VIII Международная студенческая научная конференция Студенческий научный форум - 2016


Аймбетова И.О. 1, Мамбетова М.М. 1
1Международный казахско-турецкий университет имени Ходжи Ахмеда Ясави
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Waste production and mineral processing [1], and subsequent redistribution in metallurgy [2], chemical [3] and energy industries[4] is one of the main factors of large-scale environmental pollution [5]. Another type of the most dangerous facts to our health and to the environment of waste is the waste of chemical plants or factories [6]. Variety of secondary raw materials – much tonnage of industry waste, chemical and mineralogical composition, sometimes not inferior extracted from the bowels of the earth, and sometimes superior technological performance and it requires highly skilled approach to them, ensuring their effective use in construction [7].

Dispose of chemical complex waste is very difficult, and the need to scrupulously comply with environmental legislation, as any releases into the environment of chemicals are extremely dangerous to human life. National Strategy for the Management of regional and global waste management is based on a coherent, comprehensive and effective regulatory framework that ensures environmental safety and health, and considering all options to minimize the waste stream [8].

the shortage of raw materials, increases the role of saving material resources, especially through the involvement of the economic turnover of secondary material resources. Calculations show that in the case of the integrated use of raw materials and industrial products the release of many of them can be increased by 25-30%. Resource conservation becomes comprehensive and become part of the economic outlook as the belief systems of the world [9].

When significant amounts of technogenic residues accumulations their level of utilization is low. The main consumer of industrial waste may be the construction industry. Production of building materials is the most material and energy intensive branch of human activity. In this regard, natural resources are used maximally ready for use, as they require appreciable labor costs. Extraction of natural resources of the interconnected natural state, where their presence provides balance and environmental sustainability, introduces an imbalance in the system of self-organizational processes Geosystems [10]. However, there is a significant reduction in stocks of high-quality natural materials, increasing human pressure on the environment in the formation of technogenic field of newly generated waste [11].

In the southern region of Kazakhstan there are huge reserves of waste materials are potentially suitable for the production of building materials. So tonnage technogenic raw material stocks are mine rocks (piles Lenger coal-processing plant - more than 1 million tons, tailings Achisai polymetallic plant - 182 million. tons of limestone overburden Holding Company "Kurilis Materialdary" - 5.4 million tons) , metallurgical waste (slag lead production JSC Yuzhpolimetall - 2.3 million tonnes) and waste from the chemical industry (dumps of phosphate ore fines LLP Baganaly - 3.6 million tons and JSC "chemical industry" - 1.09 million. tons). Submitted technological residues are objects of study of this work.

Technogenic waste differ with great variety of properties and have different effects on the quality of products based on them. This leads to the need of recycling to each type of waste and to the special methods for their preparation. As rightly pointed out by Academician V.I.Solomatov, for the effective use of technogenic residues need a new approach for their disposal, which requires additional costs for the creation of information-analytical database of moves, techniques and sanitary evaluation, development of methods for conditioning and storage [12].

Industrial waste in chemical, granulometric and phase-mineral composition largely identical to natural mineral raw materials [13]. Using a mixture of different wastes in the building materials industry – one of the strategic solutions to environmental problems by improving the environment.

The use of secondary mineral resources for production of building materials is relevant to different positions direction.

As piles of empty, mine rocks and other solid technogenic waste have a certain value. It contains many useful components, they can be used as a mineral raw materials for the construction industry, in the road, hydraulic and other types of construction. This prepares the ground that the discharge of useless waste, they can be assigned to a class of technogenic fields [14]. The development of such deposits will not only expand the mineral resource base, get more products, but also reduce environmental pollution.

Up to date, promising for the construction industry are gypsum compound waste products, such as – phosphogypsum silicogips, hydrolytic plaster, etc. In Kazakhstan, the amount of phosphorus waste production (phosphogypsum, kottrel milk, fosfoshlam) accumulated more than 10 million tons only in the southern region of the country. Their use in the construction will ensure a high degree of utilization of such waste and save a lot of material and labor and fuel resources. With the increase in the shortage of non-metallic building materials, the constantly rising prices of energy waste tonnage mining, chemical and metallurgical industries should be considered as potential long-term sources of raw materials for a new generation of composite, small and cementless building materials.

In the world literature, attention is paid to the many scientific fields in the processing of industrial materials [32-35]. Work on the use of technogenic waste in the construction industry as the main raw material for producing ceramsit concrete and wall ceramic products [36-38]. Anthropogenic factors and economic use of technogenic waste in the construction industry are shown in the following papers [15].

But similar or in relation to raw materials in Kazakhstan and abroad country processing methods of technogenic residues are not carried out any research is conducted only at the primary level, which confirms the low number of publications (articles, patents, scientific publications) implementations in production, the products on the basis of technogenic waste.

Scientific novelty is the following guidelines for the scientific work:

- on the basis of theoretical and experimental research results of technology will be developed processing of industrial waste, which allows to get high quality building materials and disposed of in an environmentally safe method of residual components of technology;

- the creation of previously unknown composite building materials based on technogenic residue structures of chemical and metallurgical enterprises;

- for the first time will be determined by the methods of passivation components of technogenic waste, studied and proven toxicological safety of the obtained products;

- formulation of building materials for chemical and toxicological properties of the feedstock and the establishment of their contribution to the construction industry, processing of industrial wastes;

- establishing effective ways developed by us of getting the commodity building products, the disclosure of their advantages is the ability to produce high-quality building materials, saving material costs and address environmental issues;

- will have a sustainable socio-economic model of production and consumption of technogenic waste materials, including the growth of production output while reducing the use of natural non-renewable resources, the recovery of renewable resources and reduction of anthropogenic pollution of environment.

The novelty of the development will be reflected in the submitted applications for patents for inventions.

The prospect of this scientific work is due to:

- Using as a raw material practically inexhaustible industrial wastes of various nature to produce high quality and competitive building materials;

- producing a non-toxic composite construction materials with high strength, resistant and environmentally safe quality;

- rehabilitation of the environment around the mining, chemical and metallurgical complexes;

- The ability to make production completely waste-free, environmentally clean and highly profitable.

New building materials on the basis of industrial waste are needed in the economy, as it is now used as a raw material of natural materials is not economically feasible. Since the use of natural resources includes additional financial cost of extraction of raw materials from mineral resources and their refinement. At the same time, technological education is mainly characterized by loose, particulate material, such as tails concentrators consist of finely divided material enrichment, which is contained in the original part of the basic ores and related mineral components [16]. Also tailings minerals occupying vast areas of land, cause significant harm to the environment [2]. In this regard, the development of technology for the processing of technogenic waste material is economically viable, environmentally safe, and having social effect for public health improvement is nearing production.

In summary, technologies’ transition is necessary for the chemical, metallurgical, mining, energy and other industries on a technical level, at which the generated waste is a ready raw materials or semi-finished products for other industries. We also need effective integrated solutions for increasing amount of waste.

Prospects of waste processing technologies of production, obtaining cement products, construction, glass industry, related to the conduct and financing of scientific research on their processing and disposal.

In this regard, the development technologies of new readily available, cost-effective raw materials for construction and socially effective ways of processing of technogenic mineral formations, is one of the most actual problems and prospects of a great future. This scientific work will expand the range of building materials based on the use of technogenic resources and waste products, and improve the disastrous ecological zone of the southern Kazakhstan.

When the scientific work is planned to create the intellectual property relating to a further embodiment of the processing of technogenic raw materials, to the optimal composition of materials. This is to ensure the necessary measures to protect them. Set of such measures will successfully join the competition in the market of building materials, and ultimately ensure the commercialization of the results of scientific works. Technology of recycling waste is economically viable, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable. However, the accelerated elimination of the consequences of pollution and intoxication of the environment by recycling industrial raw materials, will improve the environment (social and environmental effects) and to reduce the losses due to the need of grinding raw materials, improve the quality and types of construction material (economic impact).


        1. Makarov V. N., Lashuk V.V. Mining waste as raw materials for production of building crushed stone. Apatity: Vektor, 2007. – 162p. (in Russian).

  2. Uzhkenov B. S., Kayupov S. K. Technogenic mineral formations of the enterprises of mining production, possibilitie’s of their use and geological and economic characteristic. – Almaty, 2005. -103p. (in Russian).

  1. Gindis J.P. Slag processing technology. - M .: Stroyizdat, 1991 - 280 p. (in Russian).

  2. Magiera Т., Jabłońska М. Morphological and mineralogical forms of technogenic magnetic particles in industrial dusts. Atmospheric Environment. Volume 45, Issue 25, August 2011, Pages 4281–4290.

  3. Chapter 2 Geological factors. Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences. Volume 2, 2004, Pages 38–235.

  4. Kafarov VV Principles of creating waste-free chemical industries. Moscow: Chemistry, 1982 - 288p. (in Russian).

  5. Chistov Y.D., Tarasov A.S. Environmental and scientific and technological aspects of the integrated use of technogenic gypsum. Recycling. 2006. - №4. - P. 15-17. (in Russian).

  6. Melvold R.W., Gibson S.C. Scarberry R. Sorbents for liquid hazardous substance cleanup and control. Park Ridge (NY). 1988. – 153 p. (in Russian).

  7. Babachev GN Ash and slag in the production of building materials. - Kiev, 1987. 136 p. (in Russian).

  8. Irena Twardowska, William J. Lacy. Regulatory frameworks as an instrument of waste management strategies. Waste Management Series. Volume 4, 2004, Pages 91–132.

  9. S. Volland, O. Kazmina, V. Vereshchagin, M. Dushkina. Recycling of sand sludge as a resource for lightweight aggregates. Construction and Building Materials, Volume 52, 15 February 2014, Pages 361-365.

  10. S.V. Vassilev, David Baxtera. An overview of the composition and application of biomass ash.: Part 2. Potential utilisation, technological and ecological advantages and challenges. Fuel. Volume 105, March 2013, Pages 19–39.

  11. Chapter 4. Anthropogenic factors. Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences. Volume 2, 2004, Pages 263–297.

  12. N.G. Patyk-Karaa, L.Z. Bykhovskyb, I.I. Spasskayac. Economic deposits: geological history, demand today and environmental aspects. Quaternary International. Volume 82, Issue 1, August 2001, Pages 117–127.

  13. A.M. Ryabchikov. Problems of the environment in a global aspect. Geoforum. Volume 7, Issue 2, 1976, Pages 107–113.

  14. A.K. Chatterjee. Chemico-Mineralogical Characteristics of Raw Materials. Advances in Cement Technology, 1983, Pages 39-68.

  15. Dudkin O.B., Mazukhina S.I. Analysis of long-term ecosystem effects of mineral processing waste alkaline massifs // Proceedings National Conference. - Miass, 2003, pp 286-289. (in Russian).

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