Distance learning through the Internet is training, in which trainees provide a substantial part of the educational material and much of the interaction with the teacher carried out with the use of technical, programmatic and administrative resources of the global Internet.
A distinctive feature of distance education is to provide learning opportunities by getting the required knowledge, using advanced information resources offered by modern information technology. For information, resources include databases and knowledge of computer, including multimedia, training and monitoring systems, video and audio recordings, electronic libraries with traditional textbooks and teaching aids create a unique distributed learning environment, accessible to the public.
Carrying video and television lectures, round tables, computer video and text conferencing, the possibility of frequent, up to the date consultations with the lecturer by computer communications make the interaction of students with the teachers even more intense than in the traditional form of learning.
Electronic seminars and business games allow intensive interaction between trainees among themselves and with teachers.
In recent years, expanding the use of Internet technology as a technological basis for distance learning, which is associated with the increased capabilities of means of communication and the spread of computer network. In favor of such a framework for the various distance education models by the following factors caused didactic qualities of informational tools.
· Ability to extremely rapid transmission of information to any distance of any size, any form (visual and audio, static and dynamic text and graphics).
· Ability to quickly change information via the Internet from their desks.
· Storing this information in the computer memory for the required duration of time, the possibility of its editing, processing, printing, etc.
· Possibility of interactivity by multimedia information and operational feedback.
· The ability to access to variety of information sources, first of all Internet Web sites, remote databases, numerous conferences around the world via the Internet, work with this information.
· Ability to organize electronic conferences, including real-time, computer audio conferencing and video conferencing.
· The ability to dialogue with any partner that is connected to the Internet.
· Ability to request information on any topic of interest through electronic conferences.
· Ability to transfer the received materials on their floppy, print them and work with them as well as when and how it is most convenient to the user.
Internet has eliminated or significantly reduced the temporal, spatial and financial barriers to the dissemination of information and has created its own integrated information structure. Naturally, it is of great importance to the educational system, because the information - "habitat" of all educational programs.
The term "medium" also reflects the relationship of conditions to ensure human development.
Under the educational environment most often refers to the operation of a particular educational institution think Kozyrev V.A, I.K Shalaev, A.A Veryaeva. By analyzing the different approaches to the issue of the educational environment, the researchers have a specific educational institution environment meant as educational environment is a set of material factors; spatially-subject factors; social components; interpersonal relationships. All these factors are interrelated, they complement and enrich each other and affect each constituent entity of the educational environment, but also the people , who organize, create educational environment, have some impact on it.
There are various modifications of educational environments: for example, Kalmykov A.A and L.A Khachaturov describe the virtual learning environment. This gives a specific definition that is used axiological approach "under the virtual learning environment is meant an environment that promotes creative comprehension by himself of new, which is in the process of educational formation, develop the new knowledge, and new degrees of freedom." Other researchers describe the integrated and distributed educational environment.
Virtual learning environment (BOC) is software and telecommunicational environment that ensures maintenance of the educational process, its information support and documentation in electronic networks, using common technological means any number of educational institutions, regardless of their professional specialization and level of education.
The term "virtual" is derived from the Latin word "virtualis", which means "possible, so that may or must appear under certain conditions" (Dictionary of Foreign Words - M .: Eng lang, 1990. - S. 106...). This term is used in many areas of human activity, which indirectly paved the way for its introduction in the field of education.
Virtual process takes place in the corresponding virtual space, the properties of which are characterized by similar features, as well as special virtual objects.
In the most general form of a virtual education, we understand the process and result of interaction between the subjects and objects of education, followed by the creation of a virtual educational environment, the specifics of which determine precisely the data of objects and subjects. The existence of a virtual educational environment is the communication of teachers, students and educational facilities are possible. In other words, the virtual learning environment is created only by those objects and subjects involved in the educational process, rather than classrooms, textbooks or technical means. (We note parenthetically that the traditional understanding of education as a material that is "given" pupil costs without taking into account the interaction of specific individuals and set object is sufficient as a set for the implementation of educational programs, plans, manuals, etc.)
Virtual education is not limited to the remote telecommunications. It can be (and is happening) in the normal full-time interaction between teachers, students and the objects of study. Remote technology can extend the capabilities of full-time education, increasing mutual access to remote students, teachers, professionals, and information files and, more specifically, - virtual educational facilities. But the main purpose of virtual education, as well as the formation of man in general - is the identification and achievement of man's destiny in the real world, combined with its virtual and other features.
Formulate the typological features of the educational environment, based on indications given G.Yu.Belyaevym:
1. Educational environment at all levels is a difficult-composite object of the system of nature.
2. The integrity of the learning environment is synonymous to achieve a systemic effect, which refers to implementation of a comprehensive learning objectives and training at the level of continuing education.
3. The educational environment exists as a specific social community, developing a set of human relations in the context of broader socio-cultural and ideological adaptation of man to the world and vice versa.
4. Educational environment has a wide range of modalities, forming a variety of types of local media of different, sometimes mutually exclusive qualities.
5. The assessment and objective planning educational environment gives the total educational effect, both positive and negative characteristics, and vector value orientations to be ordered with the target settings the total content of the educational process.
6. Educational environment serves not only as a condition, but also as a means of training and education.
7. Education Week is a process of dialectical interaction of social, spatial and substantive, psychological and didactic component, forming the leading terms coordinate system, influences and trends in teaching goal setting.
8. Educational environment forms the substrate-individualized activities, transition from the educational situation in life.
9. The training process that takes place in a classic case of full-time training, and the process of passing, for example, with Internet training, are described by the theoretical model.
10. The theoretical model may indeed describe the pedagogical process is invariant to the one in which the educational environment it occurs. 11. This educational system is suitable for the analysis of any educational process, as they say, "at all times".
Virtual learning environment is any environment where there is an effective educational process regardless of its form, it cannot be said about the process of learning or training.
Features of the English language at a secondary school
Foreign language (including English) refers to the general humanitarian and socio-economic cycle of the basic professional educational programs.
Language is the most important means of communication, which is essential to the existence and development of human society. Occurring today changes in social relations, communication tools (the use of new information technologies) require increasing the communicative competence of students, improving their philological training. All of this raises the status of a "foreign language" as the subject of a comprehensive discipline.
The main purpose of a foreign language is the formation of the communicative competence, ie, ability and willingness to implement a foreign language, interpersonal and intercultural communication with native speakers.
Foreign language as an academic discipline characterized
- Interdisciplinary (the content of speech in a foreign language may be information from different areas of knowledge such as literature, art, history, geography, mathematics, etc.);
- Multi-level (on the one hand, you need to master the different linguistic means, relating to aspects of language: lexical, grammatical, phonetic, on the other - skills in four kinds of speech activity);
- Multifunctionality (can act as a learning objective and as a means of acquiring information in various fields of knowledge).
As an essential element of the culture of the people is the carrier of language and means of communicating it to others, foreign languages, including English, promotes the formation of the students' holistic view of the world. Foreign language increases the liberal education of students, contributes to the formation of the individual and their social adaptation to the ever-changing multicultural, polylingual world.
Foreign language expands linguistic horizons of students, fosters a culture of dialogue, promote the general language development of students. This reflects the interaction of all language subjects, contributing to the formation of the foundations of students of philology.
Teaching a foreign language at a secondary school is aimed at the implementation of a student-centered, communicative, cognitive, socio-cultural and active approaches to teaching foreign languages (including English).
As an integrative goal of education is considered the formation of foreign language communicative competence, i.e the ability and readiness of students to carry out the real foreign language communication and to achieve mutual understanding with native foreign language, as well as the development and education of students of the subject means.
Person-centered approach, which places in the center of the educational process, the identity of the student, taking into account its capabilities, capacities and inclinations, implies a special emphasis on socio-cultural component of foreign language communicative competence. This should provide cultural orientation of training, familiarizing students to the culture of the country / countries in the target language, a better awareness of the culture of their own country, the ability to provide it by means of a foreign language, the inclusion of students in the dialogue of cultures. Learning a foreign language (English ) students should ensure continuity with the preparation of pupils in primary school. By the end of primary school pupils reach the subthreshold (A2 on the European scale) level of communicative proficiency in English in basic types of speech activity (speaking, writing, reading and listening), which gives them the opportunity to continue the language education in the first year of secondary school by using English language as a tool of communication and knowledge. In 8-9 classes of secondary school students have already acquired some experience in foreign-language projects, as well as other kinds of works of creative character, which allows you to perform at the senior level foreign-language projects of adaptation therein.
The degree of formation of speech, teaching and educational and general cultural skills of the first year students create real prerequisites for the specific needs of students in its use in the study of other school subjects, as well as in self-education for the benefit of their areas of expertise and areas of human activity (including their professional orientation and intentions). In this regard, it is increasing the importance of interdisciplinary connections of the English language with other subjects.
Learning a foreign language in a professional college in general and England in particular, it aims to achieve the following objectives:
· Further development of foreign language communicative competence (speech, language, socio-cultural, compensatory, learning and cognitive)
Speech competence is improving communication skills in the four basic types of speech activity (speaking, listening, reading and writing); skills to plan their verbal and nonverbal behavior;
language competence is mastery of the new language features in accordance with the selected themes and areas of communication: an increase the use of lexical units; development of skills of operating units of language in communicative purposes;
sociocultural competence - an increase in knowledge about the social and cultural specifics of the country / countries in the target language, improving skills to build their verbal and nonverbal behavior of adequate specificity, formation of abilities to allocate general and specific to the culture of their native countries and the target language;
Compensatory competence - further development of skills attributed to the shortage of linguistic resources in the preparation and transfer of foreign language information;
Educational and cognitive competencies - the development of general and specific skills training, allowing improving educational activity on mastering a foreign language, to meet with the help of cognitive interests in other fields of knowledge;
· The development and education of the ability and willingness to self and continuous study of a foreign language, to further educate themselves with it, the use of a foreign language in other fields of knowledge; the ability to self-evaluation through the observation of their own speech in the native and foreign languages; personal self-determination in relation to their future profession; social adaptation; the formation of a citizen and patriot. Learning a foreign language is aimed at achieving comprehensive, educational and practical problems for the further development of foreign language communicative competence.
Secondary learning objectives focused on the development of intellectual abilities of students, logical thinking, memory; improving the overall culture and the culture of speech; expanding the horizons of students, knowledge of the language is spoken; the formation of students' skills of independent work, group collaboration, the ability to communicate with each other and the staff.
Educational objectives involve the formation and development of personality of students, their moral and aesthetic qualities, outlook, character traits; reflect the general orientation of humanistic education, and realized in the process of collective interaction of students, as well as in pedagogical dialogue of the teacher and students.
Practical learning objectives focused on the development of all components of communicative competence (speech, language, socio-cultural, and compensatory educational and informative).
One of the features of learning a foreign language is that its basis lies generalizing-developmental approach to the construction of a course of a foreign language, which is implemented in the structuring of educational material, in determining the sequence of the study of this material, as well as in the development of ways of forming a system of knowledge, skills and studying skills. This approach allows, on the one hand, taking into account the received training at the basic school to summarize the previous years, and on the other - to develop skills in students at a new, higher level.
The main structural feature of the training content is its division into two modules: basic, which is being developed by all learners, regardless of the profile of vocational education and professional orientation (of variability).
The study of the content of the basic module is aimed at correcting and improving the skills and knowledge generated in the primary school. During the development of professionally oriented language, learning modules conducted taking into account the profile of vocational training, a particular specialty SPO.
The main components of learning a foreign language content in the IPC are: language (phonetic, lexical and grammatical) material; speech material, texts; knowledge and skills that are part of the communicative competence of students and determine its level of formation.
The selection and organization of learning content are made because of functional and meaningful approach, which is implemented in the communicative method of teaching foreign languages, and involves more than the system and function of speech, organization of the material being studied.
Particular attention is drawn to this approach, the value of the language phenomenon, and not its shape. Communication problems related to human social activity and speech expressing the intention of the speaker or writer, such as a request, greeting, failure, etc., can be expressed through various linguistic devices or structures.
Note that foreign language learning takes place in a situation of lack of language environment, so preference is given to those materials, which create a natural voice communicational situation and are cognitive load.
A distinctive feature of the foreign language teaching program is its focus on particular cultural, social, political and scientific reality of today's world era of globalization, taking into account the role of foreign language played in today's world .
With the development of professionally oriented content, the student is immersed in a situation of professional activity, interdisciplinary connections, which creates conditions for further motivation like learning a foreign language, and the development of the selected ACT specialty.
In accordance with the functional and meaningful approach, the basic module is built on the study material from previous years, but the generalization of knowledge and skills is based on comparing and contrasting the different species-tense forms of the verb, contrastive analysis of repeated events and their use in natural communicative situations . Professionally oriented language material module involves the introduction of a new, more complex and at the same time professionally oriented material forming the higher level of communication skills.
Special attention of foreign language teaching refers to the formation of educational and cognitive components of communicative competence.
Communicative competence in a foreign language involves the possession of complex knowledge and skills, which are a part of all components of communicative competence - language (linguistic), speech, socio-cultural, educational and cognitive and compensatory.
Possible applications of virtual learning environment in teaching English language
in a secondary school
The problem of distance learning of foreign languages is quite debatable. Most Methodists trust only the traditional full-time, at least an evening training system. But this view is not undisputed. In recent years, the level of innovative multimedia training tools and Internet technology capacities reached such a height that with proper methodical use of these technologies can virtually simulate not only the traditional lesson, but also create the illusion of a real authentic communication situation. Computer technologies in distance education can significantly expand the foreign-language communication trainee, allow virtually unlimited use of visualization. If you are using Internet capabilities in the process of foreign language teaching following didactic function are implemented : informative (the Internet - a powerful source of a wide range of information about the language and its lexical, grammatical, lingvostranovedcheskogo sides); adaptive (learning takes place in accordance with the individual characteristics of students, which creates favorable conditions for the flow of the learning process); tool (all the Internet tools designed to ensure the effectiveness of activities to achieve the student and the teacher); interactive (Internet capabilities allow for active interaction with the student's Internet system, interactive programs); motivating (Internet creates the conditions for a specific result of activity); communicative (power of the Internet make it possible to ensure the interaction between teacher and students, other students); educational (Internet attaches teachers and students to modern ICT tools to develop their information culture); scientific organization of educational work. These functions are interrelated and have a complex effect on the educational process.
The system Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) - Free Learning Management System. It implements the philosophy of "social constructionist pedagogy" (cooperation, active learning, critical reflection, etc.), And is focused primarily on the organization of interaction between teacher and students, but also suitable for the organization of the traditional distance learning courses, as well as support for full-time study.
Moodle system makes it possible to use the most modern and advanced technology training in any subject, including the English language in a secondary school.
In the design of Moodle focuse on the following principles:
· Support for a variety of learning approaches: remote, mixed, full-time.
· Simple, intuitive, efficient, cross-platform interface in the browser window.
· Easy to install on most platforms that support PHP.
· Compatible with most commonly used databases.
· Courses list contains descriptions and accessible to any user.
· Courses are structured in categories. As it can be searched. One site may contain thousands of courses.
· Significant attention is paid to security issues. All forms and input data is checked, cookies encrypted etc
· For most text areas (resources, forum posts, etc.) uses a built-WYSIWYG HTML editor. To record the teacher students can set rates for its so-called "code words" to prevent unauthorized access to the course participants. Teachers can tell code word their students personally, by e-mail or some other way. Teachers can record the students on a course manually, if necessary. Teachers can manually expel students from the course if necessary. In addition, the administrator can be specified period, after which, if the student did not come to the course, it will be automatically deducted. Each user has only one account in the system, but may have different levels of access to the courses.
Role system is a powerful tool for empowering users different rights at different levels of hierarchy of contexts. Roles are defined by the site administrator. They are a set of permissions to all system features (such as Allow to reply to topics in this forum, Deny to create a forum topic, etc.). There is a set of predefined roles (rights which can still be edited): administrator, course creator, teacher, teacher without editing rights, student, visitor. Course creator may create courses, edit the content and teaching. A teacher can edit the contents of the courses and teach in them. Teacher without editing rights can only be taught in the course. The student can learn in the course. Guests have minimum rights to view certain elements of the course.
The teacher has full control over the course: to change the settings, edit the content, training. Each course can include a large set of different elements: resources, forums, quizzes, assignments, glossary, polls, profiles, chats, lectures, seminars, the wiki, a database, the SCORM objects. The course can be downloaded files to which access can be obtained only course participants. A large set of blocks (calendar, latest news, upcoming events, etc.) enhances the functionality and usability of the system. Students and teachers can be written in several groups and groupings (streams). Groups allow users to share activity in the course elements. Groupings (streams) allow you to display some elements of the course only for certain members of associations. Block and page the last action allow a convenient way for you to bring up to date all changes since your last login. The contents of most text areas (resources, forum posts, etc.) can be easily edited using the built-in WYSIWYG HTML editor. Most elements of the course may be assessed. All evaluations are collected in a single log that contains convenient mechanisms to summarize, the creation and use of various reports, import and export estimates. Create your own scales provides ample opportunities for criteria-based assessment of learning outcomes. Powerful recording and tracking the activity of the course participants can see at any time to the full picture of how to participate in the course of general and detailed information on each element of the course. Integration with e-mail allows you to send by e-mail copies of messages in the forums, reviews, and comments of teachers and other educational information. Through the backup function any course can be saved as a single zip file and then restored on any server with Moodle.
Of great importance for the teaching of the English language haven used the resources . In a Moodle display of any electronic content we can see: Word, Powerpoint, flash, video, music, etc. All this can be stored locally or on any external site. Files can be uploaded to the server and placed in the course. You can then archive the files, unzip, rename, move, etc. You can create folders, which can also be placed next to the course page for the file layout. With the WYSIWYG HTML editor to create web pages and post them in a course. On the course page, you can place links to external web applications and upload them. MP3 audio files are displayed and played back using the convenient flash-player.
To present the new material in the English language is very comfortable in using this resource as a lecture. It is a sequence of pages that can be displayed linearly as the presentation or nonlinearly with branches or conditional transitions between pages, or combined with the use of both options. It is very useful that the lecture can be added to questions, the correct answer to that may be associated with the conditional transitions between pages. Pages with the issues may be the following types: multiple choice, true-false, numeric response, short answer, essay. That is, the system has all the features to control the reading comprehension. Pages can be imported from a PowerPoint presentation. Pages with questions may be imported from various formats. It is important for learning a foreign language, you can configure the number of attempts of students, time limits, minimum scores. The student can display a progress bar, obtained at the moment points. There are various restrictions on access to the lecture: password, time limit, etc.
A real boon for teaching foreign languages is also a glossary that can be used as a dictionary, phrasebook, and how, and how etymological, and just as the bilingual dictionary for translation. In addition, a glossary can be created jointly by the students themselves. Generally, a glossary - this is one of the modules, which are very good illustration of how Moodle can complement and extend the capabilities of the traditional full-time study. When the student places the results of its activities on the general review (for example, in the glossary), he puts more effort, get the best results and, consequently, more experience). Members can create and maintain a list of definitions, like a dictionary, encyclopedia, etc. Records of pupils before publication can be previewed teacher. According to the records, you can search using the alphabet, category, date, and author names. If any of the terms of the glossary will meet in the text anywhere on the course, it can be automatically converted into a link to this term. Glossary entries can be structured in categories. Participants can comment on glossary entries. Entries can be assessed by any particular teacher scale. According to the records, you can search the glossary.
Significantly eliminates routine checks on the various aspects of foreign language teaching presence in Moodle system tests, which are very necessary and important work, but check the manual which still takes a lot of time. The system also tests almost completely checked automatically. The teacher is the basis of tests, which can then be used in a variety of tests. Tests can be structured by categories for more convenient operation. The teacher can define different constraints on working with the dough: the beginning and end of the test, the time delay between each attempt, the number of attempts to access password, access only from specific network addresses. The teacher can configure the number of attempts for passing the test, to indicate comments to individual responses, and to all tests according to different conditions. Previous answers are considered for subsequent attempts. In one attempt, students can perform the test in a number of approaches. As test items, and can automatically answers at each new attempt. As questions and answers may include the HTML, images and so on. The teacher can get detailed information about student responses, and expended their time. It is possible to perform a statistical analysis of test items. It supports the following types of questions:
In the closed form (multiple choice): provides the ability to select one or several options. For each option the teacher can specify a comment that will be displayed after the student response.
· The short answer.
· Numeric: a response is received in the form of a certain error, you can also provide the ability to respond to different units.
· Calculated: the text of the question is formulated as a template, formed a certain set of values for it to be automatically substituted. Based on the predetermined values of these formulas and the correct answer is formed. Thus, each student will be displayed issue with their numerical values and, consequently, their correct answer.
· In compliance.
· True False.
· Essay: text assumes the student response in free form. Evaluated teacher.
· Embedded Answers question text contains a field in which the student must enter or select an answer.
· Random questions: the place of random questions to test student at each new attempt will be randomly substituted questions from the category selected.
Check the skills monologue speech, written statements with the reasoning elements to help job. It involves the student response in the form of a text file, multiple files, or off-site. To set the specified maximum rating or assessment scale. Performing tasks can be limited in time. The teacher can allow students to answer after the expiry of the implementation. In this case, the teacher will display information about overdue responses. The teacher may assign grades and comments indicate both individually and on a page for a few students. Teacher comment will be displayed under the student assessment, and can be sent by e-mail. The teacher can allow resending the response after the assessment has been exposed. Thus it is possible to organize an iterative mode with the job.
Implement the skills of business and personal communication in a foreign language help forum. He also plays an invaluable role in the organization of training of students, as well as the reaction of the teacher-student and student-student. Different types of forums: news, standard forum for general discussion, a simple discussion, each one opens the topic, question-answer. All messages contain the party image. Discussions can be viewed in various display modes: tree-like, flat. Participants may be allowed to individually manage subscriptions for each forum or a teacher can impose subscription on everyone. The teacher can not send messages to the forum (for example, using the forum only as a newsletter). Discussions can be moved between the different fora. For offline evaluation can be used on an arbitrary scale, while it may be limited to certain periods of time.
A very important role in distance learning the English language plays a chat, which allows you to organize synchronous text interaction between participants. Students are able to communicate in English in real-time. Chat supports emoticons, HTML, images, etc. All chat sessions can be saved for later viewing.
To vote or collect opinions on any question survey can be used. The teacher sees the results in an intuitive table and can flexibly customize viewing results of students. Well-established tool for analyzing online classes are embedded profiles, which are always available detailed reports with lots of diagrams. The data can be downloaded as an Excel document or CSV file. Interface profiles do not allow partial filling. The teacher can leave a comment for the student of the results, compared with the average of other participants.
Another interesting element of the course is a Wiki. This is a web page that can add and edit anyone. They are especially effective in teaching language while working on joint projects. Students collectively draw up material for the study of the subject. Everyone then takes active part in the creative work contributes to the overall project, ie Wiki allows you to collaborate on documents, and thus cooperative learning.
Thus, the system Moodle allows to create all necessary conditions for implementation of the quality of foreign language teaching.
In the most general form of a virtual education we understand the process and result of interaction between the subjects and objects of education, followed by the creation of a virtual educational environment, the specifics of which determine precisely the data objects and subjects.
A distinctive feature of distance education is to provide learning opportunities by getting the required knowledge, using advanced information resources offered by modern information technology.
Virtual learning environment (BOC) is software and telecommunications environment that ensures maintenance of the educational process, its information support and documentation in electronic networks, using common technological means any number of educational institutions, regardless of their professional specialization and level of education.
Foreign language (including English) is the most important means of communication, which is essential to the existence and development of human society.
The main purpose of a foreign language is the formation of the communicative competence, ie, ability and willingness to implement a foreign language, interpersonal and intercultural communication with native speakers.
Programme of the English language in educational institutions of secondary vocational education provided for learning the basics of the language of business, specialty, professional vocabulary, set phrases and terms. Much attention is paid to the transfer of technology (with a dictionary) professionally oriented texts, professional communication. The level of innovative multimedia training tools and Internet technology capacities reached such a height that with proper methodical use of these technologies can virtually simulate not only the traditional lesson, but also create the illusion of a real authentic communication situation. Computer technologies in distance education can significantly expand the foreign-language communication trainee, allow virtually unlimited use of visualization.