РЕФЕРАТ УПРАВЛЕНИЕ КАЧЕСТВОМ ПРОДУКЦИИ - Студенческий научный форум

IX Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2017

РЕФЕРАТ УПРАВЛЕНИЕ КАЧЕСТВОМ ПРОДУКЦИИ

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Quality control is considered in conjunction with the quality of management, as this is closely related and complementary areas of activity that make up the quality of management in the company scale.

Quality control - operational activities carried out by managers and staff of the enterprise, acting on the process of creating a product in order to ensure its quality through the implementation of planning and quality control functions, communications (information), the development and implementation of activities and decision-making quality.

Quality management - overall management of quality - the aspect of management of the company as a whole, carried out by senior management, which provides resources, including - human, organizes the work of quality (see quality management system.), it interacts with the environment, determines the policies and the quality of plans and takes strategic and important operational decisions on quality. To fulfill these functions involve all employees of the company, but the responsibility for the overall management of quality assumes the top management.

Quality control - methods and activities of an operational nature, are used to fulfill requirements for quality.

Total Quality management - those aspects of the overall management function that determine the quality policy, objectives and responsibilities and implement them by such means as quality planning, quality management, quality assurance and quality improvement within the quality system. The note added that the responsibilities for the general management of quality are at all levels of government, but must manage senior management. In the overall management quality involves all members of the organization.

Quality Management - actions undertaken at the establishment and operation of production or consumption in order to establish, provide and maintain the necessary level of its quality. Since the quality control and quality management are aspects of general management and enterprise management, so before you analyze and compare these terms, please refer to the more general concepts of governance and management. Management - is the process of exposure of the subject to the object management by performing administrative functions, taking into account feedback from the object. The relationship between the concepts of management and control stems from the interpretation of the term management as a guide.

The object of quality management is the process of creating a product in which it is influenced by the quality of management subjects. The object of quality management is not only the process of creating a product, but also the rest of the activities of the company in the field of quality. The subjects of quality management are the heads of all levels of government, each of which affects the process of creating products through the implementation of its functions. All of them together form the subject of quality management - quality management system. The subject of quality management is the ultimate management of the company, responsible for general management quality - by interacting with the environment, and creating the necessary conditions at the plant to ensure product quality. Quality management process - it is the composition and sequence of administrative functions of quality managers at all levels of management in the stages of production. Quality management across the enterprise , a broad concept includes the overall management and operational quality control and forms a single, continuous quality management process within the company.

The process of quality management within the company, taking into account external factors is formed as follows. Senior management in performing their functions in quality, provides overall leadership quality: interacts with the environment, determines the policies and plans for quality and creates the necessary conditions at the plant to ensure product quality. Middle and lower levels, starting from the top management solutions in operational quality management at their level: impact on the process of creating a product consistent performance of its functions. In this case, if the results of quality control and analysis of the information received will be developed and implemented in the production of all necessary measures to improve product quality measures, the following management cycle will be repeated on the "quality loop" at a higher level - is already on the "quality spiral". Accepted to improve the quality measures are needed not only to address the shortcomings, but also to continuously improve product quality, to keep up with competitors.

The current state of quality management has a great history. Briefly, in general, it can be represented as follows. Prior to the beginning of the twentieth century concern for the quality it was to implement a series of control and providing activities that were integrated into the overall business management process. At the same time we used the standardization and unification of parts, tools and working methods, used input material control, operational control in the manufacturing process, as well as - the different types of tests of finished products.

With the increased competition and the complexity of its product quality is becoming increasingly important as the basis for competitiveness. "All these things have led to the emergence of the concept of the transition from individual disparate measures to ensure product quality to the system approach, the need to control the quality of products".

A special role is played by methods of statistical quality control, begun by Schuchardt, the company "Bell" Officer (USA), which in the 30s of the twentieth century has introduced checklists in practice. With the introduction of statistical methods for quality management started on Japanese firms after the American scientist - statistician Deming in 1950 held in Japan courses in their study. But in the 1960s, statistical quality control (SQC) has begun to spread outside the production process, and SQC began to turn into a total quality control (TQC) on company level - Eng. total quality control.

It provided for the participation of all employees of the firm, training, job quality circles, the use of statistical methods. And although the idea of ​​total quality management, quality circles and statistical methods were born in the United States and Europe, Japan actively their use and improve.

As a result of the American, European and Japanese experience of quality management and accounting of a growing number of factors affecting the quality, quality management has become a complex, systemic nature. And such an integrated approach is implemented in the form of quality systems within the overall management of enterprises.

Quality systems were formed not only in the US, Europe and Japan, but also in the former Soviet Union in the implementation of comprehensive quality management systems of production (COP UKP) in the 70-ies of XX century. This comprehensive quality management understood as coordinated effects of staff and managers at all levels at all stages of the creation of the product taking into account all factors that have a significant impact on quality.

When large-scale mass production and widely used methods of statistical quality control. The composition of these tools include: Pareto chart, cause-and-effect diagram, control charts, histograms, separation method, graphs, scatter diagram.

Method stratification is used to determine the causes of the spread of this product. essence of the method is to divide the resulting characteristics depending on various factors.. workers' skills, the quality of raw materials, work methods, equipment specifications, etc. At the same time determined by the influence of a factor on the characteristics of a product that allows you to take the necessary steps to eliminate them unacceptable dispersion. Charts are used for clarity and ease of understanding the interdependence of quantitative values or their changes over time. The most frequently used line, pie, bar and strip charts. Pareto Chart allows to visualize the value of losses according to the various defects. This makes it possible to first focus on eliminating those defects that lead to the greatest losses. Cause-and-effect diagram is used, as a rule, in the analysis of defects that lead to the greatest losses. It allows you to identify the causes of defects and to focus on addressing these causes. At the same time analyzes the four main causative factors: man, machine, material and method of work. A histogram is a bar graph and is used for visualizing the distribution of specific values ​​of the parameter at a repetition rate over a certain period of time. When applied to the schedule of permissible parameter values, you can determine how often this option falls within the acceptable range. Scatter diagram constructed as a graph the relationship between the two parameters. Checklist - a kind of schedule, which is characterized by the presence of control limits indicating the allowable range performance variation in normal flow process. Performance going beyond control limits is a violation of process stability.

General quality management was presented in the international standard ISO 8402: 1994 as "an approach to the management of the organization, aimed at quality, based on the participation of all its members, and aimed at achieving long-term success through customer satisfaction requirements and benefits for its members and of society". In addition to the participation of all personnel in this approach implies strong and persistent quality management on the part of senior management, education and training of all members of the organization. The advent of TQM and its further development followed the path of expanding the scope of quality management, the involvement in it of an increasing number of activities and the factors affecting the quality. The US Secretary of Commerce Prize for quality was introduced in 1987 by M. Baldrige. Thereafter Quality Award was established in several European countries, and the European Foundation for Quality Management in 1991 (EFQM) established the European Quality Award, founded by 14 major European companies, such as Philips, Volkswagen, Nestlé, Renault, Fiat , British Telecom. It was established in 1996. In the Russian Quality Award.

Quality management in practice is closely connected with all areas of the enterprise, which provide or participate in the creation of products. The leaders of these areas carries out its functions in quality, but all together they form the subject of quality management, working on the process of creating products with a view to ensuring its quality.

Since quality management is one aspect of the overall management of the company, it can not be seen in isolation from the control (management) of science, which defines the general laws of administrative activity. Therefore, for effective quality control must be used and recommendations of management, which can be used in quality control. In this case, the quality control will have at its disposal a scientific foundation and proven management practices that will provide a solid foundation for the organization and carrying out of professional and efficient operation of the quality management in the enterprise.

References

  1. Мескон М. Х., Альберт М., Хедоури Ф. Основы менеджмента. — М.: Дело, 1992. — 701 с. — ISBN 0-06-044415-0,ISBN 5-85900-015-4.

  2. Файоль А., Эмерсон Г., Тейлор Ф., Форд Г. Управление — это наука и искусство. — М.: Республика, 1992. — 352 с. — ISBN 5-250-01591-3.

  3. Огвоздин В. Ю. Управление качеством. Основы теории и практики. — 6-е издание. — М.: Дело и Сервис, 2009. — 304 с. — ISBN 978-5-8018-0334-0.

  4. http://www.stq.ru – сайт издательства «Стандарты и качество».

  5. http://www.efqm.org – интернет-портал Европейского фонда по менеджменту качества (EFQM).

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