Belikov I.A., Bulycheva O.S.
The Federation (IFRC), together with the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), make up the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. The movement is based on seven fundamental principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity and universality. Across the world, the movement works with governments, donors and other aid organizations to provide humanitarian assistance to vulnerable people. The ICRC has the mandate under international law (Geneva Conventions) to carry out humanitarian activities in situations of armed conflict. It includes prison visits, monitoring the implementation of international conventions, organizing relief operations, assisting with missing persons and family reunification. The ICRC is one of the world’s leading humanitarian organizations in terms of size and technical expertise. It has, however, attracted controversy because of its policy of “nondisclosure”. It cannot be compelled to give evidence in any court about war crimes it has witnessed. This neutrality gives it access to populations, which would be denied to many NGOs, but the ICRC had been criticized for failing to condemn human rights abuses in some situations. The ICRC does considerable amounts of advocacy work with governments in complex emergencies, but does not publicly denounce them. The IFRC coordinates and directs international assistance following natural and man-made disasters in non-conflict situations. The IFRC works with national societies to respond to catastrophes around the world. The national societies work with public services in their respective countries to provide a range of services including disaster relief, health and social programmers. The Secretariat, based in Geneva, coordinates the provision of humanitarian assistance to international emergencies, as well as promoting cooperation between national societies and representing the national societies in the international arena. Under the UN cluster system, it is the Federation Secretariat, rather than the national societies, who are the convenor. Though the IFRC have agreed to be shelter cluster convenor for people displaced by natural disasters, they have argued that being accountable to the UN would compromise their principles, especially of neutrality and independence. Therefore, they will not commit to being “provider of last resort” nor will they be held accountable to the UN Emergency Response Coordinator.
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Ячный Р.О., Поройский С.В. Проблемы формирования культуры безопасного поведения в молодежной среде. Успехи современного естествознания. 2013. № 9. С. 109.
Таха М.Х., Булычева О.С., Садака Д.Ю. Роль человеческого фактора в техногенной и социальной безопасности. Успехи современного естествознания. 2014. № 6. С. 94a.