or change the colors from black on white to white on black. The transformation of a page by Readability is pretty dramatic, and its use can lead to a focused conversation in the classroom about what has been removed, and why, and what has remained, and why. This forced awareness of the construction of a web page is valuable knowledge for young users of the web.

Online reading strategies

Colorado State University offers a useful guide to reading on the web. While it is aimed at college students, much of the information is pertinent to readers of all ages and could easily be part of lessons in the classroom. The following list includes some of the CSU strategies to strengthen reading comprehension, along with ideas on how to incorporate them into classroom instruction:

- Synthesize online reading into meaningful chunks of information. In classroom, pupils spend a lot of time talking about how to summarize a text by finding pertinent points and casting them in one’s own words. The same strategy can also work when synthesizing information from a web page.

- Use a reader’s ability to effectively scan a page, as opposed to reading every word. There are often give short shrift to the ability to scan, but it is a valuable skill on levels. Using one’s eye to sift through key words and phrases allows a reader to focus on what is important.

- Avoid distractions as much as necessary. Readability is one tool that can make this possible. Advertising-blocking tools are another effective way to reduce unnecessary, and unwanted, content from a webpage.

- Understand the value of a hyperlink before you click the link. This means reading the destination of the link itself. It is easier if the creator of the page puts the hyperlink into context, but if that is not the case, then the reader has to make a judgment about the value, safety, and validity of the link. One important issue to bring into this discussion is the importance of analyzing top-level domains. A URL that ends in .kz, for example, was created by a government entity in the Kazakhstan. Ask students what it means for a URL to end in .edu. What about .org? .com? Is a .edu or .org domain necessarily trustworthy?

- Navigate a path from one page in a way that is clear and logical. This is easier said than done, since few of us create physical paths of our navigation. However, a lesson in the classroom might do just that: draw a map of the path a reader goes on an assignment that uses the web. That visualization of the tangled path might be a valuable insight for young readers.

Collaborative modeling. In this follow-up stage of learning, students work in groups on larger projects to solve questions based on research. Here, the validity of information and sites is a key to understanding and synthesizing knowledge. Most important is the reflection time, when students share what they have learned not only about the information they found, but the sources and strategies they used to uncover that information. As they present their findings, the students take time to notice what they might have otherwise passed over in their rush to the next link or video. One example of an assignment here is sending student teams to a series of “hoax” websites, having them identify the elements that make the information implausible, and then having them create their own “hoax” site. (Dr. Mary Anne Bell of Sam Houston State University hosts a list of hoax sites, including the website of the Federal Vampire and Zombie Agency.)

Inquiry. This phase involves students in a larger project based on their own interests and learning from the two earlier stages. Much of the work done around gathering data and research online involves a reflective stance, in which students must articulate the reading strategies they have brought to bear on the project. Sometimes the inquiry step involves collaborators from other schools in other parts of the world, as students learn to use technology to not only learn, but to publish what they have learned to a global audience.

Benefits of Reading Online for Kids.

There are many benefits of reading online for kids, including:

-One-on-one Learning. Online reading programs like ABC Reading Eggs (the website) instruct children in key literacy areas within a one-on-one learning environment. Unlike learning in a classroom setting, lessons and activities are focused on instructing the child alone, therefore they are free to learn and progress at their own pace.

-Repeating Lessons. Extending from the above point, since online reading programs provide one-on-one instruction, children are able to repeat lessons when they encounter difficulties, without having to worry about holding up other students, as is typically the case in a classroom setting. This benefit of reading online for kids can prove to be invaluable to a child as they will have the opportunity to work on and overcome their difficulties before they progress onto more advanced lessons.

-Making Learning Fun. Reading online for kids has the advantage of being inherently motivational and fun. For example, ABC Reading Eggs combines playful elements – highly engaging animations and characters, colourful visuals, catchy music and sing-a-longs – with scientifically based literacy instruction. Educators will agree that children learn best when they are having fun and online reading lessons like those in ABC Reading Eggs often seem like they are simply a computer game to a child – but they are actually learning.

-Tracking Progress. Online reading programs can usually give parents up-to-date and accurate reporting and statistics on their child’s learning progress. For example, ABC Reading Eggs has a Parent Dashboard from where parents can access statistics detailing their child’s progress with the program. Parents can view the estimated reading age of their child, how many lessons they have completed to date, as well as how many phonics skills and sight words they have learnt. Regular reports can also be sent to parents via email.

E-books vs. printed texts in education

An electronic book (or e-book) is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. [3] Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", [2] some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. Commercially produced and sold e-books are usually intended to be read on dedicated e-reader devices. However, almost any sophisticated computer device that features a controllable viewing screen can also be used to read e-books, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smart phones.

In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet, where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems. With print books, readers are increasingly browsing through images of the covers of books on publisher or bookstore websites and selecting and ordering titles online; the paper books are then delivered to the reader by mail or other delivery service (e.g., FedEx). With e-books, users can browse through titles online, and then when they select and order titles, the e-book can be sent to them online or the user can download the e-book. At the start of 2012 in the U.S., more e-books were published online than were distributed in hardcover.[3]

The e-book revolution, and the accompanying shift of reading from the desktop computer to a smaller device like the iPad or other boards, is sure to run headlong into the issue of how we use our screens for reading. Of course, mobile devices, such as cell phones and iPods, offer yet another wrinkle, as young people become more and more attuned to screens that fit in their pockets or backpacks. Surely the experience of reading on those screens will be different than cracking open a novel. As publishers begin to use the medium of the screen for more interactive reading experiences such as video-embedded texts, all of us as readers — young and old — will feel the impact on our literary lives. It is also clear that much of the media consumption by pupils is happening outside of school, which makes it all the more imperative that educators provide a solid framework for reading comprehension, no matter the medium. What are the benefits and advantages of e-books? [3]

1. E-books are delivered almost instantaneously. You can purchase, download and start reading them within minutes, without leaving your chair. You do not have to go to a bookstore to buy them, neither wait for them for days, weeks and sometimes more to arrive in the email. 2. No trees are required to manufacture paper for the pages of e-books. 3. When you need certain information, you can get it immediately, by downloading an e-book.4. Many e-books are sold nowadays with bonuses, which you usually do not get with a printed book. This adds value to your purchase.5. E-books take up less space. You practically do not need any space to store them. You do not need a library or a room for them. You can store hundreds and thousands of e-books on your computer or reading device.6. E-books are portable. You can carry a whole library of hundreds of books with you, on CD, in a laptop, notebook or any e-book reader, without worrying about their weight.7. With today's technology you can read e-books everywhere, on the bus, train, airplane, and while standing in line.8. You can carry with you a great number of e-books wherever you go, which you cannot do with ordinary books.9. E-books can show links, for easy access to more information and related websites. 10. E-books are searchable. You can easily search for any information in an e-book, instead of turning page after page. 11. E-books can be interactive and contain audio, video and animations, which can enhance the message that the author is trying to convey. 12. Since e-books are delivered through the Internet, there are no packing and shipping expenses. 13. E-books can be printable, so that if you wish to read an e-book in the traditional way, you can very inexpensively print it with your home printer or at any printing shop.14. Fonts in e-books can be resized, making it easier to read for people with disabilities. With additional software it is possible to turn some of the e-books into audio books.

15. E-books are very easy to sell and distribute.

16. It is very simple and easy to purchase and download an e-book. People living in big modernized cities, in a remote village in a far away country or on a small island, can equally access an e-book. It takes them the same amount of time to purchase and download an e-book, provided they have an Internet connection.

17. It is possible to purchase an e-book 24 hours a day, every day of the year, from the comfort of your own house or office. You can purchase and download an e-book, even if you are on a vacation. All you need is a laptop, tablet, smart phone, or a reading device, and wireless Internet connection.

18. People are already spending a lot of time in front of their computers, so why not read and e-book, instead of doing something else?

A printed book is basically a set of printed sheets of paper which are put together and encased in a protective cover. EBook stands for electronic book. It is an electronic version of a conventional printed book.

A book is a collection of printed papers which are held together, and this collection is encased in a cover. This book can be physically felt and touched. The content of a book may be fictional or non-fictional. On the other hand, an eBook is an electronic version of printed book. These types of books can only be read on a device like computer or on some compatible with handheld devices.

A comparison between E-book and Printed one:

 

E-book

Printed book

Definition

It is an electronic version of a conventional printed book.

A printed book is basically a set of printed sheets of paper which are put together and encased in a protective cover.

Storage

Hundreds, or even thousands of eBooks can be stored in a single device

This books require a physical space to get stored.

Portability

One can just carry a single device with many eBooks

Being a tangible item, the weight of the book defines the portability of the printed book

Cost

Generally, these are comparatively cheaper than the printed books. However, eBook readers and computers may incur some added expenses

These are comparatively expensive than the eBooks.

Speed

Most of the eBooks cannot be retrieved fast, as it may take some time to load them

One can just start reading it after picking them. The pages can be easily flipped or bookmarked.

Feel

EBook readers are composed of plastic and metal, thus one cannot experience the real feel of the book

Printed books are made of paper. One can touch and feel the texture of the book.

Ease

Some basic knowledge of computer is required in order to read an eBook. EBook reads need to be installed and learned

Very easy to read.

Durability

Tends to be more durable, as they cannot be affected by physical damages. However, a virus can create a problem.

They are prone to any of the physical damages like getting wet or tearing.

Sharing

Most of the eBooks are not eligible for being shared due to licensing restrictions and digital rights

One can easily share and resell the book

Resource

required

Power

Paper (cycled or recycled)

Conclusion

Nowadays more and more people prefer reading online books. Undoubtedly, we can see the development of online reading and special reading programs. According to the age of pupils, teachers can use different tools and activities for study using the online resources. As we know, turning the pages of books no longer interest the pupils, they now prefer to read them online by swapping their fingers either over an ipad or a tablet. Technology today enables everyone to make the optimum use of anything and one of them is book reading. Reading has become easier for the new generation with the change in the style of reading. Reading online will only increase the demand of the books in the future. Digital books make it easier for the pupils to enjoy reading and also help them to select from the numerous genres. As we mentioned before, most of the master pieces of literature are destroyed because of floods or fires and hence they are not worthy reading. Online books are not prone to such kind of damage. They can be kept exactly in the same way for years and ages. It also prevents them from getting lost. You can carry a bunch of books from one place to another without any difficulty, where as traditional books requires much space and cannot be stored together until and unless you have a book shelf. They can be read at anytime and anywhere. All you need to have is an internet connection. There are many online modern e-books for pupils which come with a lot of media content. Some of them play an audio clip which enables the user to listen to the content or the story.

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