Until now scientists have not agreed to, what is the main reason for the development of Crohn's disease, and offer three main factors, which can be an impetus to development of the disease.
Genetic factors: the disease is most often transmitted to relatives, twins and siblings. Today, 34 gene are known to causes symptoms;
Immune Factor: possibly Crohn's disease is autoimmune in nature, as much there is significant increase in the number of T-lymphocytes in the analysis.
Intestinal symptoms of Crohn's disease include diarrhea, in severe manifestation defecation frequency can interfere with normal activity and sleep, abdominal pain, intensity depends on the severity of the disease, a disorder of appetite and weight loss. Bleeding and blood in the stool can be present at ulceration of the intestinal wall. Depending on the location and intensity of a bleeding a blood can be detected as scarlet streaks and dark clots.
At the long duration of the process, there can appear a formation of abscesses in the intestinal wall and sinus tracts in the abdominal cavity, in adjacent organs, on the surface of the skin. The acute phase of the disease, usually is accompanied by fever, general weakness.
Extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn's disease: inflammatory diseases of the joints, eyes, skin, liver and biliary tract. In the early development of the disease in children, there are delays in the physical and sexual development.
For diagnosis establishing following lab and physical investigations are made: clinical and biochemical blood analysis, general urine analysis, fecal occult blood test, coprogram – fecal analysis, ultrasonography of the abdominal organs, upper endoscopy, colonoscopy, chromoendoscopy using special dyes, double, balloon enteroscopy, irrigoscopy, computed tomography scan of the abdomen.