IX Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2017


Диксит П.К. 1, Понуготи Ш.П. 1, Дхарма С.К. 1, Гамиди С.Д. 1
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Headache (Cephalalgia) is one of the most common complaints when handling your doctor. We must remember that children under 5 years old, and sometimes older, cannot differentiate their feelings due to the immaturity of functional brain systems, as well as the lack of social experience. For children in general, it is characteristic to complain of pain in order to attract attention of adults to themselves. At the same time we cannot ignore the complaints of a headache, because it can be a manifestation of inflammation, metabolic disorders, poor posture, loss of visual acuity, the regime of the day, and violations of diet, a symptom of neurotic disorders, etc.

Etiology and types of headaches

Depending on the pain receptors which brain structures were subjected to, pathological effects depend not only on the clinical manifestations of cephalgia. Uniform classification of headaches developed is based on their etiology.

Modern experts decided to identify five basic types of cephalalgia, including:

Vascular. Cephalgia provoke this type of cerebrovascular abnormalities formations when walls thereof are swollen or stretched excessively, there are changes in blood composition (tension due to overcrowding, blood pulse increases its volume, viscosity increases, spasm of arteries, veins tone failure, etc.). The clinical characteristics of the headache will depend on the type of pathology, it may be a throbbing or dull or bursting. Patients may be observed to have blanching of the skin face, non-system dizziness, darkening and "fly" in the eyes, nausea.

Muscle tension. This type is also called vasomotor cephalalgia. Headaches are almost always characterized as a sick squeezing encircling moderate. They are the result of inadequate intake of oxygen in the blood vessels due to muscle spasm, excessive static (mostly involuntary) muscle tension of the head, neck and shoulder girdle, which occurs, for example, due to stress, neurosis, depression. Other predisposing factors to the occurrence of tension headaches are bad posture, curvature of the spine, low back pain, lesions of the frontal structures (ears, mouth, throat, eyes, sinuses).

Liquorodynamic. Cephalgia pain provoked by changes in intracranial pressure, which depends on the volume of the brain, the amount of cerebrospinal fluid and blood filling of vessels inside the skull belongs to this type. All these components can decrease or increase in volume, while talking about intracranial hypotension and hypertension, respectively. Hypertensive pain occur as a result of excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid, in violation of its absorption or the presence of obstacles to the free liquor circulation in the form of volume of intracranial structures, traumatic injuries, inflammatory lesions of the meninges. Such painful sensations are amplified, usually by coughing or sneezing, during the implementation of defecation straining and are bursting by character. Insufficient production of liquor leads to hypotensive pain. Normally, the cerebrospinal fluid is a kind of cushion for the amortization of the brain, which is held in place by the so-called anchor formations (nerves, vessels). If liquor amount is small, the formation of stretch occurs, which provokes pain.

Infectious-toxic. As the name implies this type of cephalgia its cause is a toxic effect of some infections (viral, for example). The sources of the unpleasant sensations are pathogens waste products, dead cells of pathogens and substances formed during the struggle with the microbes by the collapse of the human cells. They are toxins that are circulating in blood, and entered into the brain, causing a metabolic disorder therein.

Neuralgia. In this case, the defeat of the individual subjected to the pain are receptors (e.g., occipital and trigeminal nerve), and certain events, like touch, washing, swallowing and other, cause pain. At the same time there is a sharp burning pain, which may extend to adjacent and distant parts of the body, the patient dies in fear to provoke an amplification of attack.

However, to meet the individual patient cephalgia of only one type is rarely possible. Headaches usually have a mixed development mechanism.

Also it is necessary to distinguish that headaches are a symptom of disease states and those that do not have organic causes. So, cephalgia, the source of which is unknown (migraine, cluster and beam pain), is referred to the primary. And if the root cause of the disease state is set (somatic or neurological pathology, trauma, infection), then we talk about the secondary cephalgia.


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