Classical forms of this disease define three basic stages:
I stage. This stage is characterized by the occurrence of a sudden spasm of arteries and capillaries in a particular area. Typically, this area becomes palle, becomes cold to the touch, there is also a decrease in its overall sensitivity. The duration of current episode can range from a few minutes to 1 hour and even more. Then the spasm is completed, after which the previously affected area gets its normal appearance. Attacks repeat at various time intervals.
Stage II. This stage is caused by events in the form of asphyxia. Spasm is manifested in the form of blue-purple staining of a skin. Simultaneously, the tingling occurs and in some cases - severe pain. Asphyxia areas lose their inherent sensitivity. A significant role in the mechanism of the considered stage is given to paresis of veins that manifests through partial weakening, incomplete paralysis.
Stage III. The development of this stage is followed by a long course of symptoms of asphyxia. In this case, the limb gets swollen and becomes violet-blue, in addition to its characteristic bubbles with bloody contents form. Opening of the bubble can detect in this place tissue necrosis, in more severe case of necrosis affects not only the skin, but also to all the tissues down to the bone. Completion of the process is characterized by scarring of formed ulcer surface. This condition mostly focuses on the fingers and toes, with extremely rare concentration in the areas of the tip of the nose and ears. As for the chronic form of the disease, in this case, its duration may be more than one decade. Formation of gangrene is a rare manifestation of Raynaud's disease, when necrosis covers nail phalanx or parts thereof. Paroxysms can be repeated in some patients several times per day, in others at intervals of one month or more.
Raynaud's Syndrome diagnosis is based on the conventional and special methods of investigation, and the diagnosis of primary Raynaud's syndrome is set to be the exclusion of disease at the time of the survey, and is confirmed in the course of observation.
• Capillaroscopy: identifying and clarifying the nature of vascular lesions.
• Complete blood count, levels of protein, protein fractions, fibrinogen.
• Coagulation, blood test properties with such features as viscosity, hematocrit, and platelet agglutination of red blood cells.
• Immunological research: antinuclear factor, rheumatoid factor, circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulins, antibodies to DNA and ribonucleoprotein.
• Rheovasography or oscilloscope, if necessary - the study of finger blood flow by Doppler ultrasound, laser Doppler flowmetry, angiography, digital plethysmography.
In recent years, attention is increased to new modification of biomicroscopy research methods - wide-field capillaroscopy of a nail bed, which has a higher resolution of capturing in terms of structural changes in the nail bed, and is used for the diagnosis of Raynaud's syndrome.