Patients experience the discomfort with urination caused by a urinary tract infection: painful, urgent, or frequent urination.
Pyelonephritis may start with similar symptoms. However, once the infection has spread to the kidney, signs of more severe illness usually result. These are:
Back pain or flank pain
Feeling sick (malaise)
Nausea and vomiting
Fever (usually present) or chills
Confusion (especially in the elderly)
Pyelonephritis can cause noticeable changes in urine, as following:
Blood in the urine (hematuria)
Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
Pain when urinating
Increased frequency or urgency of urination
The methods that are used for diagnosis are:
Urine analysis: leukocyturia, proteinuria, decreased urine concentration after thirst trial.
Laboratory tests: elevated creatinine concentration.
Renal ultrasound: small kidneys, focally thin echogenic cortex.
Intravenous urography: blunt and deformed calyces with a thin cortex.
Voiding cystourethrogram: for the confirmation or exclusion of vesicourethral reflux.
Renal scintigraphy: static DMSA renal scintigraphy is the most sensitive method for the detection of parenchymal scarring of the kidney.
Urodynamics: for the detection or exclusion of neurogenic bladder dysfunction.